anqing Fan Hira L Koul luli
tors
FRONTIERS IN
STATISTICS Imperial College Press
FRONTIERS IN
STATISTICS
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anqing Fan Hira L Koul luli
tors
FRONTIERS IN
STATISTICS Imperial College Press
FRONTIERS IN
STATISTICS
This page is intentionally left blank
STATISTICS ui/ rtcw^r
&7~ rrLs 6j£/iy 3tr£A
Editors
Jianqing Fan Princeton University, USA
Hira L Koul Michigan State University, USA
Imperial College Press
Published by Imperial College Press 57 Shelton Street Covent Garden London WC2H 9HE Distributed by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. 5 Toh Tuck Link, Singapore 596224 USA office: 27 Warren Street, Suite 401402, Hackensack, NJ 07601 UK office: 57 Shelton Street, Covent Garden, London WC2H 9HE
British Library CataloguinginPublication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
FRONTIERS IN STATISTICS Copyright © 2006 by Imperial College Press All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented, without written permission from the Publisher.
For photocopying of material in this volume, please pay a copying fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. In this case permission to photocopy is not required from the publisher.
ISBN 1860946704 ISBN 1860946984 (pbk)
Printed by Mainland Press Pte Ltd
To Peter J. Bickel Our Teacher and Friend
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Preface
The innovations in information and technology have revolutionized scientific research and knowledge discovery. They allow us to collect massive amount of data at relatively low cost. Observations with onedimensional curves, twodimensional images, and threedimensional movies are commonly seen at the frontiers of scientific research. Statistical challenges arise from diverse fields of sciences, engineering, and humanities, ranging from genomic research, biomedical studies, and natural resource discovery to machine learning, financial engineering, and risk managements. Highdimensionality and massive amounts of data are the common features at the frontiers of statistical studies. These have profound impacts on statistical thinking, methodological development, and theoretical studies. The 1980s and 1990s saw a phenomenal growth in numerous areas of statistical modeling and inferences. These areas include semiparametric models, dataanalytic nonparametric methods, statistical learning, network tomography, analysis of longitudinal data, financial econometrics, time series, bootstrap and other resampling methodologies, statistical computing, mixed effects models, and robust multivariate analysis. This volume consists of 16 review articles and 6 research papers in these and some other related areas contributed by eminent leaders in statistics, who are the friends and former students of Professor Peter J. Bickel. It gives an overview of new developments and a contemporary outlook on the various frontiers of statistics. It is dedicated to Professor Peter John Bickel in honor of his 65th birthday. The monograph features an article by Kjell Doksum and Ya'acov Ritov that summarizes some of the Bickel's distinguished contributions. Most of the articles in the book will be presented at the "Workshop on Frontiers of Statistics", May 18  20, 2006, Princeton, New Jersey, cosponsored by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics and International Indian Statistical Association, chaired by Jianqing Fan. Ever since the publication of the monograph by Bickel, Klaassen, Ritov and Wellner (1993), the development in the asymptotically efficient
vii
Vlll
Preface
inference in semiparametric models has seen a n exponential growth as is indicated in the chapter by Wellner, Klaassen and Ritov in this book. T h e contents of the chapter by Schick and Wefelmeyer review the developments of the asymptotically efficient inference in semiparametric time series models t h a t have been developed only in the last 12 years and are on the cutting edge of this area of research. The chapter by Xia and Tong reviews numerous estimation methods in generalized linear regression models with an unknown link function, the socalled single index models, an area of research presently at the forefront. Van der Laan and Rubin discuss some innovative procedures based on cross validation for selecting estimating functions for estimation of parameters of interest. An oracle property is established under a general condition. Closely related to the semiparametric modeling is the nonparametric methods for function estimation and their related applications. T h e area has been very active over the last twenty years, t h a n k s to the exponential increase of computing power and availability of large d a t a sets. Doksum and Schafer propose bandwidth selection procedures in local linear regression by maximizing the limiting power when testing the hypothesis of constant regression against local nonparametric P i t m a n alternatives. Among other things they show t h a t the power optimal bandwidth can give much higher power t h a n the bandwidth chosen by minimizing the mean squared error. T h e chapter by Hall and Kay has bearing on the classification of a given observation. They provide a new estimator of an index of atypicality and assess some of its optimality properties. Wang reviews wavelet statistical methodologies developed in the past fifteen years with emphasis on estimating regression functions, detecting and estimating changepoints, solving statistical inverse problems, and studying selfsimilarity of a stochastic process. A classical problem in statistics is t h a t of model diagnostics. In particular the most investigated model diagnostic problems in the literat u r e are those of the lackoffit testing of a parametric regression model and the goodnessoffit hypothesis of an error distribution in a given regression model. The chapter by Koul demonstrates t h a t nonparametric techniques play an important role for lackoffit testing. It gives a brief review of asymptotically distribution free tests for these hypotheses based on certain marked empirical processes and residual empirical processes, respectively. T h e underlying theme is t h a t all of these tests can be based on certain martingale transforms of these processes. Related t o nonparametric methods are boosting and b o o t s t r a p . An effective method of nonparametric classification and regression is boosting. T h e
Preface
IX
paper of Biihlmann and Lutz provides a review of boosting and proposes a new bootstrap method for highmultivariate, linear time series. Lahiri reviews the literature on b o o t s t r a p methodology under independence and for different classes of dependent processes including Markov processes, long range dependent time series and spatial processes. An important tool for theoretical justification of bootstrap methods is asymptotic expansions. Such expansions are well understood when underlying distributions are either absolutely continuous or pure lattice distributions. Gotze and van Zwet begin an investigation of discrete nonlattice distributions and discuss some new challenges in this interesting area of research. T h e last two decades have seen a considerable amount of literature on the analysis of longitudinal and functional data. T h e chapter by Fan and Li presents an overview on recent developments in non and semiparametric inference for longitudinal data. Miiller and Yao give a review of functional regression models and of the principal component analysis through a conditional expectation algorithm when having sparse longitudinal data. Many exciting statistical developments over the last two decades lie at the interface between statistics and other subject disciplines. T h e chapter by Servidea and Meng demonstrates the fruitfulness of crossfertilization between statistical physics and statistical computation, by focusing on the celebrated SwendsenWang algorithm for the Ising model and its recent perfect sampling implementation by Huber. Furthermore, it outlines some important results and open problems in these areas. Lawrence, Michailidis, Nair and Xi provide a review of the statistical issues and developments in network tomography with an emphasis on active tomography and illust r a t e the results with an application to internet telephony. A comprehensive overview on likelihood inferences for diffusion processes is given by AitSahalia, based on discretely sampled data. This is an important subject in financial econmetrics where statistics plays an important role. AitSahalia gives extensive t r e a t m e n t s on the expansions of transition densities and their applications. T h e chapter by P a r k and Jeong gives a review of the recently developed theory for several promising nonparametric estimators of frontiers or boundaries in productivity analysis. Many contemporary statistical problems borrow the ideas from traditional statistics. Ghosh and Tokdar presents some of the recent development on the convergence and consistency proof of Newton's algorithm for estimating a mixing distribution. Jiang and Ge give an overview of linear, generalized linear and nonlinear mixed effects models with emphases on recent developments and challenges. It is well known t h a t the sample mean
X
Preface
vector and the sample covariance matrix are optimal when the underlying d a t a are normal but extremely sensitive to outliers and heavy tailed data. T h e chapter by Zuo surveys numerous robust alternatives of these classical location and scatter estimators and discusses their applications to the multivariate d a t a analysis. Wong proposes an innovative idea for estimating t h e loss of an estimate. All the chapters in the book have been reviewed by world experts. We take this opportunity to t h a n k all the referees for rendering their invaluable help: Sarat Dass, Irene Gijbels, J a y a n t a Ghosh, Heng Peng, Marian Hristache, Jinhua Huang, Ildar Ibragimov, G a r e t h James, Jiming Jiang, Soumendra Lahiri, Linyuan Li, Yin Li, Shiqing Ling, Neal Madras, Moushen Pourhamadi, Anton Schick and Chunming Zhang. We are most grateful to t h e enthusiastic support of all the people who have helped us. We are particularly indebted to Dr. Heng Peng and Dr. Chongqi Zhang for invaluable help and editorial assistance, turning individual contributions into such a wonderful book. Assistance from graduate students at Princeton, including Yingying Fan, Clifford Lam, Yue Niu and Jinchi Lv are gratefully acknowledged. T h e generous financial supports from National Science Foundation, Minerva Foundation, Bendheim Center for Finance, and Department of Operations Research and Financial Engineering make the workshop and this volume possible. Professor Peter J. Bickel has made numerous significant contributions to many of the fields discussed in this volume as is evidenced by references to his work. We present this volume to him in celebration of his 65th birthday. We look forward to his many more innovative contributions to statistical science. Jianqing Fan, Princeton Hira L. Koul, East Lansing December 22, 2005
Contents
1. Our Steps on the Bickel Way Kjell Doksum and Ya'acov Ritov 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Doing Well at a Point and Beyond 1.3 Robustness, Transformations, Oraclefree Inference, and Stable Parameters 1.4 Distribution Free Tests, Higher Order Expansions, and Challenging Projects 1.5 From Adaptive Estimation to Semiparametric Models 1.6 Hidden Markov Models 1.7 Non and Semiparametric Testing 1.8 The Road to Real Life References Bickel's Publication
1 1 2 4 4 5 6 7 8 8 11
P a r t I. Semiparametric Modeling 2. Semiparametric Models: A R e v i e w of Progress since B K R W (1993) Jon A. Wellner, Chris A. J. Klaassen and Ya'acov Ritov 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Missing Data Models 2.3 Testing and Profile Likelihood Theory 2.4 Semiparametric Mixture Model Theory 2.5 Rates of Convergence via Empirical Process Methods 2.6 Bayes Methods and Theory 2.7 Model Selection Methods 2.8 Empirical Likelihood 2.9 Transformation and Frailty Models 2.10 Semiparametric Regression Models xi
25 25 28 28 29 30 30 31 32 32 33
xii
Contents 2.11 Extensions to Noni.i.d. Data 2.12 Critiques and Possible Alternative Theories References
34 35 36
3. Efficient Estimator for T i m e Series Anton Schick and Wolfgang Wefelmeyer 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Characterization of Efficient Estimators 3.3 Autoregression Parameter 3.4 fnnovation Distribution 3.5 Innovation Density 3.6 Conditional Expectation 3.7 Stationary Distribution 3.8 Stationary Density 3.9 Transition Density References
45 45 47 50 52 54 55 57 58 59 60
4. On the Efficiency of Estimation for a Singleindex Model Yingcun Xia and Howell Tong 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Estimation via Outer Product of Gradients 4.3 Global Minimization Estimation Methods 4.4 Sliced Inverse Regression Method 4.5 Asymptotic Distributions 4.6 Comparisons in Some Special Cases 4.7 Proofs of the Theorems References
63 63 66 68 70 71 73 74 84
5. Estimating Function Based CrossValidation M.J. van der Laan and Dan Rubin 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Estimating Function Based CrossValidation 5.3 Some Examples 5.4 General Finite Sample Result 5.5 Appendix References
87 87 90 95 101 105 108
P a r t II. N o n p a r a m e t r i c M e t h o d s 6. Powerful Choices: Tuning Parameter Selection Based on Power Kjell Doksum and Chad Schafer 6.1 Introduction: Local Testing and Asymptotic Power
113 114
Contents 6.2 Maximizing Asymptotic Power 6.3 Examples 6.4 Appendix References 7. Nonparametric Assessment of Atypicality Peter Hall and Jim W. Kay 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Estimating Atypicality 7.3 Theoretical Properties 7.4 Numerical Properties 7.5 Outline of Proof of Theorem 7.1 References
xiii 116 129 134 139
143 144 145 148 151 157 160
8. Selective R e v i e w on Wavelets in Statistics Yazhen Wang 163 8.1 Introduction 163 8.2 Wavelets 164 8.3 Nonparametric Regression 166 8.4 Inverse Problems 172 8.5 Changepoints 174 8.6 Local Selfsimilarity and Nonstationary Stochastic Process . . . 176 8.7 Beyond Wavelets 179 References 179 9. Model Diagnostics via Martingale Transforms: A Brief R e v i e w Hira L. Koul 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Lackoffit Tests 9.3 Censoring 9.4 Khamaladze Transform or Bootstrap References
183 183 197 201 202 203
Part III. Statistical Learning and Bootstrap 10. Boosting Algorithms: with an Application to Bootstrapping Multivariate T i m e Series Peter Biihlmann and Roman W. Lutz 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Boosting and Functional Gradient Descent 10.3 L2Boosting for Highdimensional Multivariate Regression . . .
209 209 211 217
xiv
Contents 10.4 L2Boosting for Multivariate Linear Time Series References
222 229
11. Bootstrap Methods: A R e v i e w S. N. Lahiri 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Bootstrap for i.i.d Data 11.3 Model Based Bootstrap 11.4 Block Bootstrap 11.5 Sieve Bootstrap 11.6 Transformation Based Bootstrap 11.7 Bootstrap for Markov Processes 11.8 Bootstrap under Long Range Dependence 11.9 Bootstrap for Spatial Data References
231 231 233 238 240 243 244 245 246 248 250
12. A n Expansion for a Discrete NonLattice Distribution Friedrich Gotze and Willem R. van Zwet 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Proof of Theorem 12.1 12.3 Evaluation of the Oscillatory Term References
257 257 262 271 273
Part IV. Longitudinal Data Analysis 13. A n Overview on Nonparametric and Semiparametric Techniques for Longitudinal D a t a Jianqing Fan and Runze Li 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Nonparametric Model with a Single Covariate 13.3 Partially Linear Models 13.4 VaryingCoefficient Models 13.5 An Illustration 13.6 Generalizations 13.7 Estimation of Covariance Matrix References
277 277 279 283 291 293 294 296 299
14. Regressing Longitudinal Response Trajectories on a Covariate HansGeorg Muller and Fang Yao 14.1 Introduction and Review 14.2 The Functional Approach to Longitudinal Responses 14.3 Predicting Longitudinal Trajectories from a Covariate
305 305 311 313
Contents 14.4 Illustrations References
xv 316 321
Part V. Statistics in Science and Technology 15. Statistical Physics and Statistical Computing: A Critical Link James D. Servidea and XiaoLi Meng 15.1 MCMC Revolution and CrossFertilization 15.2 The Ising Model 15.3 The SwendsenWang Algorithm and Criticality 15.4 Instantaneous Hellinger Distance and Heat Capacity 15.5 A Brief Overview of Perfect Sampling 15.6 Huber's Bounding Chain Algorithm 15.7 Approximating Criticality via Coupling Time 15.8 A Speculation References
327 328 328 329 331 334 336 340 342 343
16. Network Tomography: A Review and Recent D e v e l o p m e n t s Earl Lawrence, George Michailidis, Vijayan N. Nair and Bowei Xi . . . 345 16.1 Introduction 346 16.2 Passive Tomography 348 16.3 Active Tomography 352 16.4 An Application 359 16.5 Concluding Remarks 363 References 364
Part VI. Financial Econometrics 17. Likelihood Inference for Diffusions: A Survey Yacine AttSahalia 369 17.1 Introduction 369 17.2 The Univariate Case 371 17.3 Multivariate Likelihood Expansions 378 17.4 Connection to Saddlepoint Approximations 383 17.5 An Example with Nonlinear Drift and Diffusion Specifications . 386 17.6 An Example with Stochastic Volatility 389 17.7 Inference When the State is Partially Observed 391 17.8 Application to Specification Testing 399
xvi
Contents
17.9 Derivative Pricing Applications 400 17.10 Likelihood Inference for Diffusions under Nonstationarity . . . . 401 References 402 18. Nonparametric Estimation of Production Efficiency Byeong U. Park, SeokOh Jeong, and Young Kyung Lee 18.1 The Frontier Model 18.2 Envelope Estimators 18.3 Orderm Estimators 18.4 Conditional Frontier Models 18.5 Outlook References
407 407 409 417 421 423 424
P a r t V I I . P a r a m e t r i c Techniques and Inferences 19. Convergence and Consistency of N e w t o n ' s Algorithm for Estimating Mixing Distribution Jayanta K. Ghosh and Surya T. Tokdar 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Newton's Estimate of Mixing Distributions 19.3 Review of Newton's Result on Convergence 19.4 Convergence Results 19.5 Other Results 19.6 Simulation References
429 429 431 432 433 438 440 442
20. M i x e d Models: A n Overview Jiming Jiang and Zhiyu Ge 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Linear Mixed Models 20.3 Generalized Linear Mixed Models 20.4 Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models References
445 445 446 450 455 460
21. Robust Location and Scatter Estimators in Multivariate Analysis Yijun Zuo 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Robustness Criteria 21.3 Robust Multivariate Location and Scatter Estimators 21.4 Applications
467 467 469 473 481
Contents
xvii
21.5 Conclusions and Future Works References
484 485
22. Estimation of the Loss of an Estimate Wing Hung Wong 22.1 Introduction 22.2 KuUbackLeibler Loss and Exponential Families 22.3 Mean Square Error Loss 22.4 Location Families 22.5 Approximate Solutions 22.6 Convergence of the Loss Estimate References
491 491 493 495 496 498 502 506
Subject Index Author Index
507 511
Peter Bickel, age 3, with his mother Madeleine Moscovici Bickel and father Eliezer Bickel, September 1943, Bucharest, Rumania.
Peter with his uncle and aunt Shlomo and Yetta Bickel and cousin Alexander Bickel, New York City in the early 1950s.
Left: Peter and Nancy Kramer Bickel, June 1964, shortly after their marriage, Berkeley, California. Right: Peter and Nancy Bickel, expecting their first child, November 1966, Berkeley.
Peter and Nancy with son, Stephen, and daughter, Amanda, Winter 1968, Berkeley.
Yahav and Bickel families in Berkeley in August 1975, from left to right, back row, Yossi (Joseph), Gili and Aviva Yahav, Peter Bickel, front row, Amanda Bickel, Amit Yahav, Steve Bickel.
1— jj/ ».
^r^
MM
/'] B
~ 1/2 )
n t—
%=\ This is analogous to expansion (3.7) for the weighted residualbased empirical estimator (1/n) Y17=i Wih{ii). We see that fw differs from / by a term of order n  1 / 2 . Since fw and / converge to / at a slower rate, weighting has a negligible effect if we are interested in estimating / itself. Now we compare the residualbased kernel estimator / with the kernel estimator /* based on the true innovations, f*(y) = n~l Y17=i ^ ( ^ ~ £ i ) 
Efficient Estimators
for Time
Series
55
We obtain
f(y) = f*(y) + f'ivM*  0) + ov{n'l/2)For the weighted residualbased kernel estimator we therefore have
f\y)+°2yf{y)\YJ^{°2yf{y)+f\y)Wv)+oP{n~1'2)
Uy) =
i=l
Miiller, Schick, and Wefehneyer (2005a) give conditions under which these stochastic expansions hold for some norms such as the supremum norm and the Vnorm   /   v = / \f(y)\V{y) dy, where typically V{y) = (1 + \y\)m for some nonnegative integer m. For m = 0 this is the Linorm with respect to Lebesgue measure. The stronger norms, with m > 0, are useful when we want to estimate e.g. a moment iJ[e m ] with a plugin estimator Jymfw(y)dy. This is an example of the nonparametric plugin principle: Even though fw converges to / at a rate slower than n  1 ' 2 , the smooth functional J ymfw(y) dy of fw converges to J ymf(y) dy = E[em] at the parametric rate n~1/2. The estimator J ym fw{y) dy is even efficient if an efficient estimator $ is used. More generally, for all sufficiently regular h bounded by (a multiple of) V, the plugin estimators /h(y)f w (y)dy are efficient for f h(y)f(y)dy = E[h(e)]. We may therefore call fw efficient for plugin. This (weak) efficiency concept for function estimators was introduced by Klaassen, Lee, and Ruymgaart (2001). Weighting can lead to considerable variance reduction. For example, in the linear autoregression model Xi — f?Xj_i + £$ we have fj, = 0 and
i
r
n
m
+ oP(n1/2),
y f(y)dy=J2z? •>
n
..
i=i
n
1
n
/
ymU(y) dy=J2^To2E[em+1}J2a + oP(n^2). 2m 2m 2 The asymptotic variances are .E[£ ] and E{e ] — a~ (E[em+1})2, respectively. For m = 3 and / normal these variances are 15a6 and 6a 6 , respectively, a variance reduction of nearly two thirds. 3.6. Conditional Expectation The conditional expectation E(h(Xn+i) \ Xn = x) with lag one of a known function h can be stimated by a nonparametric estimator
Schick and
56
Wefelmeyer
where kb(x) = k(x/b)/b with k a kernel and b a bandwidth. If the time series is known to be firstorder Markov with transition density q(x,y) from x to y, then we have E(h(Xn+1)
\Xn=x)=
I
h(y)q(x,y)dy,
and an estimator is obtained by plugging in a (kernel) estimator for q. In the nonlinear autoregressive model Xi = r$(Xii) + Ei, the transition density is q(x,y) = f(y — r#(x)), and we can write E(h(Xn+1)
\Xn = x) = Jh{y
+ rd{x))f{y)dy
= E[h(e +
r^x))].
This is an (unconditional) expectation under the innovation distribution as in Section 4, but now of a function h(y, #) = h(y + r#(x)) depending on #. This suggests estimating the conditional expectation by 1 ™
^2h{ii
r
+ rs{x))=
/ h{,0)dF
with ¥(y) = (1/^) X^™=1 l(^i < y) the empirical distribution function of the residuals et = X^ — r^(Xj_i). If § is n 1 / 2 consistent, then / h(, •&) d¥ will be n 1 ' 2 consistent. For efficiency we need to use an efficient estimator •d and to replace F by a version that uses the information E[e] — 0. As seen in Section 4, one way of doing this is by taking a weighted version ^w{y) = ( l / n ) Y^i=i wi^{^i < v) The resulting estimator for the conditional expectation is J h(, i?) d¥w. Similar as in Section 5, a Taylor expansion gives 1 "
h(,#)dFw = ~J2hv(£i^)
+ (r4x)^)E[h'v(e,^)}0^)
+
op(n^2).
We have E[h'v(e,ti)] = E[hv(e^)£(e)}. By (3.2), an efficient estimator 1 has influence function A~ SQ(X, Y); so / h{, §) d¥w has influence function equal to the canonical gradient (3.4) and is therefore efficient. These results extend to higher lags. For example, for lag two the conditional expecation E(h(Xn+2)  Xn = x) becomes E[h(e2 + r$(ei + r&(x)))] and is estimated n 1 / 2 consistently by the residualbased von Mises statistic
Z2 E E Wi + r$& + rtf(a;))) = / / h(z + rt(y + r#(x))) dF(y)d¥(z). An efficient estimator is obtained if we replace F by the weighted version Fw and use an efficient estimator for •&.
Efficient Estimators
for Time
Series
57
To treat lags higher than two, set Qw(x,y) = y + r$(x) and define recursively Qmti(x,y1,... ,ym) = Vm + r${Qmi,d{x,y\, • • • ,ymi))Then an mstep conditional expectation can be written v(h) = E(h(Xn+m)
\Xn=x)
= E[h(gms(x,e1,...
With i} efficient, an efficient estimator for E{h{Xn+m) weighted residualbased von Mises statistic / M^mtffa V1T1V™)) d&wivi) • • •
,em))]. \ Xn = x) is the
d¥w(ym).
To prove n 1,/2 consistency of such von Mises statistics, we need an appropriate balance of smoothness assumptions on h and on / . For discontinuous h we must assume that / is smooth. Then we can replace F or ¥w by smoothed versions d¥(y) = f(y)dy and d¥w(y) = fw(y) dy with residualbased unweighted or weighted kernel estimators / and fw as in Section 5. Write 0(h)
=
I ••
I h(emd(xiyiT
• • iym))fw(yi)
• • • fw{ym)
dy!
•••dym.
Miiller, Schick, and Wefelmeyer (2005b) prove functional central limit theorems for processes {n 1 ^ 2 (^(/i) — 0(h)) : h € H} and appropriate function classes TiSimulations show that smoothing also improves the smallsample behavior of the von Mises statistics, especially for discontinuous h. Remark 3.5: The parametric rates for estimators of conditional expectations do not extend to autoregression JQ = r(Xii) + Ei with semiparametric or nonparametric autoregression function r. A conditional expectation of lag one has representation E(h(Xn+\) \ Xn = x) = E[h(e + r#(x))]. This is a (smooth) function of r(x), and the convergence rate of an estimator for the conditional expectation is in general determined by the rate at which we can estimate r(x). Nevertheless, estimators based on this representation may still be better than nonparametric estimators. For results in nonparametric (censored) regression we refer to van Keilegom, Akritas and Veraverbeke (2001), van Keilegom and Veraverbeke (2001) and van Keilegom and Veraverbeke (2002). 3.7. Stationary Distribution A simple estimator for the expectation E[h(X)] of a known function h under the stationary distribution is the empirical estimator (1/n) Y^i=i h(Xi).
Schick and
58
Wefelmeyer
The estimator does not make use of the autoregressive structure of our model. A better estimator can be obtained as follows. As m tends to infinity, the mstep conditional expectation E(h(Xm) \ XQ = x) converges to E[h{X)\ at an exponential rate. By Section 6, for fixed m, an efficient estimator of E{h{Xm) \ XQ = x) is the weighted residualbased von Mises statistic «m(z) = / • • / h{gm^(x,yu
... ,ym)) dFw(yi)...
dFw{ym)
or its smoothed version. We expect that K m ( n )(x) is efficient for E[h(X)} if m(n) increases with n at an appropriate (logarithmic) rate. The bias induced by the choice of starting point x can be removed by averaging, i.e. by using instead of Km(n)(x) the estimator 1 ™  / &m(n)(Xj)2—1
For invertible linear processes with moving average coefficients depending on a finitedimensional parameter, a corresponding result is proved in Schick and Wefelmeyer (2004b). 3.8. Stationary Density The usual estimator for the stationary density g of a time series is the kernel estimator (1/n) YH=I kb{xXi), where kb(x) = k(x/b)/b with kernel k and bandwidth b. For our nonlinear autoregressive model, the stationary density can be written g(y) = J f(y~
U(x))g(x) dx = E[f(y 
r*(X))].
This is an expectation under the stationary distribution as in Section 7, but now for a function h(x, $, / ) = f(y  r$(x)) depending on i? and / . By the plugin principle mentioned in Section 5, we expect to obtain a n 1 / 2 consistent estimator if we plug appropriate kernel estimators / for / and g for g and a n 1 ' 2 consistent estimator i? for i? into this representation, 9*(y) = /
f(yr#{x))g(x)dx.
Note however that g is the density of the convolution of e and r$(X). Even if the density g of X is nice, the distribution of r#(X) may be unpleasant. A degenerate case would be a constant autoregression function, say r$ —
Efficient Estimators
for Time
Series
59
0. Then we observe independent Xj = Si with density g = / , and / i n consistent estimation of g is not possible. There may be a problem even if r# is smooth and strictly increasing but with derivative vanishing at some point. However, if r$ has a derivative that is bounded away from zero, g*(y) will be n 1//2 consistent. For efficiency we need an efficient estimator i? as in Section 3 and a weighted residualbased kernel estimator fw for the innovation density as in Section 5, and we must replace the estimator g(x) dx by an efficient estimator as in Section 7. In the i.i.d. case, n 1 ' 2 consistent estimators for convolution densities are studied by Frees (1994), Saavedra and Cao (2000) and Schick and Wefelmeyer (2004c). A n 1 ' 2 consistent estimator for the stationary density of a firstorder moving average process is obtained in Saavedra and Cao (1999). Schick and Wefelmeyer (2004a) introduce an efficient version, and Schick and Wefelmeyer (2004d) prove functional central limit theorems for higherorder moving average processes and density estimators viewed as elements of function spaces. For general invertible linear processes, n 1 / 2 consistent estimators of the stationary density are constructed in Schick and Wefelmeyer (2005). 3.9. Transition Density The onestep transition density q(x, y) from Xo = x to X\ = y of a firstorder Markov chain can be estimated by the NadarayaWatson estimator ,
\
YJi=\kb{x  Xi_i)kb(y 2 ^ = 1 kb(X 
 Xi)
Xii)
where kb{x) = k(x/b)/b with kernel k and bandwidth b. The twostep transition density q2(x,z) from Xo = x to Xi — z has the representation qi(x,z) = J q(x,y)q(y,z)dy and can be estimated by J q{x,y)q(y,z) dy. For our nonlinear autoregressive model, the twostep transition density can be written q2(x,z) = / f{z  r#(y))f(y
 r#(x)) dy = E[f{z  r#(e + r#{x)))}.
This is an expectation under the innovation distribution as in Section 4, but now for a function h(y,&,f) = f(z  r#(y + r#(x))) depending on •& and / . There is some formal similarity with the representation of the stationary density in Section 6, but also an essential difference: There we had an expectation under the stationary distribution; here the expectation is taken with respect to the innovation distribution. This makes efficient
Schick and Wefelmeyer
60
estimation of the transition density easier, because it is easier to estimate the innovation distribution efficiently. As efficient estimator of q2(x,z) we suggest q2(x,z)
= / fw(z
 rs(y))fw(y
 rd(x))
dy
with •& efficient. T h e result extends to higherorder lags.
Acknowledgments Anton Schick was supported by N S F grant DMS 0405791.
References Akritas, M. G. and van Keilegom, I. (2001). Nonparametric estimation of the residual distribution. Scand. J. Statist. 28, 549567. An, H. Z. and Huang, F. C. (1996). The geometrical ergodicity of nonlinear autoregressive models. Statist. Sinica 6, 943956. Bhattacharya, R. N. and Lee, C. (1995a). Ergodicity of nonlinear first order autoregressive models. J. Theoret. Probab. 8, 207219. Bhattacharya, R. N. and Lee, C. (1995b). On geometric ergodicity of nonlinear autoregressive models. Statist. Probab. Lett. 22, 311315. Erratum: 41 (1999), 439440. Bickel, P. J. (1993). Estimation in semiparametric models. In: Multivariate Analysis: Future Directions (C. R. Rao, ed.), pp. 5573, NorthHolland, Amsterdam. Bickel, P. J., Klaassen, C. A. J., Ritov, Y. and Wellner, J. A. (1998). Efficient and Adaptive Estimation for Semiparametric Models. Springer, New York. Bickel, P. J. and Kwon, J. (2001). Inference for semiparametric models: Some questions and an answer (with discussion). Statist. Sinica 11, 863960. Cheng, F. (2002). Consistency of error density and distribution function estimators in nonparametric regression. Statist. Probab. Lett. 59, 257270. Cheng, F. (2004). Weak and strong uniform consistency of a kernel error density estimator in nonparametric regression. J. Statist. Plann. Inference 119, 95107. Cheng, F. (2005). Asymptotic distributions of error density and distribution function estimators in nonparametric regression. J. Statist. Plann. Inference 128, 327349. Drost, F. C , Klaassen, C. A. J. and Werker, B. J. M. (1997). Adaptive estimation in timeseries models, Ann. Statist. 25, 786817. Fan, J. and Yao, Q. (2003). Nonlinear Time Series. Nonparametric and Parametric Methods. Springer Series in Statistics, Springer, New York. Frees, E. W. (1994). Estimating densities of functions of observations. J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 89, 517525.
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Greenwood, P. E., Schick, A. and Wefelmeyer, W. (2001). Comment [on Bickel and Kwon (2001)]. Statist. Sinica 11, 892906. Haberman, S. J. (1984). Adjustment by minimum discriminant information. Ann. Statist. 12, 971988. Erratum: 14 (1986), 358. Hajek, J. (1970). A characterization of limiting distributions of regular estimates. Z. Wahrsch. Verw. Gebiete 14, 323330. Jeganathan, P. (1995). Some aspects of asymptotic theory with applications to time series models. Econometric Theory 11, 818887. Klaassen, C. A. J., Lee, E.J. and Ruymgaart, F. H. (2001). On efficiency of indirect estimation of nonparametric regression functions. In: Algebraic Methods in Statistics and Probability (M. A. G. Viana and D. S. P. Richards, eds.), 173184, Contemporary Mathematics 287, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI. Koul, H. L. and Pflug, G. C. (1990). Weakly adaptive estimators in explosive autoregression. Ann. Statist. 18, 939960. Koul, H. L. and Schick, A. (1996). Adaptive estimation in a random coefficient autoregressive model. Ann. Statist. 24, 10251052. Koul, H. L. and Schick, A. (1997). Efficient estimation in nonlinear autoregressive timeseries models. Bernoulli 3, 247277. Kreiss, JP. (1987a). On adaptive estimation in stationary ARMA processes. Ann. Statist. 15, 112133. Kreiss, JP. (1987b). On adaptive estimation in autoregressive models when there are nuisance functions. Statist. Decisions 5, 5976. Le Cam, L. (1971). Limits of experiments. Proc. Sixth Berkeley Symp. Math. Statist. Probab. 1, 245261. Levit, B. Y. (1975). Conditional estimation of linear functionals. Problems Inform. Transmission 11, 3954. Mokkadem, A. (1987). Sur un modele autoregressif non lineaire: ergodicite et ergodicite geometrique. J. Time Ser. Anal. 8, 195204. Miiller, U. U., Schick, A. and Wefelmeyer, W. (2004a). Estimating linear functionals of the error distribution in nonparametric regression. J. Statist. Plann. Inference 119, 7593. Miiller, U. U., Schick, A. and Wefelmeyer, W. (2004b). Estimating functionals of the error distribution in parametric and nonparametric regression. J. Nonparametr. Statist. 16, 525548. Miiller, U. U., Schick, A. and Wefelmeyer, W. (2005a). Weighted residualbased density estimators for nonlinear autoregressive models. Statist. Sinica 15, 177195. Miiller, U. U., Schick, A. and Wefelmeyer, W. (2005b). Efficient prediction for linear and nonlinear autoregressive models. Technical Report, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Binghamton University. Miiller, U. U., Schick, A. and Wefelmeyer, W. (2005c). Estimating the error distribution function in nonparametric regression. Technical Report, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Binghamton University. Owen, A. B. (1988). Empirical likelihood ratio confidence intervals for a single functional. Biometrika 75, 237249.
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Owen, A. B. (2001). Empirical Likelihood. Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability 92, Chapman & Hall / CRC, London. Putter, H. and Klaassen, C. A. J. (2005). Efficient estimation of Banach parameters in semiparametric models. Ann. Statist. 33. Saavedra, A. and Cao, R. (1999). Rate of convergence of a convolutiontype estimator of the marginal density of an MA(1) process. Stochastic Process. Appl. 80, 129155. Saavedra, A. and Cao, R. (2000). On the estimation of the marginal density of a moving average process. Canad. J. Statist. 28, 799815. Schick, A. and Wefelmeyer, W. (2002a). Estimating the innovation distribution in nonlinear autoregressive models. Ann. Inst. Statist. Math. 54, 245260. Schick, A. and Wefelmeyer, W. (2002b). Efficient estimation in invertible linear processes. Math. Methods Statist. 11, 358379. Schick, A. and Wefelmeyer, W. (2004a). Root n consistent and optimal density estimators for moving average processes. Scand. J. Statist. 3 1 , 6378. Schick, A. and Wefelmeyer, W. (2004b). Estimating invariant laws of linear processes by Ustatistics. Ann. Statist. 32, 603632. Schick, A. and Wefelmeyer, W. (2004c). Root n consistent density estimators for sums of independent random variables. J. Nonparametr. Statist. 16, 925935. Schick, A. and Wefelmeyer, W. (2004d). Functional convergence and optimality of plugin estimators for stationary densities of moving average processes. Bernoulli 10, 889917. Schick, A. and Wefelmeyer, W. (2005). Root n consistent density estimators for invertible linear processes. Technical Report, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Binghamton University. Taniguchi, M. and Kakizawa, Y. (2000). Asymptotic Theory of Statistical Inference for Time Series. Springer Series in Statistics, Springer, New York. van Keilegom, I., Akritas, M. G. and Veraverbeke, N. (2001). Estimation of the conditional distribution in regression with censored data: a comparative study. Comput. Statist. Data Anal. 35, 487500. van Keilegom, I. and Veraverbeke, N. (2001). Hazard rate estimation in nonparametric regression with censored data. Ann. Inst. Statist. Math. 53, 730745. van Keilegom, I. and Veraverbeke, N. (2002). Density and hazard estimation in censored regression models. Bernoulli 8, 607625. Wefelmeyer, W. (1994). An efficient estimator for the expectation of a bounded function under the residual distribution of an autoregressive process. Ann. Inst. Statist. Math. 46, 309315.
CHAPTER 4
O n t h e Efficiency o f E s t i m a t i o n for a S i n g l e  i n d e x M o d e l
Yingcun Xia and Howell Tong Department of Statistics and Applied Probability National University of Singapore, Singapore staxyc@stat.nus. edu.sg Department of Statistics London School of Economics, U.K. h.tong@lse.ac.uk
The singleindex model is one of the more popular semiparametric models in econometrics and statistics. Many methods, some of which have been specifically developed for this model, are available for the estimation of the index parameter. The more popular ones are the ADE method and its variations (Hardle and Stoker (1989), Hristache, Juditski, Polzehl and Spokoiny (2001)), the singleindexed kernel method (Hardle, Hall and Ichimura (1993), Xia, Tong, Li and Zhu (2002)) and sliced inverse regression methods (Li (1991)). In this chapter, we review these methods, propose alternative approaches for the estimation, obtain the asymptotic distributions of these estimators and compare their efficiencies based on asymptotic distributions. This chapter includes new results as well as survey material.
4.1.
Introduction
Single index models (SIMs) are widely used in applied quantitative sciences. Although the context of application for SIMs rarely prescribes the distributional form of the involved statistical error, one approach is to specify t h e latter (by assumption and often via an explicit "link" function) u p t o a lowdimensional parameter. T h e focus is then on the estimation of the lowdimensional parameter, typically via its likelihood function. B o t h from a theoretical and a practical point of view, this approach has been criticized. A more recent approach is based on the semiparametric modelling, which 63
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Xia and Tong
allows the high (in fact infinite) dimensional parameter (namely the link function) to be flexible and unknown (except for some smoothness assumptions) while retaining the focus on the finite dimensional index parameter. Specifically, consider the following singleindex model, Y=g(djx)+e,
(4.1)
where E{e\X) = 0 almost surely, g is an unknown link function, and OQ is a singleindex with #o = 1 for identification. In this model there is a single linear combination of covariates X that is designed to capture maximal information about the relation between the response variable Y and the covariates X, thereby ameliorating the "curse of dimensionality". Estimation of the singleindex model, focusing on the index parameter, is very attractive both in theory and in practice. In the last decade or so, a series of papers (e.g. Powell, Stock and Stoker (1989), Hardle and Stoker (1989), Ichimura (1993), Klein and Spady (1993), Hardle, Hall and Ichimura (1993), Horowitz and Hardle (1996), Hristache, Juditski and Spokoiny (2001), Xia, Tong, Li and Zhu (2002)) have considered the estimation of the parametric index and the nonparametric part (i.e. the function g), focusing on the rootn consistency of the former; efficiency issues have also been studied. Amongst the various methods of estimation, the more popular ones are the average derivative estimation (ADE) method investigated by Hardle and Stoker (1989), the sliced inverse regression (SIR) method proposed by Li (1991), and the simultaneous minimization method of Hardle, Hall and Ichimura (1993), referenced as HHI hereafter. The ADE method is the first approach that uses the structure of the model directly. Because the index 9Q is proportional to the derivatives dE{Y\X = x)/dx = g'(9^x)80, the index can be estimated by the average of the derivatives or gradients. The original version of ADE uses high dimensional kernel regression to estimate the derivatives at the observation points. The method is simple to implement with an easily understood algorithm. However, because a high dimensional kernel estimation method is used, the estimation still suffers from the "curse of dimensionality". Hristache, Juditski and Spokoiny (2001) (referenced as HJS hereafter), adopted the same idea as ADE and proposed a dynamic procedure to adapt to the structure of the model by lowering the dimension of the kernel smoothing. By simulations, they showed that their method has much better performance than the original ADE method. The idea can be extended easily to the multiindex model:
A Single Index Model
Y = g(9lX, 6jX, • • • , 9jX) + e.
65
(4.2)
See Hristache, Juditski, Polzehl and Spokoiny (2001). They proved that rootn consistency for the index estimators can be achieved when q < 3. Because HJS did not give the asymptotic distribution of their estimator, it is hard to compare the efficiency of the method with other methods. The sliced inverse regression (SIR) method proposed by Li (1991) uses a striking idea. The approach is originally proposed for a more general dimension reduction model, Y = g(eJX,9jX, ,6jX,e).
(4.3)
Here, e is independent of X. Thus, the method does not require that the noise is additive as in Model (4.1) or Model (4.2). As a special case, Model (4.1) can be estimated using the SIR method. Especially, when the link function g is monotonic, the SIR method can produce a good estimator for the index 6$. However, the approach needs a strong assumption on the design of X in order to obtain the asymptotics of the estimators theoretically. The asymptotic distribution was obtained by Zhu and Fang (1996). Because the idea is simple and very easy to implement, it is very popular for the analysis of huge data sets. However, because the limiting distribution depends on functions that do not appear in the model, it is again hard for us to compare the SIR with other estimation methods theoretically. Recently, methods based on the joint distribution of (X, y) have been developed. See for examples Delecroix, Hardle and Hristache (2003) and Yin and Cook (2005). In simple terms, the model may be estimated as follows. Locally estimate the regression function, which depends on the index 6, and obtain the estimator of the index by minimizing the sum of squares of the residuals with respect to the index. HHI adopted the idea by taking the pilot variable h as a parameter and minimizing the residuals respect to both h and the index. Strikingly, they found that the commonly used undersmoothing approach is unnecessary and that the rootn consistency can be achieved for the index estimator. However, the procedure of HHI is very difficult to implement. Moreover, it is not easy to extend the idea to the multiindex Model (4.2) or the dimension reduction Model (4.3). Xia, Tong, Li and Zhu (2002) proposed the minimum average conditional variance method (MAVE) to estimate the link function and the index simultaneously and gave a simple algorithm for the estimation procedure. This idea can also
Xia and Tong
66
be applied to the multiindex Model (4.2). More recent work by Xia (2005) suggests that the idea can also be applied to the dimension reduction Model (4.3). Simulations suggest that this approach has very good performance for finite samples. In the proof of HHI, the lower information bound cannot be achieved because of the trimming function. In fact, to our knowledge no theoretical comparison of the efficiency of estimation among the various estimation methods has been conducted systematically todate. In this chapter, we propose alternative but equivalent versions for the ADE method and the HJS method. The alternative versions are easy to implement and in each case the limiting distribution is obtained. The asymptotic normality of MAVE is proved. By choosing an appropriate trimming function, we further show that the MAVE can achieve the lower information bound under some assumptions on the distribution functions. We give asymptotic distribution for the SIR estimator of the singleindex model. Finally, the efficiencies of these estimation methods are compared based on the limiting distributions. 4.2. Estimation via Outer Product of Gradients Let G{x) = E(Y\X
= x). It is easy to see from model (4.1) that
V G W = ^G(x)
= ^9(9jx)
= g'(6jx)0o.
(4.4)
Therefore, the derivative of the regression function has the same direction as the index 9Q. 4.2.1. Average
derivative
estimation
method
Based on the above observation, Powell, Stock and Stoker (1989) and Hardle and Stoker (1989) proposed the Average Derivative Estimation (ADE) method, which estimates the 9Q via E y G(x). Let f(x) be the marginal density of X. Integration by parts gives S d=f E{VG(X)}
= £{
V
log
f(X)Y}.
Instead of estimating dG(x)/dx, Powell, Stock and Stoker (1989) proposed that we estimate instead l(x) = dlogf(x)/dx, which is done by the higher order kernel smoother. The estimation can be implemented as follows. Let H{v) be a pvariate kernel function, and H\,{v) = H{v/b)/bp. The density function of X is then estimated by n
f(x)=n1^2Hb(Xix). i=l
67
A Single Index Model
Then E{dG(X)/dx}
can be estimated by n
where l(x) = d\ogf(x)/dx estimator of 9Q is
and pn is a trimming function. Finally, the
Because the nonparametric estimation of a high dimensional density function is used, the ADE procedure suffers from the "curse of dimensionality". Another disadvantage of the methods is that when E(g'(9jX)) = 0, that is, EVG(x)=E(g'(e^X))90
= 0,
the method fails to estimate the direction. 4.2.2. Singleindex estimation via outer product gradients and a refinement
of
As one way to overcome the drawback in ADE when Eg'(6jX) = 0, Samarov (1993) proposed the use of the outer product of the gradients, namely E{\/G(X) \/TG(X)}. The index 60 is the first eigenvector of T E{\/G(X) \/ G(X)}. This idea can be easily extended to the estimation of the multiindex Model (4.2). To implement the estimation, we first estimate the gradients by local linear smoothing. Specifically, we consider the local linear fitting in the form of the following minimization problem n
„
Y
a
b X
m i n ^ \ i ~ J ~ J ij)
w
iii
(45)
1=1
where Xij = Xi—Xj and Wij is a weight depending on the distance between Xi and Xj. Calculate 1
n
where bj is the minimizer from (4.5) and pj is a trimming function employed to handle the boundary points; see the discussion below. Then the first eigenvector, 6, of S is an estimator of 6Q.
Xia and Tong
68
Note t h a t in the above estimation, a multidimensional kernel smooth is used, which is well known to be very inefficient. To improve the efficiency, we can consider using the structure of the dependency of Y on X\ following the idea of Xia, Tong, Li and Zhu (2002), we consider a singleindex kernel weight Wij
= Kh{BT Xij)
(4.6)
and repeat the above procedure. We call this m e t h o d the refined method of outer product of gradients ( r O P G ) estimation. Hristache, Juditski and Spokoiny (2001) also discussed a similar idea. To implement the estimation procedure, we propose the following r O P G algorithm. Let pn{) be any bounded function with bounded third order derivatives on R such t h a t pn{v) = 1 if i> > 2n~ £ ; pn(v) = 0 if v < n~e for some e > 0. Details will be given below. A simple algorithm can be stated as follows. Suppose 9 is an initial estimate of 9Q. Step 1: Calculate
where h is a bandwidth (see the details below). Step 2: Calculate
where p] = pn(fe(0TX,))
and fe(6Tx)
= n " 1 £ ? = 1 Kh{0T{Xi

x)).
Replace 9 by the first eigenvector of S and repeat Steps 1 and 2 until convergence. T h e limiting eigenvector is the estimator of 0Q. Denote it by 9ropG
4.3. Global Minimization Estimation M e t h o d s Because the link function is unknown, we can use local linear smoother to estimate it. On the other hand, because #o is a global parameter, it should be estimated via minimizing a global function. Based on this idea, many estimation methods have been proposed. Klein and Spady (1993) proved t h a t the estimator based on this idea can achieve the asymptotic information bound. HHI showed t h a t the estimator of the singleindex can achieve rootn consistency without undersmoothing the link function. Weisberg
69
A Single Index Model
and Welsh (1994) proposed a NewtonRaphsontype algorithm. Delecroix, Hristache and Patilea (2005) allowed the errors to admit more general distributions by using a general loss function. Sherman (1994) investigated the theoretical techniques and gave some useful results. 4.3.1. HHI
estimation
The idea can be stated in the NW kernel smoothing framework as follows. We estimate 0Q by minimizing
3= 1
with respect to 6 (and h), where gnJ(9T Xj) is the estimated function value of g at 0TXj with observation (Xj,Yj) deleted, i.e. n
j
T
g\ (8 Xj) =
n
T
Y/Kh{9 Xij)Yi/YlKh(eTXij).
Denote the estimator of 9$ by ( ( rxJ y " where h is a bandwidth (see the details below). Step 2: Calculate n 9
= i E
Kh{9TX,j)p%d('3)2X,]Xl/fe{eTXj)}1 n
Kh(8TXij)pejdejXij(yi~a0j)/fe(9'TXj),
x J2
where p? is defined in section 2.2. Repeat step 1 with 9 :— 9/\9\ and and step 2 until convergence. The limiting value of 9 is an estimator of 90. Denote it by
^MAVE
4.4. Sliced Inverse Regression Method If X is elliptically distributed and independent of e, we can use the sliced inverse regression approach to estimate #o For ease of exposition, we further assume that X is standardized. By the model, we have E(X\Y)
= E{E{X\9lX,Y)\Y) = E{909jX\Y}
=
E{E{X\8^X)\Y)
= 90m{Y),
where m(y) = E(6QX\Y = y) and 0 i ,    , # p _ i are such that ($0,9\, • • , 0p\) (9Q, #I, • • • , 9p\) = Ip, a p x p identity matrix. See Li (1991) for more details.
A Single Index Model
71
Based on the above fact, a simple algorithm is as follows. Estimate E(X\Y = y) by the local linear kernel smoother n
n
Wh Yi
J2 ( >y^ /I2w^Y»y^
i(y) = i=l
Xi
i=\
where wh{Yi,y) = {sn2{y)Kh(Yi  y)  snl(y)Kh(Yi  y)(Yt  y)/h} and Snk(y) = n1 £ ? = 1 Kh(Yi  y){(Yi  y)/h}k for k = 0,1, 2. Then the estimator of #o is the first eigenvector of n i=i
where pj = Pn{fv{Yj))
with fY(Yj)
= n~lYH=iKh{Yi
 y). Denote the
estimator by #SIR
Theoretically, the SIR method has good asymptotic properties because it uses univariate nonparametric regression. The estimators can achieve rootn consistency even when the dimension, q in Model (4.3), is very high. However, in terms of efficiency, it is not so attractive. For finite samples, the performance can be far from satisfactory. 4.5. Asymptotic Distributions We impose the following conditions in order to obtain some useful asymptotics. (CI) [Design] The density function f(x) of X has bounded second order derivatives on W, E\X\r < oo and E\Y\r < oo for all r > 0. (C2) [Link function] The link function g(v) has bounded third order derivatives. (C3) [Kernel function] K{v) is a symmetric density function; there exists a constant c > 0 such that ecvK(v) —> 0 as v —> oo and that the Fourier transform of K{v) is absolutely integrable. (C4) [Bandwidth and trimming parameter] h oc n  1 / 5 and e < 1/10. Condition (CI) can be relaxed to the existence of moments up to a finite order. In HHI, they require that X is bounded. See also Hardle and Stoker (1989). The smoothness of the link function in (C2) can be weakened to the existence of the second derivative at the cost of more complicated proofs. Another approach is to use a different trimming function to trim off the boundary points and allow a more general link function; in this case the MAVE estimates will not necessarily be the most efficient in the
72
Xia and Tong
semiparametric sense with respect to the limiting distribution. The kernel functions include the Gaussian kernel and the Epanechnikov kernel. The bandwidth (C4) is practicable because it is of the order of an optimal bandwidth in both the estimation of the link function and the estimation of the index; see HHI. Because our interest here is asymptotic efficiency, we assume in the following that the initial value 9 is in a small neighbor of 0O. Define 6 „ = {9 : 0  90\ < C 0 n  1 / 2 + 1 / 1 0 } where C 0 is a constant. (In HHI, they even assume that the initial value is in a rootn neighbourhood {9 : ^ — 6*o < Con  1 / 2 }.) This assumption is feasible because such an initial value is obtainable using existing methods. Let fj,e(x) = E{X\9TX = 9Tx), u9{x) = E{X\9TX = 9Tx)  x, = E{XXT\9TX
we{x)
= 9Tx),
W0{x)
= VSQ(X)VJO(X)
and W(x)
=
wg0{x) — ng0(X)fj,Jo(X). For any symmetric matrix A, A+ denotes the MoorePenrose inverse matrix. For the ADE estimator, Powell, Stock and Stoker (1989) proved that under some regularity conditions, y/n(S — 5) —> N(0, S A D E ) , where EA.DE is the covariance matrix of l(X)e + g'(9jX)9Q. Based on this, we further have
A/R^ADE
 0o) —> iV(0, S A D E ) , where
SADE
= {E^X)}\I
 ^ > { [ ^ ] [ ^ ]
T
^ } ( /
 OoOj).
HHI proved that under appropriate regularity conditions, V^HHI#o)^iV(0,£HHl), where EHHI
=
[E{g'(60X)2W(X)}}+E{g'(90X)2Wo(X)e2}[E{g'(90X)2W(X)}}+.
If we further assume that e is normally distributed and independent of X, or more generally, the conditional distribution of Y given X belongs to a canonical exponential family U\x (v\x) = exp{yn(a;)  B(r](x)) + C{y)} for some known functions B, C and n, then EHHI is the information lower bound in the semiparametric sense. See the proofs in Carroll, Fan, Gijbels and Wand (1997). Theorem 4.1: [rOPG] Under the conditions (C1)(C4), we have rOPG — #0) —> N(0, ErQPG)i
73
A Single Index Model
where E{g'(0oX)2W(X)+Wo(X)e2W(X)+}/{Eg'(0^X)2}2.
SrOPG =
Theorem 4.2: [rMAVE] Under the conditions (C1)(C4), we have V^(#rMAVE ^ #o) » N(0, ErMAVE), where ErMAVE = E H HIThus, the rMAVE estimator is the most efficient estimator in the semiparametric sense if e is normally distributed and independent of X. Theorem 4.3: [SIR] If X is elliptically distributed, then V^(0SIR0O)^W(O,ESIR),
where SSIR = {Em(Y)2}2E{m(Y)2[X
 0om(Y)][X 
60m(Y)]T}.
4.6. Comparisons in Some Special Cases Since all the limiting distributions are normal, we can in principle compare the efficiencies by their covariance matrices. We can do this explicitly for the following special cases. Corollary 4.1: The information matrix ErMAVE = SHHI If £ is independent of X, then E r O P G > SjMAVE
By Corollary 4.1, #rMAVE is more efficient than #roPG if X is independent of e. Because the distribution of #ADE depends on the derivative of the distribution function, it is not easy to compare its covariance matrix with others. However, under the normal assumption, we have the following conclusion. Corollary 4.2: If ( X T , e ) is normal, then SrMAVE = ^ r O P G < ^ A D E 
The equality holds only when g is a linear function.
74
Xia and Tong
For SIR, its distribution depends on another unknown function; see Theorem 4.3. General comparison is difficult to make. However, for the following simple example, we can evaluate explicitly the different efficiencies for different methods. Example 4.1: Suppose that (XT, e) is standard normal and that the true model is Y = 9jX + ae.
(4.7)
Then EADE = STOPG = SrMAVE = cr2(I — 9O9Q). It is interesting to find that without knowing the link function g the efficiency of each of the above three semiparametric methods is the same as that of the MLE within the framework of a parametric model with a known link function g. Note that E(0%X\Y) = 17(1 + a2) in Model (4.7). Simple calculations lead to Y>Sm={l+o2){I9Q8]>). Note that I  0o8j is a positive semidefinite matrix; we have ^ A D E = S r 0 P G = S r M A V E < UsiR
It is interesting to see that 9Q cannot be estimated efficiently by SIR even when there is no noise term e in the model. 4.7. Proofs of the Theorems Recall that K is a density function. Thus, f K = 1. For ease of exposition, we further assume that fi2 — J v2K(v)dv = 1. Otherwise, we can redefine v K(v) := fa Kbh ) Let fe(v) be the density function of 9TX and c T>n = {{9,x) : \x\ < n ,fe{9T.x) > n~e,0 e Qn} where c > 1. Suppose An is a matrix. By An — 0(an), we mean all elements in An are 0(an) almost surely. Let 5n = (nh/ logn)~ 1//2 and r n = h2 + 5n. Let Wg0 =
E{g'(9jX)2v0MxKMX)}Lemma 4.1: [Basic results for kernel smoothing] Suppose E(Z\9TX = 9Tx) = m(9Tx) has bounded derivatives up to third order and E\Z\r < oo for all r > 0. Let (Xi,Yi,Zi),i = 1, 2, • • • , n be a sample from (X,Y,Z). Then n 1
1
n ^^ 'X^W1Xix/h)dZi = f(8Tx)m(9Tx)fid
+ {f(9Tx)m(9Tx)Ynd+1h
+ 0(r„),
(4.8)
A Single Index Model
75
uniformly for (6,x) G Vn, where [Xd — J K(v)vddv. has bounded third derivatives, then
If E(Z\Y
= y) — m(y)
+ 0(rn),
(4.9)
n
n"1 J2 Kh(Yt  y){(Yz  y)/h}dZi = h{v)m{y)ti.d
+ {fY{y)m{y)}'^id+lh
uniformly for y £ {y : \y\ < nc} for any positive c. Lemma 4.2: [Kernel smoothers in rOPG] Let XiX = Xj — x,
*="'>