FLUID POWER Theory and Applications 
Third Edition
James A. Sullivan Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Il...
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FLUID POWER Theory and Applications 
Third Edition
James A. Sullivan Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Ill ino is
A RESTON BOOK PRENTICE HALL, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632
Library of Congress Cata log ing  In Pub lIcation Data
Sullivan, James A. Flui d power : th e or y and a pplicati ons I James A. Sull ivan . p. cm.  A Reston book. Includ es b ib l iograp h ica l ref er ences and In de x. IS BN 0 1332308 05 1. F lu id power technology. 1. Tit l e. TJB40 . S882 1989 620.1' 06 d c 19 88  16883 CIP
Editori al/production supervision and interior design: Carol L. A tkins Cover design: Wanda Lub elska Manufacturing buyer: Robert A nderson
© 1989, 1982, 1975 by PrenticeHall, Inc. A Division of Simon & Schuster
Engle wood Cliffs, New Jer sey 07632
All rights reserved . No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permi ssion in writing from the publisher.
Printed in the United State s of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I
ISBN
0133230805
PrenticeHall Internation al (UK) Limited , London Prent iceHall of Australia Pty. Limited , Syndey Pren ticeH all Canada Inc., Toronto PrenticeHall Hispanoamericana , S.A ., Mexico PrenticeHall of India Private Limited , N ew Delhi PrenticeHall of Japan , Inc ., Tokyo Simon & Schu ster Asia Pte . Ltd ., Singap ore Editora PrenticeHall do Brasil, Ltda., Rio de Janeiro
CONTENTS
FOREWORD
xi
PREFACE CHAPTER 1
II
12 13 14 15 16 17 CHAPTER 2
xiii
INTRODUCTION
Introduction I Historical Perspective Capabilities 2 Careers in Fluid Power 8 The Use of Units II How Flu id Power Works II Summary 14 Study Questions and Problems
1
15
BASICS OF HYDRAULICS
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 210
17
Introduction 17 How Oil Transmits Power 17 Work Performed by the System 18 Multiplication of Force 19 Power and Horsepower 21 Flow Rate in a System 23 Fluid Horsepower 24 Torque and Torque Horsepower 26 Torque Horsepower and Fluid Horsepower Relationships 30 Summary 32 Study Questions and Problems 32 v
CHAPTER 3
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 CHAPTER 4
47
56
Introduction 56 56 Applications of the Displacement Formula 58 Applications of the Continuity Equation Viscosity 60 Non compressible Flow in Pipes 65 Reynolds Number 66 Summary 70 Study Questions and Problems 70
Introduction 72 DarcyWeisbach and HagenPoiseuille Formulas fFactor for Turbulent Flow 75 CCoefficients 79 KValues 81 Equivalent Length 86 Circuit Calculations 87 Summary 91 Study Questions and Problems 92
72
73
94
Introduction 94 Types of Fluids 95 Fluid Applications 97 Service Related Properties 100 Fluid Storage and Handling 108 Filtration 110 Summary 119 Study Questions and Problems 120 122
PUMPS
71 72 73 vi
53
HYDRAULIC FLUIDS
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 CHAPTER 7
42
FRICTION LOSSES IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 CHAPTER 6
Introduction 36 Pressure and Head 37 Continuity Equation 40 Potential and Kinetic Energy Bernoulli's Equation 48 Torricelli's Theorem 52 Summary 53 Study Questions and Problems
HOW FLUIDS FLOW
41 42 43 44 45 46
CHAPTER 5
36
ENERGY IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS
Introduction 122 123 Pumping Theory Pump Types 128 Contents
156 157 CHAPTER 16
406
SIZING PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS
161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 1610 161I CHAPTER 17
Conditioning Air 401 Summary 405 Study Questions and Problems
Introduction 408 Pneumatic Distribution Systems 409 Compressors 413 Sizing Compressors 419 Receivers 421 Compressor Controls 423 Pneumatic Valves 425 Sizing Pneumatic Valves 431 Cylinders 434 Rotary Pneumatic Activators 438 Summary 443 Study Questions and Problems 444
PNEUMATIC CIRCUIT APPLICATIONS AND CONTROLS
171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 1710 1711 1712 1713
408
446
Introduction 446 Basic Symbols 447 Basic Circuit Designs 451 SingleActing Circuits 452 DoubleActing Circuits 455 Sequence Circuits 459 Interlock Circuits 466 Pneumatic Logic Control 470 Logic Control Concepts 471 Basic Air Logic Circuit Design 475 Miniature Pneumatics 476 Moving Part Logic and Modular Air Components 476 Summary 478 Study Questions and Problems 478
APPENDIX A
LETTER SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
482
APPENDIX B
CONVERSION FACTORS
486
APPENDIXC
APPROXIMATE VISCOSITY CONVERSIONS
487
APPENDIX D
STANDARD GRAPHIC SYMBOLS FOR FLUID POWER DIAGRAMS
489
APPENDIX E
OFFSET BEND CALCULATIONS FOR STEEL TUBING
510
APPENDIX F
STANDARD TEST PROCEDURES
513
INDEX
519
Contents
ix
74 75 76 77 CHAPTER 8
HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS AND CUSHIONING DEVICES
81 82 83 84 CHAPTER 9
Content s
181
Introduction 181 Torque, Speed, Power, and Efficiency 182 Limited Rotation Act uators 186 Continuous Rotation Actuators 188 High TorqueLowSpeed Motors 193 Wheel Motors 196 Electrohydraulic Pulse Motors (EHPM) 200 Output Performance and Testing 202 Summary 205 Study Que stions and Problems 206 207
Introduction 207 Pres sure Control Valves 208 Flow Control Valves 21 5 Directional Control Valves 221 Proportional Control Valves 234 Servo Valves 245 Summary 249 Study Questions and Problems 250
SEALS AND PACKINGS
111 11 2 11 3 114 115 11 6 117
160
179
VALVES
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 CHAPTER 11
Introduction 160 Cylinders 161 Cushioning Devices 170 Summary 179 Study Questions and Problems
HYDRAULIC MOTORS
91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 CHAPTER 10
Pump Performance 150 Pump Selection Factors 153 Other Pump Characteristics 154 Summary 156 Study Questions and Problems 157
252
Introduction 252 Static Seal s 254 Dynamic Seals 260 Materials and Compounds 262 Seal Configurations 268 Elastomer Seal Testing 275 Summary 275 Study Que stion s and Prob lems 276 vii
CHAPTER 12
SYSTEMS COMPONENTS
121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 1210 CHAPTER 13
1313
viii
320
Introduction 320 Sizing Actuators from Output Objectives 322 Constant Flow Systems (CQ) 328 Constant Pressure Systems (CP) 330 Constant Horsepower Systems (CHp) 331 Load Sensing Systems 333 Basic Circuits 336 Open Center Versus Closed Center Circuits 344 Pump Selection 347 Matching Components 349 Performance Testing 350 Compliance With Safety Recommendations and Standards 352 Summary 353 Study Questions and Problems 354
TROUBLESHOOTING HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS
141 142 143 144 145 146 147 CHAPTER 15
Introduction 278 Reservoirs and Heat Exchangers 278 Accumulators 284 291 Intensifiers Conductors and Connectors 293 Instrumentation 303 Hydraulic Power Units 309 Hydrostatic Transmissions 310 Electrical Controls 312 Summary 317 Study Questions and Problems 317
BASIC CIRCUITS AND SIZING HYDRAULICS COMPONENTS
131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 1310 1311 1312
CHAPTER 14
278
362
Introduction 362 Writing Problem Statements 366 Problem Statements for the System 366 Problem Statements for Components 370 Basic Calculations 374 Tee Test for Hydraulic Circuits 386 Summary 388 Study Questions and Problems 388
BASICS OF PNEUMATICS 151 Introduction 391 152 Standard Air 392 153 The Gas Laws 393 154 Application of the Gas Laws 397 155 Moisture and Dew Point 399
391
Contents
FOREWORD
Fluid power (hydraulics and pneumatics), mechanical , and electrical power are the three basic means for transmitting power. Although fluid power is a very old tech nology, it was not until the 20th century that machinery and equipment designers discovered the many instances where the ease of co ntrol, compactness , and versatility of fluid power made it the ideal replacement for mechanical and electrical transmissions , and enabled machinery and equipment manufacturers to accomplish functions previously impossible within the limits of mechanical and electrical technology. Some common examples are articulated manlifts, hydraulic pre sses, 747 flight controls, and even the actuators that blink the eye s and move the fingers on the almosthuman mannequins at Disney World . Once the advantages of fluid power became known, machinery and equipment manufacturers were quick to incorporate them into their products . The industry had an almost explo sive growth to its present $6 billion level. The rapid growth of the new technology generated an unprecedented demand for educational support. Professor James A. Sullivan, author of this text, is highly qualified in fluid power education and instruction. He is one of the dedicated cadre of teachers who were introduced to fluid power during the 196566 Institutes on Fluid Power Education . Since then he has enriched his knowledge, both theoretical and practical. He is currently working on validation of the occupations in fluid power, identification of job competencies for the Fluid Power Educational Foundation, and certification of Fluid Power Specialists and Mechanics . I heartily recommend this text' s use by the instructor and the student. James I. Morgan, CAE President National Fluid Power Association
xi
PREFACE
This third edition contains seventeen chapters, five more than in the previous edition. Much of the material has been reorganized and improved with new illustrations of components and circuits. Three new chapters have been added to reflect the increased interest in troubleshooting and pneumatics . Additionally, the problems sections at the end of each chapter have been expanded. As with previous editions, the present text relates theory to approved practice. When theory is explained, a concerted attempt is made to identify and solve related problemsand then to identify appropriate laboratory work, suggest how it is performed , and cite sources of related information from which other learning activities can be organized. ASTM standards and conventional tests, for example, are explained and suggested as appropriate exercises for the fluid power technician. And several maintenance procedures are laid out for use by the fluid power mechanic. The author wishes to gratefully acknowledge the contributions of many companies and individuals who made this work possible. Included in this list are professional and standards organizations, publishers, schools and educational equipment companies, petroleum companies, original equipment manufacturers , and personal associates. Credit lines are given for these contributions whenever possible throughout the text. James A. Sullivan Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Illinois
xiii
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~CHAPTER
1
INTRODUCTION
11 INTRODUCTION
Fluid power means using pre ssurized fluids in a confined sys tem to acco mplish work. Both liquid s and gase s are fluids. Most hydraulic sys tems use petroleum oils, but often synthetic oils and water base fluids are used for safety rea son s. Pneumatic systems use air which is exhausted to the atmosphere after doing the work. The oil used in hydraulic systems exhibits the characteristic s of a solid and provides a rigid med ium to transfer power through the system . Conversely, the air used in pneumatic systems is spongy and provi sion must be made in its control to effect smooth operation of actuators . Air and oil are frequently combined in one system to provide the advantages of both in accomplishing the work specified . A fluid power system accomplishes two main objectives . First, it provides substantial fluid force to move actuators in locations awa y from the power source where the two are connected by pipe s, tubes, or hoses. A power source, for example a gasoline or diesel engine coupled to a hydraulic pump, can be housed in one area to power a cy linder or hydra ulic motor one hundred feet or more away in another location. This is a decided advantage over sy stems using a mechanical drive train as the location of the output becomes less accessible . Second, fluid power sy stems accomplish highly accurate and precise movement of the actuator with relative ease . This is partic ular ly important in such applications as the machine tool industry where tolerances are often specified to one ten thousandth of an inch and must be repeatable during several million cycles . .....
12 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
The modern era in fluid power began around the turn of the century. Hydraulic application s were made to such installations as the main armament system of the USS Virgi nia in 1906. In this app lication , a variable speed hydrostatic transmis
sion was installed to drive the main guns (see Fig. 11). Since that time , the marine industry has applied fluid power to cargo handling and winch systems, controllablep itch propellors , submarine control system s, shipboard aircraft elevators , aircraft and missile launch systems, and radarsonar drive s.
Figure II
USS Virginia (courtesy of Sperry Vickers) .
13 CAPABILITIES
Hydra ulics and pneumatics have almost unlimited applications in the production of goods and services in nearly all sectors of the country. Several industries are dependent on the capabilities that fluid power affords . Among these are agriculture, aerospace and av iation , construction, defense, manufacturing and machine tool, marine , material handling, mining, transportation, undersea technology , and public utilities, including communications transmission systems . The world ' s need for food and fiber production has caused unprecedented leadership in agricultural equipment development , and particularly in applying hydraulics to solve a variety of problem s. Figure 12 illustrates a modern four wheel drive tractor that feature s exten sive use of hydraulic power. A 26.5 gal/min eight cylinder variable volume radial piston pump supplies fluid to a closedcenter loadsensitive circuit for instant response . The pump unload s to a minimum standby pressure to reduce power con sumption when demand is low. Hydraulics power the rear and front main drive and power takeoff (pto) clutches, wet disc brakes, remote valves , implement hitch, draft sensing, power shift transmission , differential lock , and hydrostatic steering. A closed accumulatorstyle reservoir is used to supplement the flow from the charge pump during maximum dem and from large bore cylinders. Other applications to agriculture include combine s, forage harvesters, backhoes, chemical sprayers , and organic fertilizer spreaders. Extensive design and 2
Introduction
Chap. 1
Figure 12
Modem wheel tractor (courtesy of John Deere Company).
application are also being made to wheel motors driven in remote locations to assist in marginal tractive conditions. Wheel motors consist of a hydraulic motor mounted integrally with a wheel and tire assembly . Braking is usually designed into the system. All that is required to make the wheel motor functional is mounting and hydraulic line connections back to the main control valve and power source. Auxiliary power drive wheel motors have several advantages to the agricultural industry. For example, they can be used to maintain and improve the turning ability of regular row crop tractors. They allow for high design which maintains underaxle crop clearances. They can be used to retain front axle adjustability and to provide onthego engagement and disengagement in forward as well as reverse. Figure 13 illustrates the application of hydraulic power to the aviation and aerospace industries. Another secto r of our economy that has benefited from the brute power of hydraulics and pneumatics is the construction industry. Crawler tractors, road graders, bucket loaders , trenchers, backhoes, hydraulic shovels and pan scrapers are just a few of the many applications. Figure 14 shows a large (235 ton payload) offtheroad truck with many hydraulic and pneumatic components. Notice the large telescope hydraulic dump cylinders. Sec. 13
Capabilities
3
,J>.
Auxiliar y power uni t
Main syste m pumps
Figure 13 Aerospace a nd aviation a pplica tio ns of fluid power (courtesy of Fluid Po wer Education Fo undation).
Gu n dri ve motor
Figure 1·4 Offtheroad truck (court esy of WABCO Constru ction and Minin g Equipment Group , An American Standard Company ).
The manufacturing and machine tool industry is very dependent on hydraulic power to provide the power and close tolerance necessary in controlled production. Figure 15 illustrates a 2,000 ton forging press, one of the largest selfcontained presses in existence. Hydraulic fluid is supplied by 20 pumps , each of which has a capacity of 35 gal/min. At an operating pre ssure of 2,000 lbf/in? the press consumes over 800 hp. The pre ss is driven by fluid supplied from a central hydraulic pumping system consisting often doubleend electric motors driving the 20 hydraulic pumps. Undersea applications of hydraulics are receiving widespread attention in research, development, and utilization. The Pisces series of submersibles , developed by a Vancouver, B.C . company, can work at depths to 6,500 ft and are engaged in a variety of work ranging from rescue to salvage operations. Figure 16 illustrates a twoman operation inside the sub in the control of the steering and stabilizing system s, bow thrusters , grappling hooks , net winches , mooring winches , and anchor windlasses. Also shown is the DSRVI developed by Lockheed for the U.S. Navy undersea research effort. Material handling conveys products from the point of production to the consumer. Several systems are in use and nearly all of them depend on hydraulics Sec. '3
Capabilities
5
Figure 15 2,OOOton selfcontained forging press (courtesy ofAb ex Corporation . Deni son Division ).
and pneumatics in the transport of goods. These include garbage trucks , conveyors, hydraulic leveling dock systems , hoist s, truck and trailer tailgate systems , and even industrial robots . Fluid power has wide application in continuous coal mining. Machines equipped with several hydraulic cylinders, jacks, and motors dig and load coal at the rate of two tons per minute. Conventional cutting and blasting are not required. Other mining applications utilizing fluid power pneumatics include rock drills, hydraulic track laying machines, shuttle cars , roof bolting machines, and conventional hydraulic jacks. Transportation systems provide examples of the most varied uses of fluid power. Road and offtheroad vehicles are typically suspended by pneumatic tires. Air assisted brakes (both high pressure and vacuum assisted) are standard equipment. Power steering systems, either of the hydraulic assist or full power steering type, are also standard and relieve the operator of the fatigue commonly associated with physical exertion over long periods of time. Hydrostatic transmissions are very common on all types of vehicles. Suspension systems are 6
Introduction
Chap. 1
Figure 16 (a) U.S . Navy Undersea Research Vehicle (court esy of ParkerHannifin); (b) Intern ational operatio n of Undersea Research Vehicle (courtesy ofFluid Power Education Founda tion) .
dampened with hydr aulic shock absorbers , and some combine pneumatics by using the compressible nature of gases as the basis for airoil suspension sys tem s. Hydr aulic wheel drive motors are a recent addition to the tran sportation line. They give almo st unlimited flexibility to the design which can mount the power plant in a convenient location to power individu ally driven wheel s as they are required to support the load and pro vide traction sufficient to propel it in almo st any direction with a variety of stepless speeds . Utilities and communication s are two industries where the use of fluid power is vital. Line utility vehicles are now a must to support per sonn el working above the ground. Similar vehicles are used in applic ation s that vary throughout indu str y from fruit tree mainten anc e and picking to jumbo jet service. Almo st unlimited movement is ava ilable to the operator with these systems. The y can be given direction from the bucket , from the side of the truck vehicle, from the end of an umbilical cord , a nd even by remot e signals from an electronic control box. Oth er applications to the communication and utilitie s indu strie s include hydraulic trenchers, cable boring machines, earth augers, pipe laying machin es, tampers, and man y others. Th ree applications given recent attention in the fluid power indu stry are Sec. 13
Capabilities
7
miniature pneumatics, moving part logic, and fluidics. Miniature pneumatics makes use of small airpowered com ponents such as cylinders and valves to carry out small assig ned tasks as well as to co ntrol ot her large components . Moving part logic components and fluidics make use of logic elements with functions similar to several electronics counterparts, such as capacitors , resistors , and amplifiers to control other hydraulic and pneumatic systems . 14 CAREERS IN FLUID POWER
Career opportunities in the fluid power industry look promising. Workers function primari ly at three levels : (I) mec hanics and maintenance men, (2) technicians , and (3) engineers. Work at each of the three levels is diverse . Through the efforts of the National Fluid Power Association , I the Fluid Power Education Foundation, and Fluid Power Society", however, substa ntial progress has been made developing new job de scriptions for fluid power mechanic , fluid power technician, and fluid power engineer for inclusion in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, the nat ion 's data base for occupational information . Two of the job title s and definitions formulated and which have been accepted by the U .S . Department of Labor are: Fluid Power Mechanic (DOT 600.281) and Fluid Power Technician (DOT 007.161). In general , mechanics and maintenance men work with fluid power components in all indu stries and make up one of the faste st growing occupational groups in a nation ' s labor force . In the U.S. , with a labor force of 110 million workers , employment of mechanics and repairmen total s nearly three million. More than 800 thousand of these are automobile mechanics. Recent trend s in licensure of this group require training in fluid power related accessories and components, including braking systems , hydromatic transmissions , power steering, air emission control sys tems, air conditioning, and stabilizing systems . Indu stry employs about 300 thousand industrial machinery repairmen , another 100 thousand millright s, 75 thou sand farm eq uipment mechanics , and other miscellaneous mec hanic s. All told , nearly 30% of the mechanics and repairmen employed are in the manufacturing industrie s , and the majority of these are employed in plants that produce durable good s such as tran sportation equipment machinery, primar y metals , and fabricated met al products. Another 20% are employed in shops that specialize in serv icing such equipment. Most of the remaining mechanics and repairmen are employed in the transportation, construction, and public utilitie s industries, and by the government at all level s. Most employment opportunities for mechanics and repa irmen occur in the more populous and indu strialized areas . Many mechanics and repairmen learn their skills on the job or through t.2 Na tio nal Fluid Power Assoc iatio n and Fluid Power Educa tion Foundatio n are located at 3333 N . Mayfair Road , Milwauk ee , Wiscon sin, 53222 USA. J At the time of this writing , the Fluid Power Societ y was located at 2900 N . I 17th Street , Milwaukee , Wiscon sin 53226.
8
Introduction
Chap. 1
apprenticeship training . They are union affiliated and earn high wages. Some apprenticeship training programs require and give credit for related courses from high schools , trade and technical schools, and private schools. Training and experience in the armed services also help young men and women prepare for occupations such as aircraft hydraulic mechanic and others. Some employers con sider a formal apprentice training program to be the best way to learn skilled maintenance and repair work. An apprenticeship consists of three to five year s of paid onthejob training, supplemented each year by at least 144 hours of related classroom instruction . Formal apprenticeship agreements are registered with the state apprenticeship agency and the U.S . Department of Labor' s Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training. Emplo yers look for applicants who have mechanical aptitude and manual dexterity . Man y emplo yer s prefer people whose hobbies or interests include automobile repair and model building. A high school education or the equivalent is a must. Also nece ssary prior to training, or as a part of training , are courses in mathematics, physics, blueprint reading, and machine shop. Many manufacturers of fluid power systems offer specialized training courses for mechanics and maintenance per sonnel through private schools. Workers in most maintenance and repair occupations have several avenues of advancement. Some move into supervisory positions, such as foreman , maintenance manager, or service manager. Specialized training prepares others to advance to sale s, technical writing, and technician jobs. A substa ntial number of servicemen have also opened their own businesses. Fluid power technicians assist engineering team s with such work as sales, applied research, planning production , maintenance , testing , and installation. Education includes two years of post high school training containing several courses in phy sics, mathematics, fluid power, mechani sms, and communication s skills, and culminates in an associate degree. The technician can describe idea s about machinery to superiors, client s, and peer workers, and write technical reports. Work is usually performed at a drafting desk station, in specialized laboratories , and in the shop or plant. Figure 17 shows an engineering technician at work in a modern fluid power design facility. Joint effort s between the Fluid Power Society (FPS) and indu str y over the last several year s have resulted in certification of fluid power speciali sts". The se efforts grew out of the realization that certification is closely tied to specialized technologies. Membership in cert ification is open to men and women who function in sale s, technical aspects, and other specialties in the fluid power industry. Engineers compri se the second largest profe ssional occupation in this country . Of the more than 1.1 million engineers in the labor force , nearl y 600 thou sand are in the manufacturing industrie s. Engineers who work with fluid power compo4 Certific ation of techni cian s is also done by two other group s: Institu te for Th e Certification of Engineeri ng Technician s, spo nso red by the Nat iona l Society of Professional Enginee rs , 2029 K Stree t, N .W.. Wash ington , D.C. 20006., and America n Society of Certifie d Enginee ring Tec hnicians, Na tional Office , 2029 K Stree t, N .W., Washington , D.C. 20006.
Sec. 14
Careers in Fluid Power
9
Figure 17 Engineering technician in a modern fluid power design facilit y (courtesy of John De ere Company).
nents and systems are found primarily in this manufacturing group. The background of most engineers who work primarily with fluid power is rooted in a mechanical engineering degree from one of the many fouryear institutions located throughout the states. Another area producing several engineers for fluid power is industrial engineering. Whereas mechanical engineers are concerned primarily with the production , transmission , and use of power, industrial engineers determine the most effective methods of using the basic factors of production, manpower, and materials. They are concerned with people and things in contrast to engineers in other specialties who generally are concerned more with developmental work in subject fields such as power and mechanics . Industrial engineering is an excellent background for sales related work and customer relations in the fluid power industry .
10
Introduction
Chap. 1
15 THE USE OF UNITS
English and SI metric units are used throughout this book. The basic units used from the English system are length, force, and time. Derived units include area, pressure, velocity, volume, and flow rate. The units of length are the foot and inch (ft, in.). The units of force are the pound and ounce (Ibf, oz). These same units are used for weight. The units for time are the minute and second (min, sec). Derived units are made up of basic units. Area is derived in square feet and square inches (ft ' , in."), pressure is in pounds per square inch (lbf/in."), velocity is in feet per minute or feet per second (ft/min , ft/sec), and volume is in cubic feet or cubic inches (ft ', in."). One gallon equals 231 in". The units for distance in the SI metric system most often used are the meter and centimeter (m, cm). The unit offorce is the Newton (N), and the unit of time is the second (sec) . Area is derived in square meters and square centimeters (rn, cm), The unit of pressure is derived in Pascals in honor of the French physicist. A Pascal equals one Newton per square meter (Pa, N/m 2 ) . This is somewhat confusing because the Newton also is an honorary name given after the English mathematician, Isaac Newton . Because the Pascal is small, the kilo Pascal (kPa), which is 1000 Pascals, and mega Pascal (MPa), which is one million Pascals, are used often in hydraulics. Velocity in the SI metric system is derived in meters per second (m/sec). Volume is derived in cubic meters or cubic centimeters (m', ern"). Flow rate is a derived unit, but it is not the same in hydraulics as in pneumatics. In hydraulics, flow rate is a liquid measure. In the English system the units are gallons per minute (gal/min), and in SI metrics liters per minute (l/min). In pneumatics, flow is a volumetric measure: cubic feet per minute or cubic feet per second in the English system (ft3/min, ft 3/sec), and cubic meters per minute or cubic meters per second (m3/min, m3/sec) in the SI metric system. In most cases the units should be included with the numbers when calculations are made. This is because without the units , the answer would be incomplete. And unless the units are included with each number in the calculation, there would be no easy way to check through the problem to see if errors have been made. The use of units also is important when conversions are made from one system to another, from liquid to volumetric measures, or from larger to smaller units. Conversion factors for derived units are difficult to remember so if one can work through the conversion with the units themselves, it usually is easy to find the conversion between base units like inches, centimeters , pounds, and Newtons.
16 HOW FLUID POWER WORKS
Fluid power works in accordance with the laws governing the behavior of the fluid itself. The two most common fluids used are air in pneumatic systems and oil in hydraulic systems . The beginning of an understanding of how fluid power works
Sec. 16
How Fluid Power Works
11
is attributed to Blaise Pascal (1650), who disco vered that the pressure exerted by a confined fluid acts undiminished the same in all dir ect ion s at right angles to th e inside wall of the container. Thi s is known as Pascal' s Law and is often thought of as the foundation of the discipline . The law can be ex te nded to include tr an smi ssion and multiplication of force , as show n in Fig. 18. Fluid po wer works by applying a for ce agai ns t a movable area. In a ty pica l fluid power system, a fluid power pump or co mpressor del iver s fluid th rou gh th e control va lve to a syste m actuator, suc h as a cy linde r, th rou gh lines at high pressure. U nuse d fluid in hydraulic syste ms is ret urne d to a reservo ir at low pressure for cooling, storage, and later use . Figure 19 illustrat es a simu lated
•
•
l J ~r=r=At__tl0
1 sq . in.
1.
A n input for ce of 10 pounds (44.8N) on a one square inch (6.45 cm 2 piston) . . .
2.
Develops a pressure of 10 pounds per square inch (I b f/ in~ or 68.95 kN /m 2 ) throughout the container.
3.
Th is pressure w ill suppo rt a 100·p ou nd (444 .8 N) weight if t his is a 10·squareinch piston
4.
Th e forces are proportional to th e piston areas.
sq. in.
Figure 1·8 Transmi ssion and multiplication of fluid power force.
Oil reservoir
Cyl inder
_~r ""
Figure 1·9
12
How fluid power works.
Introduction
Chap. 1
hydraulic system used for lowering and raising the nose wheel of an aircraft landing gear. Movement of the control valve to lower the wheel causes fluid to be delivered at high pressure from the pump to the blank end of the cylinder. To raise the wheel, the control valve directs fluid to the rod end of the cylinder. In both cases fluid power works by applying a force against the area of each side of the movable piston in the cylinder. Examining the definition and the example closer Force
= Pressure x Area
(II)
All we need to remember is that the units of force, pressure, and area must be consistent. This means that in the English system of measurement the weight or force is in pounds (lbf'), the area is in square inches (in."), and the pressure is in lbf/irr'. In SI metric units, the force is in Newtons (N), the area is in square meters (m), and the pressure is in N/m 2 , which is given the name Pascals (Pa) after that famous physicist. Conversions among the various units used for pressure around the world' are given in Table 11. Only the lbf/in. ? and Pa will be used here. The Pa is the recognized international unit of pressure, but the kg/ern? and bar are still used in some countries in the world . TABLE 11
UNITS OF PRESSURE AND CONVERSION FACTORS
:;:
lbf/in. ?
Convert from
lbf/in. ? kPa
kPa
kgf /crn ?
bars
0.07
0.069
0.0101
0.010
I
0.98
Multiply by I
6.895
0.145
I
kgf/cm?
14.22
bars
14.5
98.07 100
1.02
I
pascal (Pa) = I N/m 2 Conversions are made by multiplying the units in the left margin by the conversion factors in the boxe s to arrive at the unit s across the top . Example: 1000 lbf/in. ? x 6.895 = 6895 kPa
When designing or applying fluid power to a system, the force required at the output is used to determine the pressure of the system and the cross section area of the cylinder. System pressures are also determined from the strength of components, cost factors, and safety precautions. When the system pressure is l Conversions are made this way llbf/in. ? = (Ilbf)(4.448 222N/tbf)(I /in. 2 )(I550in.2 /m l )
lbf/in .? x 6895
Sec. 16
= 6895 N/m 2 or
= N/m l = 6895 Pa = 6.895 kPa
How Fluid Power Works
13
known and the force that the sys tem must appl y is specified, the area of the cylinder then can be computed by solving the formula for this value. A rea
=
Force Pres sure
Exa mple 1
F=p XA
F A
A=
p= 
t
p
Figure 1·10 Force , pressure, and area relationships.
Pressure = 1500 lbf/in .?
Area = (0.7854)(4 in.' ) = 12.57 in2 Force
=p
x A
= (1500 1bf/in .2 )(l 2.57 in. ' ) =
18,855 lbf
To simplify calculations using thi s formula , the desired value can be determined using Fig . 110. By covering the desired value , the relationship between the other two is given in the proper order. That is, force equal s pre ssure time s area, pressure equals force divided by area, and area equal s force divided by pre ssure. Look at the example that follow s the figure , which as ks for the solution of the force that would be applied to the cylinder rod if the cylinder has a bore of 4 in. and the pre ssur e in the cylinder is 1500 lbf/in. Man y helpful devices such as thi s have been developed to assist the fluid power mechanic and technician to make calculations. 17 SUMMARY
Fluid power is used throughout industry to accomplish work and de liver power from the source to some other location. Hydraulic and pne umatic systems have been put to a variety of uses , from the more common plant air systems and hydraulic production systems to more sophisticated systems used in airplanes, aerospace vehicles, and industrial robots. Miniature pneumatics and fluidic logic systems provide tremendous possibilities for fluid power system control. The modern era in fluid power was heralded by the use of applications made to suc h installations as the main armament system on the USS Virginia in 1906. Fluid power is now con sidered to be a support system in all indu stries, including 14
Introduction
Chap. 1
agricultu re, ae rospace, aviation, co nstruction , manufacturing, materials hand ling, and man y othe rs . Fluid power is a multibillion dollar industry ann ually . While several factors account for the growth of the industry, the primary one is the need for more flexible power for a variety of uses in the durable goods production, agricultural, construction, and services industries. Career op portunities are pro mising for fluid power mec hanics , maintenance men , tec hnicians, and engineers. Certification and extensive training are now avai lable. This is in response to the demand for qualified personnel and the efforts of such groups as the National Fluid Power Association , Fluid Power Education Foundation, and Fluid Power Society over the last several years to give recognition to this important and growing segment of highly skilled professionals. STUDY QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 1. 2. 3. 4.
5.
6. 7. 8. 9.
10. 11. U.
List ten hydraulic applications and te n pneumatic applications. List the components on one hydraulic application and give their specifications . List the components of one pn eum atic application and give their specifications. Con sult the Fluid Power Society to determine the current requirements to become a certified fluid power specialist. List five schools in your state which offer fluid power course s or a program in fluid power leading to a degree . Compute the are a and volume for a cylinder with a 2in. bore and a 12in. stro ke. Compute the bore of a cylinder which must exert 10,000 Ibf with a pre ssure limitation of 1200 lbf/in' . Compute the force available from a hydraulic cylinder with a bore of 75 mm under a pressure of 10 MPa. What bore would be necessary on a cylinder operating at 15 MPa to exert a force of 65 kN ? A log splitter is to exert a 10,000 Ibf force using a 3in. bore cylinder. At full capacity, what will be the system pre ssure? How much fluid is needed to stroke a cylinder with a 100 mm bore and 0.50 m stroke? Co nstruct a table of values which lists the force in Ibf available from cylinders with bore diameters of2 , 4,6,8 and 10 in., and pre ssure s of 400,800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 lbf/in", Use a table like Table 12 to record the value s. TABLE 12
CAPACITY OF HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS IN POUNDS FORCE
Pressure (lbf/in ,")
400
800
Diam et er (in.) 2 in. 4 in. 6 in. 8 in. 10 in.
Chap. 1
Study Questions and Problems
1,200
1,600
2,000
 
  15
13. Construct a table using the same values as in Problem 12, but this time convert the diameter of the cylinder to mm, the pressure to MPa and the force to MN . 14. If a hydraulic cylinder has a rod diameter half the size of the bore, what will be the difference in force available if the pressure applied alternately to each end remains constant? (Clue: Try two convenient values such as 4 in. for the piston and 2 in. for the rod diameter.) 15. In Problem 14, what would happen if the pressure were applied to both sides of the piston at the same time? (Make a drawing to prove your answer.)
16
Introduction
Chap. 1

CHAPTfR
2
BASICS OF HYDRAULICS
21 INTRODUCTION
Ther e are a number of basics that explain how a fluid power system work s. One of these has to do with raising its energy level by incre asing the pre ssure within the fluid. This is done by a pump moving fluid against the load resistanc e . Anoth er explains how a small force by a per son operating the hydraulic system, for example on a hydraulic jack handle, can produce a very large force on the object being lifted . Still other prin ciple s have to do with the flow of fluid in the sys tem as it tran sfer s fluid power from one place to another in a sys tem. The concepts of work, power , and horsepower show what can be accomplished with a fluid power system. The output of fluid power system s is measured in fluid horsepower and this puts it all together. Finally the measurements of torque and speed show how fluid hor sepo wer can be broken down to size components for the sys tem. 22 HOW OIL TRANSMITS POWER
The two cylinder s in Fig. 2 1 are conn ected by a piece of tubing so that when one of them retracts, the other extends. This is how fluid power is transmitted by the pre ssurized fluid moving from one place to another. If both cylinders have the same bore, the force at the output cylinder as well as the speed are the same as the forc e and speed applied to the input cylinder. There are some friction losse s, of course, but in simplified term s, what enters at the input will exit at the output. This is really an application of the law of co nservation of energy whic h simply mean s that energy can neither be created nor de stro yed. And while you don 't get something out of the sys tem for nothing , you do get out everything that is put in , minus a small amount which is accounted for by friction and slippage in the parts. Thi s loss usually is no more than 510%. Keep in mind that during the time that 17
t
Distance = L
~ Extend
Retract Fo rce = F
/
O utput
Input Work = F X L
Figure 21 Transmission of force .
the system is transmitting fluid power from one cylinder to the other the pressure remains the same everywhere . It is the same in both cylinders and in the line between the cylinders. This is really just another demonstration of Pascal's Law that says the pressure in the system is the same everywhere . There may be a slight drop in pressure when the fluid flows from one cylinder to the other, if the line is very long, but again, this can be accounted for by flow friction losses.
2.3 WORK PERFORMED BY THE SYSTEM Notice that work was accomplished by the output cylinder in Fig. 21. By this we mean that the cylinder rod moved a force F through a distance L. This is the definition of work, and the units are always in ftlbf or mN. The formu la used is Work (W)
= Force (F) x Distance (L)
or simply (21)
W=F xL
Example 1 Let's say that the weight (N) represented 1000 Ibf (4448 N) and the distance was 15 in . (38 ern) . Then the work from the system would be
W
=
(1000 Ibf)(l .25 ft)
=
1250 ftIbf
In SI units the solution is the same but with different units : W
18
=
(4448 N)(0.381 m)
=
1695 N m
Basics of Hydr auli cs
Chap . 2
24 M ULTIPLICATION OF FORCE
Now what happens is the input piston , called the pump , and the output piston , called the linear actuator, have different are as? Well, as might be expected , if the pump piston is smaller than the actuator piston , then the force is greater at the output. Thi s multiplication offorce isn't free , of course , and what happens is that when the force increases, the distance that the output piston rod travels is less. Since the pressure in the system and the work accomplished rem ain the same , there must also be a balance between the input and output force s and distances traveled . This says simply that the work input equals the work output. Figure 22 shows how the force is multiplied as fluid moves from the pump cy linde r to the ram. We can call this a ram bec au se the cylinder rod is at least half as large as the cylinder bore . The balance is given by the formula (22) When three of the variables in the formula are known, the fourth can be determined simply by substitution. In practical examples, usually one of the ratios is known or three of the four quantities are given by the de sign requirements of the system. Let' s look at an example.
Figure 22
Multiplication of force .
Example 2 An operator ca n exert 100lbf (444.8N ) on the pump piston . If the ram must lift 2000 Ibf (8896N) a distance of 12 in. (0.3048 m), how far would the pump piston have to travel? Look at the hydraulic jack sys tem in Fig. 23. Th is allows the operator to move the handl e up and do wn to lift the weight. When the handl e is lifted , fluid from the reservoir is drawn into the pumping ch amb er at atmos pheric pre ssure . When the handle is shov ed do wn , the check valve to the right opens and the fluid ente rs the ram at high pre ssure . You ca n see that the left che ck valve ope ns on the up stro ke, and the right one op en s on the do wn stro ke when the left one closes. Now to solve the problem, what must be don e is to solve the formula for L) . L ) = L2
X
F2 (2000 Ibf) . • F ) = (12 in.) (l OO lbf) = 240 In .
In SI unit s (8896 N) L) = (0.3048 m) (4448 N) = 6.096 m
Sec. 24
Multiplication of Force
19
Vent
.J!'~
r..
Reservoir
~2/
t
t
t
Check :.. valve
Figure 2·3 Singleacting hydraulic system.
Now all that would have to be done would be to set the stroke of the pump to some convenient unit, for example 1 in., and you would know that it would take 240 strokes to lift the weight. That's really a small price to pay for the tremendous force that can be exerted by the ram. There is another interesting way to look at the balance between the pump and the ram, and that is to begin with the pressure balance. That is, the pressure in the system is the same everywhere. This is taken from the Bernoulli principle and applied to both the pump and the ram cylinder chambers which hold the fluid . This can be shown with a simple formula: (23) Example 3 Look again at the system shown in Fig. 23. If the pump piston had a diameter of 1/4 in. (6.35 mm) and the ram a diameter of 1 in . (25.4 mm), how much weight could be lifted by a downward force on the pump piston of 150 lbf (667.2 N)? Here the problem is almost the same as the previous example, except that we 're solving for F 2 • 2
A2 (15 Ibf (0.785 in. ) 31bf . F2 = F I A = 0 ) (0.049 in. 2) = 240 ,Just over a ton J
In SI units F2
(506 mm 2)
= (667.2 N) (31.7
mm)
.
= 10659 N, wntten as 10.7 KN
This makes it relatively easy to see why hydraulics is the natural choice when it comes to multiplying a small force from a person to provide a large force to lift or move a heavy object. The largest hydraulic jack in Fig. 24, for example , has a capacity of 100 tons , yet its lightweight alloy construction permits an aver20
Basics of Hy d raulics
Chap . 2
Figure 24
Hydraulic jacks (courtesy of Charles S. Madan Co.• Ltd.).
age workman to carry it from place to place. It is also common with these large capacity jacks to have a progressive pump. This means that when the load is light, the larger pump piston can be selected, and as the load gets progressively heavier, the smaller pump piston is used. This saves the operator a great deal of time because when the smallest pump piston is used, the movement of the ram piston is very slow . 25 POWER AND HORSEPOWER
Work and power are different. Where work means to move an object from one place to another, power introduces the element of time. It is not enough to just move an object with a force through some distance. It must be done within a specific time, for example, one minute, two minutes, or an hour. This is what power means , the rate at which work is done , and the formula is F « t
t.
W t
P= =
(24)
When the power is known it gives a convenient way to describe the output of many machines , but it doesn 't give us a convenient wa y to compare one machine with another, for example, two hydraulic motors of the same size. James Watt had this same problem when he was trying to compare his steam engines to horses used in the mines back in the late 1800s. To solve the problem, he tested the capacity of draft hor ses to lift weight s that were hung over pulleys. The actual layout was similar to Fig. 25. After several tests he estimated that a strong horse could raise 150 Ibf about 37,13 ft/sec which works out to be about 550 ft lbf/sec. While the value of a horsepower turned out to be high for most horses , this has been the standard for rotating machinery since that time. The formula is F x L
llP Sec. 25
W
= t x 550 = t x 550
Power and Horsepower
P 550
(25)
21
1 ~
l I
,"1
~ ..J.,
> __
\
:_W')
w, )
l::L_ _f::.i.= _ _
F :1501bf
Figure25 Horsepower.
and since the top and bottom have the same units, horsepower is dimensionless. Its simply called horsepower, without any units. The Sl metric equivalent of power is measured in watts, and the formula for horsepower is P
HP
(26)
= 746
It is also dimensionless. All that really must be remembered is that there are 550 ftIbf/sec in an English horsepower, and 746 watts in an Sl metric horsepower. Let's look at a couple of examples to see how the formula works. Example 4 What horsepower output would result if the horse in Fig. 25 lifts 800 Ibs 20 ft in 20 seconds when pulling at full capacity. That sounds like a strong horse, but let 's put the numbers in the formula to see (800 Ibf)(20 ft) That is a very strong horse. Notice in the formula that all the units cancel. This is important because if they don't, it indicates there's an error somewhere in the solution. Example 5 An electric motor is to be coupled to a 3 hp hydraulic pump (Fig. 26) . If the motor will draw 2000 watts at its rated output, will it do the job? First of all it has to be assumed the motor will operate at 100% efficiency . which it won't. but that gives us a place to start. Using the SI metric horsepower formula for the motor HP
22
= (2000 watts) = 268 h (746 watt s)
.
p
Basics of Hydraulics
Chap. 2
Motor
Tank
Inlet
Figure 26 Motor pump assembly.
No , the motor won't do the job, even at 100% efficiency. What would likely happen is that it would overload and overheat when the pump was at full capacity.
26 FLOW RATE IN A SYSTEM In mechanical systems, horsepower is defined as the product of force and distance, divided by the product of time and a constant, 550 ftlbf', because these are common units. In hydraulics, however, the common units are pressure and flow rate, and these are used to compute fluid horsepower. In hydraulics, the flow rate Q is measured in gal/min and liter/min. It is a measure of the displacement volume of fluid V, divided by the time t. The general formula for flow rate is Q
=
Displ~cement time
=~ (
(27)
For hydraulic cylinders the displacement equals the product of the bore area and stroke.
V=A xL where V A
L
= displacement in in.Vstroke = cross section of the bore in = cylinder stroke in in.
in
2
Pumps and motors with vanes or gears instead of pistons have a different internal geometry, but the displacement is still measured in in.Vrev. In the metric system, displacement is measured in m 3/rev or mrn/rev , depending on the size of the unit. When the displacement of cylinders, pumps , or motors is used to compute the flow rate, the displacement in in.Vstroke or in.Vrev must be converted to gal/ min. Thus the general formula for flow rate becomes Q
=
V(in .3/rev) x l(gal) (min) x 231(in. 3)
Sec. 26 ' Flow Rate in a System
=
V ( x 231
==.7
(28)
23
For hydraulic pumps and motors, the general formula for computing the displacement is (29)
And if the pump or motor has cylinders, the flow rate equals (A x L x n) x N
Q= where Q
=
(2 10)
231
flow rate in gal/min
L
= stroke in in.
n
=
no. of cylinders
N
=
speed in rev /min
Example 2 Compute the displacement of a 5cylinder piston pump having a II/S in . bore a nd a I in. stroke . What would be the flow rat e if the pump turns at 1200 rev /min ?
V  3. 14 
X
(l Vs in.}2 x I in. x 5 cyls/rev _ 4 97· 3/ 4  . m. re v
Fin ally , computing th e flow rate
Q
=
V x N 23 1
= (4. 97 in.3/ rev)
x (1200 re v/min) 231 in.Vga l
= 258
1/ . . ga min
27 FLUID HORSEPOWER
When a cylinder must tran smit power in two directions, a system like that shown in Fig. 27 can be used . The components of the system are the reservoir, gear pump, pre ssure relief valve to pre vent overloading, the fourwa y control valve , doubleacting cylinder, and the connecting tubing. When the control valve is in the neutral position , the oil circulates through the pump, center spool, and back to the reservoir and the system is idling. When the handoperated control valve is shifted, the system begins to perform useful work. Shifting the operator handle to the left directs oil from the pump at high pres sure to the cap end of the cylinder and moves the load to the right. At the same time , oil leaving the rod end of the cylinder returns to the reservoir through the control valve at low pre ssure. Shifting the operator handle to the right directs oil to the rod end of the cylinder which returns the load to its original position and again the oil from the blank end of the cylinder returns to the reservoir at low pre ssure through the control valve . What happens when the cylinder reaches the end of its stroke , or encounters an immovable object? When the se situations occur, the cylinder stalls and the relief valve opens to allow the oil from the gear pump to return to the reser voir without damaging any of the components in the system . This is another great advantage of fluid power systems . 24
Basics of Hydraulics
Chap. 2
Vent
  
Reservoir
Cylinder
Figure 27 Doubleacting hydraul ic sys tem.
The fluid power that a sys tem delivers equals the pressure multiplied by the flow rate. In English unit s the formula is FHP
=P
x Q
=
(Ibflin . 2)(gal/min)
1714
1714
(211)
In SI metric units, the formula is FHP
=P
x Q
=
(kPa)(Iiters/min)
44 760
44 760
(212)
Notice that the formulas are followed by the unit s that mu st be used to make the answers correct. Example 6
A simple ex ample would ask a question like what is the fluid horsepower of a system operating at 2000 lbf/in .? delivering 5 gal/min ; and the an swer would be 2
FHP = (2000 Ibf/in. )(5 gal/min) = 583 h 1714 . P
Sec. 27
Fluid Horsepower
25
Co mpleti ng the sa me exa mple agai n in SI metric unit s, not ice how they are co nverted from the E nglish unit s
FHP = (2000
Ibf/i n. 2)(4.4 48
Nllbf)(I 550 in. 2 / m2)(5 gal/ min)(3.785 l/gal)(O.oo l m3 /1) (44 760)(m . N/m in)
and
FHP = 5.83 hp Or , sta ted in SI metr ic units, what is the horsepower tran smitted by a system deli vering 23 liters/m in at a pressur e of 13 793 kPa. Sub stituting in the SI metric formul a
FHP
= (13 793)( 18.9 liter s/min) = 583 (44 760)
.
h P
which is another way of say ing the sa me thing. For con ven ience , Table s 21 and 22 are used to simplify computing the FHP when the pressure and flow rat e are known. Perh ap s th e easiest way to co nvert p x Q in English unit s to SI metri c unit s is to multipl y by 26.1. Example 7 Con verting a flow rat e of 5 gal/ min at 2000 lbf/in.? to a flow rate in liter s/m in at a certain pressur e in kPa (5 gal/ min)(2000 Ibf/in . 2)(26.1)(I /gal)(N /lbf)(in. 2fm 2 )(kN /N ) = 261 000 The co nversion of the unit s see ms overpo we ring so j ust to keep it simple rem ember to use the co nve rsion fac tor of 26. 1 and refe r to this example onl y when a refres her abo ut the units is necessary.
28 TORQUE AND TORQUE r ORSEPOWER Torque
Pumps receive a twisting effort called torque to make them turn. Motors deliver a torque at their output shaft. Torque simply means to make an effort to twist or turn and is measured as a force multiplied by the distance along the radiu s of the shaft. Figure 28 illustrates a physical example of torque where a per son exerts a 50 lbf pulling force on a pipe wrench 12 in. from the center of the pipe. Thu s the pipe receives a torque of 50 Ibfft. You may have noticed that torque is measured in the same unit s as work , but conceptually the y are different. Work requires that the force move an object some distance. Thu s, to perform work , movement is required. In Fig. 28 when the pipe becomes tight the wrench will stop even though it will continue to exert a turning force on the pipe. The same is true with fluid power applications. A gear motor may stall, for example , and continue to deliver a torque at its output shaft. In fact , the torque will typicall y increa se at stall because the pre ssure will increase to the relief valve sett ing. This is another ad vantage of fluid power. Stalling does 26
Basics of Hydraul ics
Chap. 2
TABLE 2 1
FLUID HORSEPOWER (ENGLISH UNI TS )
Q From the formula FHP = PI;14
N
.....
Gallon s/ minute
100 Ibf/in.?
200 lbf/in .?
300 Ibf/in . 2
400 lbf/in .?
500 Ibf/in .2
750 lbf/in. ?
1000 lbf/in .?
1500 lbf/in. ?
2000 Ibf/in . 2
2500 Ibf/in. 2
3000 lbf/in .?
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 5 6 7 8 9 10
0.029 0.058 0.088 0.1 17 0.146 0.175 0.204 0.233 0.292 0.350 0.408 0.467 0.525 0.583
0.058 0.117 0. 175 0.233 0.292 0.350 0.408 0.467 0.583 0.700 0.817 0.933 1.050 1.167
0.088 0.175 0.263 0.350 0.438 0.525 0.613 0.700 0.875 1.050 1.225 1.400 1.575 1.750
0.117 0.233 0.350 0.467 0.583 0.700 0.8 17 0.933 1.167 1.400 1.634 1.867 2.100 2.333
0.146 0.292 0.438 0.583 0.729 0.875 1.021 1.167 1.459 1.750 2.042 2.333 2.625 2.917
0.219 0.438 0.656 0.875 1.094 1.313 1.532 1.750 2.188 2.625 3.063 3.501 3.938 4.376
0.292 0.583 0.875 1.167 1.459 1.750 2.042 2.333 2.917 3.50 1 4.084 4.667 5.251 5.834
0.438 0.875 1.313 1.750 2.188 2.625 3.063 3.501 4.376 5.251 6.126 7.001 7.876 8.751
0.583 1.167 1.750 2.334 2.917 3.500 4.084 4.667 5.834 7.001 8.168 9.335 10.502 11 .669
0.729 1.459 2.188 2.917 3.646 4.376 5.105 5.834 7.293 8.751 10.210 11.669 13.127 14.586
0.875 1.750 2.625 3.501 4.376 5.251 6.126 7.001 8.751 10.502 12.252 14.002 15.753 17.503
N 00
TABLE 22
FLUID HORSEPOWER (SI M ETRIC UN ITS)
p XQ From the formul a F H P = 44 760
L iters/ minute
500 kPa
1000 kPa
1500 kPa
2500 kPa
3500 kPa
5000 kPa
7500 kP a
10 000 kPa
12 500 kP a
15 000 kPa
17500 kP a
I 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
0.011 0.022 0.034 0.045 0.056 0.112 0.168 0.223 0.279 0.335 0.391 0.447 0.503 0.559
0.022 0.045 0.067 0.089 0.1 12 0.223 0.335 0.447 0.559 0.670 0.782 0.894 1.005 1.117
0.034 0.067 0.101 0. 134 0. 168 0.335 0.503 0.670 0.838 1.005 1.172 1.340 1.508 1.676
0.056 0. 112 0. 168 0.223 0.279 0.558 0.838 1.117 1.396 1.676 1.955 2.234 2.5 13 2.793
0.078 0. 156 0.235 0.3 13 0.391 0.782 1.173 1.564 1.955 2.346 2.737 3.128 3.5 19 3.910
0.112 0.223 0.335 0.447 0.559 1.1 17 1.676 2.234 2.793 3.351 3.910 4.462 5.027 5.585
0.168 0.335 0.501 0.670 0.838 1.676 2.513 3.351 4. 189 5.027 5.865 6.702 7.540 8.378
0.224 0.447 0.667 0.893 1.117 2.235 3.351 4.468 5.585 6.702 7.819 8.937 10.054 11.17 1
0.280 0.558 0.835 1.117 1.397 2.793 4.188 5.585 6.982 8.378 9.774 11. 171 12.567 13.963
0.336 0.670 1.002 1.340 1.676 3.352 5.026 6.702 8.378 10.054 11.729 13.404 15.080 16.756
0.392 0.782 1.169 1.563 1.955 3.91 1 5.864 7 .819 9. 774 11.730 13.684 15.639 17.593 19.549
~ ?? 50 Ibf pull
Tor que = 50 1bf X 1 ft = 50 1bf  ft
Figure 28 Torque.
not damage the sys tem. Look at Fig. 29 . The sprocket receives a torque from a hydraulic motor to give the ch ain a linear motion . There is a torque at the sprocket whether the chain is moving or not. What is important to understanding the concept of torque is that the force is delivered at right angles to the radius at some distance from the center of the sprocket. The formula for torque is T= F x D
Notice that the torque is mea sured in Ibfft or Nm, where work is measured in ftIbf or m  N . Thi s is done by general agreement to keep the two separate whe n calculations are made . Torque Horsepower
Knowing the torque gives us a va luable tool to compute the horsepower of turning machiner y such as pumps and motors. There are two formulas that are used the
Sprocket
Hydraulic motor
5 gal/min at 1000 Ibf/in?
Figure 29 Torque delivered to a sprocket by a hydraulic motor.
Sec. 28
Torque and Torque Horsepower
29
most. In Engli sh unit s , 21TN T 60 THP = s5()
21TN T
=
33 ,000
=
N x T
(2  13)
5252
Where N is re v/m in and T is in lbfft. In SI metric unit s THP
=
21TN T 60 ~
=
21TN T 44 760
N x T
(2  14)
= 712l
Where N is rev/min and T is mea sured in N . m. Example 8
Now let us look aga in at a motor receiving th e delivery of 5 gal /min at a pre ssu re of 2000 lbf/in .? from the last example, and mak e a computation for the torque th at might be delivered at the output shaft turning at 500 rev /min . Thi s would ass ume 100% efficiency , of course , but that matter will be de alt with later. All th at has to be done is to solve the torque hor sepower formul a for torque T. Here is the computation . T
= ( TH P)(3 3,000) = (5.83)(33,000 ftIb s/min) = 61 27 Ibfft 27TN
(2)(3. 14)(500 rev /min)
.
.
Notice th at torque is measured in Ibfft , wher e wo rk is measured in ftIbf.
29 TORQU E HORSEPOWER AND FLUID HORSEPOWER RELATIONSHIPS
The que stion about what the difference is bet ween fluid horsepower and torque horsepower may have occurred to you during the pre viou s discu ssion. Well , there reall y isn ' t any, a hor sepower is a hor sep ower ; ju st the variables in the formula are different. For that rea son , the two ca n be set equal to each other and used to solve for any one of the variables if the other three are known , and frequently the y are. Setting the two equal in English unit s p XQ
FHP
N xT
=
THP
(215)
= 7T22 =
THP
(216)
= I7T4 =
525 2
The SI metric equi valent is FH P
p XQ 760
= 44
N xT
The formulas can be used to size a fluid power component when the pre ssure and flow rate are known , and the desired speed or torque are specified by the application . Let's tr y two applications. Example 9
Th e pre ssure of the co mpo nents in a fluid power sys te m have a rating of 2000 lbf/in.? a nd we wish to use a hydraulic motor which co uld turn a drum hoi st similar to tha t in Fig . 210 at 20 rpm with a torque of 2000 Ibfft. Wh at would be the flow rat e and horsepower of th e motor? First , we should se t the two horsepower formulas equal and solve for th e flow rate , and then follow up by solving for the horsepower.
30
Basics of Hydraulics
Chap. 2
Drum rad ius
w Figure 210 Hoisting drum .
In English units
_ (1714)(20 rev /min)(2000 Ibfft) _ 65 II . Q(5252)(2000 lbf/in .")  . ga min and the horsepower would be
FHP = (2000 Ibf/in . 2 )(6.5 gal/min) = 76 h (1714) . P The metric equivalent would be solved either by knowing the va lues for the pre ssure and torque in SI units , or by converting the pre ssure to kPa and torque to N . m. Solving the problem that way
_ (44 760)(20 re v/min)(2712 N . m) _ 2471 I' I ' Q(7122)(13 793 kPa ) . iters rnm and the horsepower would be
FHP
= (13793
kPa)(24 .71 liters/min) (44 760)
= 76 .
h P
which is the sa me an swer. Example 10 Another problem is to consider how much torque might be expected from a hydraulic motor turning at 750 rpm , operating at 1000 Ibf/in. 2 , and receiving fluid at 5 gal l min (see Fig . 29). Here we are asking about expected torque. The problem could just as easily de scribe a pump as well as a motor, except for losse s which will be de scribed later. Now look at the solutio n. In Engli sh unit s , using Eq . 215
T
= 5252
x p x Q 1714 x N
= 5252
x 1000 x 5 1714 x 750
= 20 4 Ibff .
t
Lo sse s will be co vered in the discu ssion of pumps, mot or s, a nd c ylinders. but a few words here will expl ain the general concept. Simpl y put , it take s more than the Sec. 29
Torque Horsepower and Fluid Horsepower Relationships
31
requ ired fluidpower output to turn a hydra ulic pump input shaft. Ta ke anothe r look at the motor pump unit in Fig . 26 . There are losse s in the dri ving motor, in the coupling , a nd in the pump itself where slippage and friction eat away at th e input. The sa me is true of hydraulic motors whic h receive more fluid po wer th an the y deliver as mechanical power at the output shaft. It comes do wn to thi s. If a hydraulic pump is 85% efficient it will take about 118% at the mechanical input to give 100% of the fluid horsepower specified at the output. The same is true of a hydraulic motor which receives 100% of the requirement in fluid horsepower at the input , but will deliver only 85% of that to the output shaft as mechanical horsepower. It's not a great problem as long as it' s understood that in actual applications the losse s must be figured in.
210 SUMMARY
What makes a fluid power system is the pressurized fluid. When the fluid move s a cylinder, work is accomplished. If the movement is timed , the horsepower can be calculated using James Watt's horsepower formula, the fluid horsepower formula, or the torque horsepower formula. Torque and twisting effort mean the same thing . Torque and work have the same units but conceptually they're different. Work requires movement, torque does not. If the shaft moves , torque horsepower can be calculated. Three advantages of fluid power systems are: (I) tremendous force multiplication occurs, (2) no harm is done to the system should it stall, and (3) torque output continues even when the hydraulic motor is stalled.
STUDY QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 1. The cyli nder in Fig . 211 is used to raise the weight 9 in. If the bore of the cylinder is 21/2 in. and the pressure is 1800 lbf/in.", how much work is accomplished ? 2. An automobile lift raises a car weighing 3000 lbf', 6 ft off the sho p floor (Fig. 212 ). Assuming the lift itself weighs 500 lbf a nd th at friction is negl igible , wha t is the work necessary to raise the car in ftIbf a nd mN ? 3. If the bore diameter of the lift c ylinder in Problem 2 is 6 in. , wh at will be the pressure in the system when it comes to re st in the raised position ? 4. In Problem 2, what would be the power expended if the lift rai se s the car in 15 sees? Compute the answer in ftIbf/min and hp . 5. If the auto lift cylinder in Problem 2 has a diameter of 8 in .. how fast would it have to desce nd for the flow rate to become 10 gal /min ? (Clu e: set t = I.) 6. What would the return flow rate in Problem 5 have to be set at for the auto to descend in 10 sees? 7. A doubleacting cylinder with a 2.5in . bore , a Iin. diameter rod, and 14in. stroke cycles 25 times per minute. What is the flow rate ? 8. What is the flow rate to a c ylinder with a 3in. bore and 22in. stro ke that full y extend s in 8 see s? 9. How man y seconds should it take a hydraulic cylinder with a 4in . bore a nd 24in. stro ke to fully extend if it receives fluid at 9 gal/min ?
32
Basics of Hydraulics
Chap. 2
,
.
.' '.
, '
  Fluid Input
Figure 211
Proble m I.
10. What is the bore of a cylinder that extends 18 in. in 6 seconds while receiving fluid at 4 gal /min ? 11. How man y in./ sec should a cylinder with 1.5in. bore extend if it receives fluid at I gal / min? 12. What is the minimum displacement of a gear motor turn ing at 800 rev /min if the flow rate to the motor is 6 gal/min ? 13. What flow rate would be required to turn a gear motor with a displacement of 2 in.Vre v at 1000 rev /min ? 14. What is the displacement of a motor that turn s 300 rev /min when the flow rat e is 10 gal/ min?
15. If a hydraulic motor with a displacement of 1.65 in.Vrev rece ives fluid at 20 gal/ min, what would be its maximum output speed? 16. A lowspeed , hightorque piston motor with 5 cy linde rs having a bore of 1.5 in. and stroke of 1.75 in. turn s at 200 rev / min. What is the flow rate to the mot or? Chap. 2
Study Questions and Problems
33
Figure 212 Problem 2.
17. What size cylinder connected to a 5 gal/min (22.7 I/min) pump would be required to limit the extension velocity to 2 It/sec? 18. Compute the flow rate to a cylinder with a 4in. bore extending at 3 ft/min. 19. Compute the fluid horsepower of a system with a 5 gal/min pump transferring fluid to a cylinder at a pressure of 1800 lbf/in". 20. A hydraulic cylinder is used to lift a load of 750 lbf a distance of 4 ft in 3 sees. Compute the power and fluid horsepower. 21. A wheel motor similar to that in Fig. 213 must exert a traction force of 1500 lb. If the outside diameter of the wheel is 30 in., what would be the torque from the motor? 22. Ignoring the friction , if the wheel motor in Problem 21 receives fluid from a 7 gal/min pump, and the pressure is limited to 2500 lbf/in .", how fast would the wheel motor turn and what would be the ground speed of the vehicle? 23. A 5in. 3 displacement motor is to be tested on a bench at 3000 rpm at 2500 lbf/in", Assuming 100% efficiency , estimate the FHP output of the motor? 24. A cylinder with an area of 4 in.? raises a load 2000 Ibf, 2 ft using fluid supplied by a singleacting hand pump with a cylinder area of 0.25 in.? and a 3in. stroke . Assuming no losses , compute the following : (a) pressure in the system (b) number of strokes of the hand pump (c) operator force exerted on the pump piston
34
Basics of Hydraulics
Chap. 2
Hydraulic wheel motor
Figure 213 Problem 21.
25. How long would it take a pump delivering 25 gal/min to extend a 5in. cylinder with a 30in. stroke? 26. In Problem 25, if the rod in the cylinder were 1.5 in., how long would the cylinder take to retract? 27. An operator pump s a footoperated singleacting floor jack through a IOin. stroke at a rate of 40 strokes per minute . The 2000 lbf car being raised is observed to move at the rate of 12 in. per min. What is the multiplication of force ? 28. A hydr aulic sys tem powered by a 10 hp motor operate s at 2500 lbf/in". At maximum capacit y, and ass uming no losses, what is the flow through the system in gal/min and liters/min ? 29. A pump with a 10 hp rating operates at 1500 rev /min . What is the torque in Ibfft and Nm? 30. Assuming 100% efficiency, what displacement motor would be required to deliver 200 Ibfft of torque at 1000 rev/min if the pre ssure is limited to 2500 lbf/in"?
Chap. 2
Stud y Quest ions and Problems
35
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _CHAPTER
3
ENERGY IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS 31 INTRODUCTION
H ydr aulic fluid flowing in a high pre ssure sys tem contains p ot ential ene rgy due to its initial elevation and pressur e energy de velop ed by the pump , and kin etic or flow energy which res ults from the movement of the fluid through the plumbing and compone nts . Energy is added to the sys tem through the pump and subtracted from the sys tem through cy linde rs and hydraulic motors moving the load resistance. And since energy ca n neith er be cre ated nor destroyed , the tot al energy of the sys tem rem ain s con stan t. Thi s is the basis for the Bernoulli equation. The pot enti al ene rgy due to ele vation (EPE) is mea sured in unit s of head or pressure . It result s from the distance the reservoir is mounted above or below the pump inlet , and the specific gravity (Sg) of the fluid. For water and high water content fluids, the Sg is approximately 1.0. Petroleum ba se hydraulic oils have an S g in the rang e of 0.75 to 0.90; whereas the Sg of synthetic fluids such as phosphate esters has a range of 1.02 to 1.20. In the English system of mea surement , this est ablishes the specific weight of the fluid between 35 and 75 lb/ft", or 7 and 10 lblgal. The pressure energy (PE) of the fluid added by the pump worki ng against the load resistance has the same unit s as the energy due to elevation, but it resu lts from energy con sum ed by the prime mover driving the pump . Most of the energy in a hydr aulic sys te m is att ributed to the PE supplied by the pump, and thi s is where the energy co sts are incurred. The kinetic energy (KE ), which is usuall y a small portion of the total , accounts for flow losses. It is measured as a head loss or pre ssure drop across restrictions , valves , fittings, and hydr aulic tubing. Thu s, the KE term is a measure of the efficienc y of the sys tem. 36
32 PRESSURE AND HEAD
Hydraulic head is the heig ht in feet or meters that a liquid can be elevated for a given pressure which is measured in lbf/in .? or Pascals (N /m 2 ) . Hydraulic head is sometimes referred to as pressure head. For every pressure given for a specific liquid, there is a height that can be assigned that indicates the elevated length that a column of the sa me fluid can attain. The term head receives widespread use in hydroelectric applications where the turbine is po sitioned many feet below the surface of the re servoir that provides the motive force . It also provides a means of expressing the potential energy of the liquid fluid direc tly if the specific weig ht of the fluid is known . Frequentl y it is de sirable to express head as pre ssure , and conversel y, pressur e as head . From the definition of pre ssure , we ha ve Pressure (p )
Force (F) Area (A)
=
The pressure exerted by a I ft3 cube of water with a specific weight of 62.4 lbf/ft? (Fig. 31) is f f  62.4 lbf/ft! _ lbf/i 2 t' 144 in. 2/ft2  0.433 m . lor each to head ( h )
p 
Thi s indicates that the force on I in.? of the lower surface area of I ft3 of water in the exam ple is 0.433 Ibf. Since the water occupies 1 ft ', 1 in.? of the lower surface area ha s a dimension of the base of a co lumn of water 1 ft high . The force exerted by each of the se columns with a lin.! ba se, mu ltipl ied by a Ift length, against the
/
12"
Water 62.4 lb.
1" 1"
J;2
For ce on each = 0.433 lb.
Ifo..
sq. in.
/ I 1
"......"
 12 "
.~
i~~~
12"
Figure 31 Pressur e, head and specific weight.
Sec. 32
Pressu re and Head
37
base of the container is 0.433 lbf, and is the equivalent of 1 ft of head . So that p
= h x 0.433
(31)
or solving the expression for head H ea d (h)
= Pressure (p) 0.433
p h  0.433
and h
= p x 2.31
(32)
In metric units since 1 m3 cube of water weighs 9802 N p = 9802 h Pa(N/m 2 )
(33)
and h
=
9:02 = 1.02 x 1O4p meters
(34)
Notice in developing the relationship of pressure, defined as a force per unit area, that the specific weight of water was used as the force per unit cubic foot and cubic meter. In fluid power systems, the medium is oil which usually weighs less than water and because of this difference in specific weight, expressions to convert pressure to head must be altered. Water has a specific gravity of 1. Oil has a specific gravity in the range of 0.75  0.90, and 1 ft3 of this fluid would weigh about (0.80 x 62.4) 50 lbf rather than 62.4 lbf as would water. Expressions for converting pressure to head, and head to pressure, thus become F
Sg x 62.4 144
p
=A=
p
= Sg x
h
=
h
=
and h
x 0.433
(35)
Rearranging P
Sg x 0.433
and P x 2.31 Sg
(36)
In metric units p = 9802 x Sg x h 38
Energy in Hydraulic Systems
(37) Chap. 3
and h
=
1.02
X
1O4p
(38)
Sg
Several problems requiring the solution for pressure in lbf/in. ? (Pa) , or head in ft (m), can be solved using these formulas .
Example 1 Compute the reading on a pressure gauge inserted at the base of a column of fluid 50 ft high with a specific gravity of 0.85 (Fig. 32).
Mx g =Wt
1
Height = h
_J Solution
Figure 32 Example I.
From Eq. 35 p = Sg x h x 0.433 p = 0.85 x 50 x 0.433 = 18.4 lbf/in. ?
Example 2 Convert to head in feet and meters a pressure reading of 1500 lbf/in .? taken from a hydraulic pressure gauge monitoring a system using a hydraulic oil with a density of 0.78. Solution
Substituting in Eq. 36 , h = p x 2.31 Sg
and
In metric units, a pressure reading of 1500 lbf/in. ? first must be converted to Pa using the conversion factor' lbf/in. ? x 6895 = Pa
and then solve Eq , 38 h I
= (1500 Ibf/in.2)(~~~:)(1.02
x 10
4 )
= 1352 m
The exact conversion factor is lbf/in.? x (6.8947572 x lOl l .
Sec. 32
Pressure and Head
39
Example 3
Co nvert a hydraulic pressure reading of 13.79 megapascals (MPa) to meters if the oil has a Sg of 0.83. Solution
Sub stituti ng in Eq . 38 II = (1.02 x 1O4)(~~8;90 000 N /m
2 )
= 1695 m
33 CONTINUITY EQUATION For purpo ses of making most calcu lat ions , the flow in fluid power systems is co ns idered to be steady. The flow is steady when the velocity at any period in time is constant. The velocity at successive places in the conductor , however , ma y change; for example, where the cross section area of a tube or hose is larger or sma lle r. To approximately fulfill the conditions of steady flow, changes with res pect to time in pressure, temperature , fluid den sity, and flow rate mu st be almost zero. T he continuity eq uation governi ng flow in a fluid co nductor is derived from the pri nci ple that duri ng conditions of steady flow, the mass of fluid flowing past a ny point in the co nductor is the same . For practical purposes and in the case of hyd raulic fluid s that are nearly incompressible (39)
Where the flow rate ( Q) is in gal /min , the area ( A) is in. ", and the velocity (v) is in feet per second (ft/ sec), Q(gal /min) = A(in .2) x v(ft/sec) x 12(in./ft) x 60(sec /min) x l/23I(gal /in .3 ) Q(gal /min)
= A(in .2)
x v(ft / sec) x 3.12
and Q = 3.12A v
(3 10)
The continuity equation is used to solve for the veloc ity , area , or flow rate at any point in a system if two of the three quantities are given . Example 4
Referring to Fig. 33 , fluid is flowing in a 2in. diameter pipe at the rate of 40 gall min. What is the velocity of the fluid in that portion of the conductor? What wou ld be the velocity of the fluid in the 4in. diameter manifold? Solution (a) The 2in. diameter pipe has a cro ss section area of 3.14 in 2 • The fluid velocity is computed by rearranging Eq . 310. Q =3 .12Av
v
Q
 A x 3.12
40 v = 3.14 x 3.12 = 4.08 ftl sec
40
Energy in Hydraulic Sys te m s
Chap. 3
Q = 40 gal/min 
I.D . = 4 in.
Pip e
Manifold
Figure 33
Example 4.
(b) Th e 4in . diamet er pipe has a cross sec tio n of 12.56 in2 • Solving the co ntinuit y Eq . 39 for V2: A ,vl
= A 2V2 A ,vl
V2=~
and V2 =
3. 14 x 4.08 12.56
1.02 ft/sec
Noti ce that dou bling the diameter reduces the flow rate to onefourth of its original value . Example 5 Fluid is flowing in a 2in. diamet er pipe at the rate of 18 gal/mi n (Fig. 34) . What is the minimum diameter to whic h the pipe might be reduced wit hout exceedi ng the maximum reco mme nded veloc ity of 10 ft/sec? Solution First, the velocity of the fluid in the 2in. diameter pipe is determined using Eq . (3 10): Q =3 . 12Avl VI
=
VI
= 3. 14 x 3.12 = 1.84 ft/sec
AI
Q x 3. 12 18
I.D.
'r = 2 in.
\ \
Q = 18 gal/min 
t
I I
Figure 34
Sec. 33
Continu ity Equation
~lI.D .=? ~....I. _
Example 5.
41
Knowing that the area of a circle is computed from
the value for the reduced diameter of the pipe is computed from Q = A 2 X V2 X 3.12
Q A  1TDl 2   4  v2 X 3. 12 2 2
=
D2
=
D
1T
X
4 x Q V2 x 3. 12
and
~
4 x 18 3.14 x 10 x 3.12 = 0.857 in.
Similar values are obtained using flow nomograms, such as that shown in Table 31, that have been derived using the continuit y equation. Knowing two values allows for the solution of the third value by placing a straightedge across the two known values and reading the third quantity directly. Example 6
Compute the velocity in a Iin. I.D . suction line (actual size) of a hydraulic system in which 10 gal/min is being pumped . Solution Using Table 31 and placing a straightedge across the values for the 10 gal/min flow rate in the left column and the Iin. actual I.D . pipe size in the center column, the velocity at the suction line is read as 4.1 ftlsec in the right column. This is approximately equal to the computed value.
34 POTENTIAL AND KINETIC ENERGY The energy available from the prime mover is converted to a more useful form through the action of the fluid hydraulic pump. The prime mo ver is itself a conversion device th at usuall y consists of a dri ve motor po wered by electricity or chemical energy sto red in hydrocarbon fuel to power a combustion engine. Although energy is also av ailable from other sour ces, electric motors a nd internal combustion engines provide nearly all th e moti ve force to rai se the energy level of fluid power sy stems. The total energy av ailable from fluid in a syste m consists of the potential energy due to its initial elevation (EPE), the pressure potential energy (PE), and the kinetic energy (K E) due to the movement of the fluid . That is Total Energy
=
Elevation Energy (EPE)
+ Pressure Energy (PE)
+ Velocity Energy (K E) and Total Energy 42
= EPE +
PE
+ KE
Energy in Hydraulic Systems
(3 11) Chap. 3
TABLE 31
20 ,000
CONTINUITY EQUATION NOMOGRAPH (ENGLISH UNITS ).
100 90 80 70
Based on for mu la
60 Area (sq in) . .
50 10,000 9000 8000 7000 6000
G.P.M. x 0.3208 Velocity (ft./sec.)
=
40 5·5 4 ~ .4 ~ 4·4
30
3 ~3 ~
5000
33
20
2 ~ 2 ~
4000 15 3000
2000
10 9
2
 8
1 0.9 0.8 0. 7 3 8 0.6 4  3'0.5 4 0.4 1 5 "2  8 0.3 1
7
6 5 1000 900 800 700
4
1
8 2
3 1
16
_
'" Ol u s:
~ l Ol
"0"0
0.75
Ol Ol
:;
~
c
Ol
0.5 100
'E ~
QJ
N
'U; OJ
"E
"0
:0
.2
o I
~ I
"iii
:::l
0.4
e.
~
~
u,
u,
.2
Sec. 34
.2
c:.o ;)
._
co
+oJ
e. ~ 'o.
c'"
c
c:
"0 '" 'Vi OJ
.9 ~ ~
Ol
o
Ol
~ .r= 0 ._
200
'" c
s
'" c
'E o z
Potential and Kinetic Energy
5
6
7
5
2
4
0.2 7
8
o c:
ill
Maximum recommended velocity for intake lines
4"   ... 0.1 0.09
300
"5
16
3
316
400
e.
1
9
3
600 500

7
0.08 0 07  0.06 . 0.5  0.4  0.3  0.2
8 9 10 Maximum recommended velocity for pressure lines .S
0.1 0.009 g 0.008 I 0.007 Ol 0.006 0  0.00 5 s: 0.004 ~
'" .0
15 20
30
c
o 40
al
'" ~
Ol
;:
"0
50
e.
Ol"
e. '0.
'0 Ol '"
~
I
Z
'u o ~
>
43
Mx g = Wt
Height = h
Figure 35 Potential energy as a forc e available to act through a distance (h) .
The potential energy of a fluid can be equated to the force it exerts toward the center of gravity (Mg ), and the distance (h) through which it is available to move on command (Fig. 35). This is expressed by the formula Potential Energy = M x g x h
(3 12)
or, if the weight of the fluid rather than its mas s is given , Potential Energy
=wx
in ftlbf
h
(313)
Where it is more de sirable to use pressure (lbf/in. ") than head (h) , Eq . 36 can be used h
=Px
2.31
Sg
and substituting .
Potential Energy
=
IV X
P
x 2.31
Sg
in ftlbf
(314)
When fluid flows in a hydraulic system, potential energy is converted to the energy of motion , kinetic energy (F ig. 36). Potential energy and kinetic energy are mutually convertible . As the potential energy of the fluid is dis sipated by falling from a higher point to a lower point , its kinetic energy is increased by an Velocity = 0
.
Average velocitv =
Velocity
44
=
v
2"v
"'.....l~==l= Discharge
Figure 36 of mot ion.
Kinetic energy as energy
Energy in Hydraulic Systems
Chap. 3
equal amount. This is a restatement of the law of conservation of energy which says, in effect , that energy ca n neither be crea ted nor destroyed . Ifa body of fluid at rest at some height is dropped through a distance (h), its velocity is (v) feet per second (ft/sec). The acc eleration due to gravity (g) is approx imately con stant. The ave rage velocity of the falling bod y of fluid is (v /2) ft/ sec since it has a starting velocity of 0 ft/ sec, and a terminal veloc ity of (v) ft/ sec. The time taken for the bod y to cover the distance equ als the distance (h) divided by the average velocity (v / 2). That is, h
2x h
v
v
/ = =  
2 where the time (I) is in sec. The acceleration constant (g) due to gravit y equ als the change in velocity divided by the time. That is, v 
g = 
0
/
v
and v2

2
= g
x h
From the potential energy formul a, Eq . 312, Potential Energy
=M x g x h
The value (v 2/2) can be substituted for (g x h), and the potential energy formul a converted to the kinetic energy formul a. That is, . . Kinetic energy
=
M
X
2
v2
Converting mass (M) to weight (w), the formul a for kinetic energy becom es KE
=wx
v
2 x g
2
in ftIbf
(315)
and the expression for the total energy in the system now becomes Elevation + Pre ssure + Kinetic
Total Energy
=
Total Energy
= (w
w x v2
x h) + (w x P x 2.3 1) + =2,X g
(316)
where each of the se term s is in ftIbf. Let' s look at three examples to see how each of the energy terms fits into the general formul a . Sec. 34
Potential and Kinetic Energy
45
Example 7 A hydraulic sys te m has a 200 gallon re servoir mounted abo ve the pump to produce a positive head at the inlet. Thi s will prevent the pump from cavitating, particularl y at start up. If the sta tic pre ssure at the inlet is to be 10 lbf/in ", and the fluid has a Sg of 0.87, how high mu st the average fluid level be above the pump inlet, a nd what is the energy of elevation of the fluid in the reservoir? Solution The problem , which is illustrated in Fig. 37 , as ks first for the elevation pressure and then the total elevation energy (the first term in Eq , 311). The ele vation pressure can be computed using Eq . 36 as follo ws:
h = p x 2.31 Sg 10 lbf/in. ? x
2.31Ibf;~n.2
h =      ''''0.87
and
h = 26.6 ft The units of the seco nd term may at first look confusing until one notices that they are derived from 1/0.433 in Eq. 36. That is , 1 ft 0.433 Ibf/in .2  Ibf/in. 2 ft
2.31 1
Finally , solving for the elevat ion energy using Eq. 3 13 EPE
=
IV
x h = 200 gal x 0.87 x 8.34 Ibf/gal x 26.6 ft
~
1.4
Energy elevation

Flu id level
Reservo ir
1
1 Figure 3·'
46
Example 7.
Energy in Hydraulic Systems
Chap . 3
and EPE = 38,601 ftIbf
Example 8 If friction and kinetic or flow energy in Example 7 are ignored , how much pressure would the pump have to account for to lift a 1000 Ibf load using a 2in. bore cylinder. Solution Here the problem illustrated in Fig. 38 asks that the total pressure energy required to lift the load be equated to the combined pressure developed by the energy of elevation (EPE ) and the pump. From Eq . 311 Total Energy = EPE + PE + KE and since friction and kinetic energy are ignored , the KE term drops out and the energy developed by the pump equals PE = Total Energy  EPE
Notice that each of the energy terms in Eq. 316 contains the weight of the fluid which for this example does not change and can be cancelled out allowing us to solve only for the pressure to lift the load .
_ F _ 1000 Ibf _ . 2 Total Pressure  A  3.14 in.2  318.5 Ibf/m . Finally, subtracting the pressure of elevation (Example 8) from the total pre ssure , p = 318.5 lbf/in .?  10.0 lbf/in. ? = 308.5 lbf/in.?
This assumes, of course, that the oil is not returned to the reservoir.
1000lbf
t Pressure
21n. bore cylinder
Figure 38 Example 8.
Sec. 34
Potential and Kinetic Energy
47
Example 9
In Fig . 39, if frict ion is ignored, how much kinet ic e nergy would be di ssip ated if 25 gal/min we re flowing thro ugh a pump ou tle t with an area of I in"? Rota t ion
Flow rate = 25 gpm through l oin? out let area
Figure 39 Exa mple 9.
Pump
Solution He re th e probl em ask s for th e valu e of the kinetic e nergy term in Eq . 3 11, and it mu st be rem ember ed th at energy is a sum tot al , given in units of force and distancefor example, ftlbf, or m . N. Thus, the term II' in Eq. 315 mu st be in for ce unitsthat is, th e tot al weight of th e fluid for so me specified timefor example , a minute o r an hour. Using I min as th e tot al time and 0.87 as th e S g of the fluid , II'
= 25 gal/min x Sg x 231 in. Vgal x 1/ 1738 ft3/in. 3 x 62.4 lbf/ft !
II'
= 181.4 Ibf
a nd So lving the continuity equa tio n for the velocity 25 gal/min x 231 in.3/gal x 1/12 ft /in. x 1/60 min/ sec v = ;; = 0.785 in.?
Q
and
v = 10.2 ftlsec Fin ally , so lving Eq . 3 15 for th e kinetic e nergy 2 II' + v KE = 2 xg
KE
=
(184.4 IbO x (10.2 ft / sec)2 = 298 ftIbf 2 x 32.2 ft /sec?
Not ice th at th e va lue of the kinetic energy term is small, particularly when the velocity of th e fluid is kept within limit s. When the ve locity increase s much above 10 It/sec , friction loss generates unnecessary heat in the sys te m.
35 BERNOULLI'S EQUATION
Con se rvation of energy in a fluid power system is de scribed by Bernoulli' s theorem which defines the tot al energy of the sys tem as constant (Fig. 310). For example , ass uming no work is done or energy dissipated to the surroundings, in a pipe where fluid flows in a streamline through a rest riction, the energy level of the 48
Energy in Hydraulic Systems
Chap. 3
High pressur e
High pressure
Low pressure
=:::7~~1
t
High veloc ity
Low velocity
Figure 310 Bern oulli' s theorem .
fluid through the re striction will remain constant even though both th e pressure and the velocity of the fluid change . Bernoulli ' s theorem explains thi s by equa ting the energy at any two points in the sys tem. That is Total Energy(point I )
Total Energy(point Z)
=
and (w )
x h) +
W)
X PI
Sg
x 2.31
+
WI X VIZ
2 x g
= ( Wz x
h)
+
Wz X P Z
Sg
x 2.3 1
(3 17)
For mo st calculations , the we ight of the fluid doe sn 't cha nge a ppreciably a nd will cancel out. And if the potential energy du e to elevation is equated to Z , th e equation be comes Z 1+
PI
x 2.3 1 Sg
VIZ
Z
+ 2 xg= z +
PZ
x 2.3 1 Sg
vz z
+ 2 x g
(3 18)
Solving problems using Bernoulli ' s equa tio n requires a sys te matic approach. In general , the follo wing ste ps are follo wed :
1. Diagram the system indic ating at which points solutio ns are to be made a nd the direction of flow. 2. Determine the datum plane Z z and the ele vation of ZI . If these are a pproximatel y equalfor ex ample , when fluid flows horizontall y in a hydraulic syste m the y can be cancelled out. 3. Set up Bernoulli' s eq uation with each energy component in the sa me units, including en ergy added by pumps and e nergy subtracted by motors. 4. Flow losse s should be subtracted . S. If the velocity of th e fluid is not known , solve the continuity equat ion. 6. Finally , equate the tot al ene rgy added a nd subtrac ted a t point I in th e syste m to th e to tal en ergy a t po int 2 in the syste m. T ypi cally, the equation is solved for pressure or head , including losse s, from po int I to point 2 Sec. 35
Bernou lli's Equation
49

~
Example 10 In Fig. 311, fluid with a specific gravity of 0.91 is flowing horizontaIly at the rate of 500 gal/min from a pipe with an inside diameter of 3 in. to one with a diameter of Iin. The pressure at point I is 1000 lbf/irr', Assuming no work is done or energy dissipated from the system, compute the pressure at point 2. Solution The direction of flow is from PI to P 2 , and since the flow is horizontal , thus introducing no change in elevation , the quantities ZI and Z2 can be canceIled from Eq. 318 . The energy equation for the system then is PI x 2.31
V,2
"''+2 x g = Sg
P2
2 x 2.31 V2 +2x g Sg
The velocities VI and V2 are not known and must be determined by solving the continuity equation. The velocity VI is determined from Q = AI V
I 
X VI
x 3.12
Q
(Ad(3 .12)
and VI
=
500 (7.065)(3.12)
Solving the continuity equation for
= 22.68
ftlsec
V2
and V2
=
500 (0.785)(3 .12)
= 204.15
FinaIly, solving Bernoulli 's equation for (1000)(2.31 ) 0.91
P2
+ _(2_2._68_)2 = (p 2)(2.31) + 64.4
(2538.46 + 7.99) =
0.91
(P26~~t)
ftlsec
where g has the value 32.2 ft /s? ~ (2~04,.::..15~ )2
64.4
+ 647.16
and
= 0.91(2546.45  647.16) = 7481bf/ · 2 2.31
P2
In .
1000 Ibf/in 2
 t3 in . 1.0.
~ '_./
50
1 in. 1.0.
~ t
Figure 311 Example 10.
Energy in Hydraulic Systems
Chap. 3
Here you will notice that a decrease in the size of the pipe is accompanied by a corresponding increase in velocity since the flow rate in the system is constant. The pressure also drops because the energy transfer through the system remains constant. If the size of the conductor were increased rather than decreased, the velocity would have decreased with a corresponding increase in pressure . Finally , the kinetic energy term or velocity head in Bernoulli's equation is seen to increase or decrease as the square of the velocity . Potential energy that is added to the system in terms of head by the pump (H,,), energy extracted (H,) , and lost (Hd also must be accounted for when computing actual rather than ideal flow conditions. These take the form of potential energy and are written in terms corresponding to head or pressure . The complete equation for Bernoulli's theorem then becomes ZI
+
PI
x 2.31 Sg
Ul
2
+2x
g
+
Z
H" =
2
+
P2
x 2.31 Sg
2 U2
+2x
g
+
H,
+
HI
(319)
Exa mple 11 Fluid flows from a pump at 1000 lbf/in .? at the rate of 200 gal/min horizontally to a motor operating at 750 lbf/in .? (Fig. 312). Back pressure on the motor discharge port is 350 lbf/in", The fluid has a specific gravity of 0.85. Compute the energy extracted from the fluid in terms corresponding to head. Solution Flow is horizontal, introducing no change in elevation so the quantities ZI and Z2 cancel out of Eq . 319. Since the fluid flow rate and pipe size are constant, the velocity head terms are equal and also cancel out of the equation . If the pressure at the inlet to the pump is considered to be 0 lbf/in .? gauge, the potential energy term on the left side of the equation also becomes O. The energy equation for the system then becomes H " 
P2
x 2.31 Sg
H
+, +
H I
Computing the head associated with the potential energy added to the system
H = P x 2.31 " 0.85
H" =
10000.~52.31
= 2717.65 ft
7501bf/in 2
Q = 200 gal/min
3501bf/in 2
Figure 312 Example II .
Sec. 35
Bernoulli's Equation
51
Finally , solving Bernoulli' s equation for head ass ociated with the energy that can be extracted from the sys tem 2717.65 = 951.18 + H , + 679.41 H,
= 2717.65
 951.18  679.41
=
1087.06 ft
36 TORRICELLI'S THEOREM
Torricelli ' s theorem is a special case of Bernoulli ' s equation derived for an ideal system. In Fig. 313 a large tank holds water that follows out a small pipe at the base. Bernoulli 's equation for the system is 2, +
PI x 2.31
Sg
V, 2
+ 2 x g =
2
P2 2
+
2 x 2.31 V2 Sg +2x g
Since the system is considered ideal, losses are negligible and HI equals O. The elevation (h) equal s (2,  2 2 ), and if 2 2 is zero, h equals 2 1 • .....: p = 0 psi ~='=1
1
Elevation = h = Z,
Z"o
1
i
~PSi
Ibf / in
2
Figure 313 To ricelli' s theorem.
Ifthe top of the tank is open to the atmo sphere , the gauge pre ssure is 0 at the surface and PI equal s O. The pressure at the surface of the outlet near the tank is also 0 since the free jet is discharged into the atmo sphere . Where the area of the surface of water in the tank is sufficiently large , the downward velocity of the surface is negligible and the velocit y head ( vd also becomes O. Bernoulli ' s equation for this case then becomes 2 V2
2, = h =  2 x g
and V2
=
v'2gh
which is a statement of Torricelli's theorem . Example 12 Compute the velocity of a fluid flowing from the base of a water tank located 40 ft belo w the water level (Fig. 314). 52
Energy in Hydraulic Systems
Chap. 3
 _.1 h = 40'
Lt=_J Solution
Figure 314 Example 12.
Using Torricelli' s theorem
v
= Y 2g h
v = Y2
x 32.2 x 40 = 50.7 ft/ sec
37 SUMMARY
The potential and kinetic energy in hydraulic systems can be accounted for in terms of the specific gravity of the fluid, head or pres sure, and the ve locity. Potential energy is influenced by the pre ssure resulting from ele vation position and from input energy added through the hydraulic pump. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion and is influenced primarily by the velocity of the fluid through the sy stem . In hydraulic systems, the primary factor affecting the energy level of the system is the pressure resulting from input to the system from outside sources through the pump . Bernoulli' s equation sets the energy level of the system at any two cross sections through the conductor equal to each other. It is derived from laws governing the conservation of energy and is used, typically, to determine the amount and source of energy extracted from the sy stem as a result of friction losses , energy dissipated moving the load resi stance , and energy discharged or wasted as heat. Torricelli 's theorem is a special application of Bernoulli 's equation. Stated as v = Y 2gh , Torricelli's theorem is useful to determi ne flow through orifices and restrictions. The basic formula assumes frictionless flow. In practice , flow coefficient between 0.5 and 1.0 are introduced to account for friction losse s associated with a particular orifice configuration.
STUDY QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 1. A 250 gal reservoir must be mounted in a 4 ft x 6 ft space. What is the height of the reservoir in inches ? 2. How tall wo uld a building have to be to deliver oil with a S g of 0.82 from the roof to ground level at a pressure of 500 Ibf/in 2 ? How might this be achieved in a building half thi s tall ? 3. What pressure would a pump have to overcome to deliver oil with a S g of 0.90 to a tank with fluid surface at a height of 120 ft above the pump ? Chap. 3
Study Quest ions and Problems
53
4. Compute the pressu re readings on a dual gauge in lbf/in .? and kPa inserted in the base of a storage tank 40 ft high , full of oil that has a S g of 0.87. 5. A pre ssure read ing of 2250 lbf/in. ? is observed on a hydraulic gauge . If the fluid has a Sg of 0.85, what would be the pre ssure in MPa ? 6. A 200 gal hydraul ic reser voir is placed on the sec ond floor with the fluid level 12 ft above the pump inlet. If the petroleum base fluid has a Sg of 0.89, what would be the pre ssure at the pump inlet in lbf/in .? and ft of head ? How much would the pre ssure increase for a synthetic fluid with a S g of 1.15? 7. In Problem 6, assuming no friction or pumping losses , what would be the absolute and gauge pre ssure readings at the pump inlet if the reservoir were mounted so that the fluid level wer e 2 ft below the inlet ? See Fig. 315. (Clue : atmos pheric pres sur e = 0 lbf/in. ? gauge = 14.7 lbf/in .? absolute.) p=  ?
I 2' Elevation
Pt,
    Figure 315 Problem 7.
8. At a maximum velocity of IS ft /sec, how man y gal/min of fluid will flow through a pipe with an J.D. of 4 in? 9. A Iin . J.D . hydraulic tube delivers 35 gal/min . What is the fluid velocity in ftlsec? 10. What hose J.D. would be required to deliver 50 gal/min , assuming no friction losses at a maximum velocity of 8.5 ftl sec? 11. How large would th e J.D . ofa tube have to be to deliver 15 gal/min if the fluid velocity were held to 10 ftl see ? Assume no friction losses. 12. A flow meter in the return line to a hydraulic reservoir read s 18 gal/min. How large would the suction line have to be to limit the velocity to 3 ftlsec ? 13. Fluid is flowing from a larger pipe with an J.D. of 8 in. to a smaller pipe at the rate of 500 gal/min (Fig. 316). What would be the minimum J.D. of the smaller pipe to limit the velocity to 10 ftl see ?
54
Energy in Hydraulic Systems
Chap. 3
Q = 500 gal/min


4·in .
Pt, Figure 316 Problem 13.
14. It is noticed that doubling the I.D. of a pipe reduces the velocity by a factor of 4. If instead , the objective were to reduce the velocity to half its original value , by what factor would the smaller diameter pipe be increased ? 15. Hydraulic oil with a Sg of 0.91 is pumped horizontally in a 2in. I.D. distribution line at the rate of 200 gal/min. A pressure gauge mounted in the pump outlet reads 2000 lbf/in.", but some distance downstream another gauge mounted in the line reads 1750 lbf/ irr' , Assuming the gauge readings are accurate , how does the Bernoulli formula given by Eq . 319 account for th is difference? 16. Fluid is flowing horizontally at the rate of 500 gal /min from a pipe with a 4in . I.D . to a smaller one with a 2in. I.D. If the fluid has a Sg of 0.88 , and the pressure is 2000 lbf/in. ? at Point I in the 4in pipe, compute the pre ssure at Point 2 in the 2in. pipe. 17. A hydraulic pump delivers 55 gal /min of oil with a S g of 0.95 at 2000 lbf/in .? through a line with a cross sectio n of2 in 2 • If the line is reduced to a cross section area of 1/2 in . 2, what change would there be in velocity and pre ssure ? 18. Compute the velocity of a fluid which would flow from the base of a water storage tank where the level of the surface is 35 ft above the ground. Con sult Fig . 317 . Pt1
t====.=_:.__~ _____: !
~~=~~=~~*~=~
I~~~~~~~~~~~~
==~===~:::ptJ==_ =.....,.
=========~==  . ~::..~. . . ,. t:
Figure 317 Problem 18.
19. In Problem 18, if the hole in the base of the tank has a 3in. I.D., and there are no friction losses, what flow rate could be expected? 20. Wha t de livery in gal /min would be re quired to shoot a water jet approximately 25 ft in the air from a vertical tube with a 1.5in . I.D .?
Chap. 3
Study Questions and Problems
55

CHAPTfR
4
HOW FLUIDS FLOW 41 INT RODUCTION
When a fluid flows, its volume is displaced as it changes location from one place to another in the sys tem. The time it tak es the fluid to change location determines the flow rate, and thi s, in turn, determines how much power the fluid transmits through the sys tem. For example , doubling the displacement and flow rate would double the fluid power transmitted through the sys te massuming, of course , that the pre ssure rem ains con stant. In addition to Bernoulli ' s theorem which gives us the basic energy equation , there are a number of laws that govern the flow of fluids. These serve as the basis for several equ ation s used to make sys tem calcul ation s. From the principle of conse rvation of mass which says, in effect , that the mass of the fluid remain s con stant , we have the continuity equation. The law of conse rvation of energy which says, in effect, that energy can neither be created nor de stroyed , allows us to convert energy from one form to another and develop several equations that govern flow. Finally, the concept of mom entum which de scribes the change in the velocity of the mass of fluid, is the basis for equations governing friction . Here , theory and practice are brought together. Because the flow of fluids is complex , the law s and equations that govern flow through fluid power systems must be confirmed through experimentation. Thu s, man y of the formulas that have their basis in theory are modified slightly with flow and friction factors to de scribe conditions as they actuall y exist in practice. 42 APPLICATIONS OF THE DISPLACEMENT FORMULA
While displacement can be calculated from the bore diameter and stroke length , it is more common to use tabled values to solve this formul a. Table 41 list s the bore are a diameter, with the area of the blank end of the cylinder down the left margin 56
TABLE 41
DISPLACEMENT OF CYLINDERS IN CUBIC INCHES
Bore area
Stroke (in.)

(in.)
(in.')
3
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
60
I
0.785 0.994 1.77 3.14 4.91 7.07 9.62 12.56 15.90 19.63 28.26
2.36 2.98 5.31 9.42 14.73 21.21 28.86 37.68 47.7 58.89 84.78
4.71 5.96 10.62 18.84 29.46 42.42 57.72 75.36 95.4 117.8 169.6
9.42 11.93 21.24 37.68 58.92 84.84 115.4 150.7 190.8 235.6 339.1
14.13 17.89 31.86 56.52 88.38 127.3 173.2 226.1 286.2 353.3 508.7
18.84 23.86 42.48 75.36 117.8 169.7 230.9 301.4 381.6 471.1 678.2
23.55 29.82 53.10 94.2 147.3 212.1 288.6 376.8 477 .0 588.9 847.8
28.26 35.78 63.72 113.0 176.8 254.5 346.3 452.16 572.4 706.7 1017
32.97 41.75 74.34 131.9 206.2 296.9 404.0 527.5 667 .8 824.5 1187
37.68 47.71 84.96 150.7 235.7 339.4 461.8 602.9 763.2 942.2 1356
42.39 53.68 95.58 169.6 265.1 381.8 519.5 678.2 858.6 1060 1526
47.1 59.64 106.2 188.4 294.6 424.2 577.2 753.6 954.0 1178 1696
U I! 2 2! 3 3! 4 4! 5 6
U1
"""
and the stroke in inches ac ross the top . The numbers in the Table represent the cubic inch displacement of the cylinder. The Table can be used to determine the working volume of the c ylinder on the extension stro ke . If the displacement on the return stroke is required , the displacement of the rod must be subtracted from the di splacement on the extension stroke. Example 41 A ram with a 4in. bore diameter cylinder and 2in. rod (Fig. 41) has a stroke of 24 in. What would be the displacement of the cylinder through the extension and retraction strokes?
4·in. Bore diameter
Figure 4·1
Example
I.
Solution On extension , the displacement can be read by finding the place in Table 41 where the bore diameter and stroke length intersect. Finding the 4in. bore diameter down the left margin and the 24in. stroke across the top , the displacement is given as 301.4 in'. On the return stroke the displacem ent of the ram would have to be subtracted from this value. In this case Table 41 can be used again. Locating the intersection of a 2in. bore and a 24in. stroke, the displacement is found to be 75.36 in'. Subtracting this value from the bore displacement of 301.4 in.? results in a value of 226.04 in.' on the return stroke . Thu s the combin ed displacement of the extension and retraction strokes would be
and
V,
= 301.4 in.' + 226.04 in.! = 527.4 in.!
where V, = total volume (in.') V, = exten sion volume (in .')
V, = retraction volume (in.3 )
43 APPLICATIONS OF THE CONTINUITY EQUATION It is common practice in sizing components to so lve the continuity equation with nomographs. The continuity equation is so lved with the conversion constants inserted so that so lutio ns are given directl y in the de sired units. For example , Fig. 42 so lve s the continuity equation in English units: (i
A rea m .
58
2) _ Gal/min x 0.3208  V e Iocity . (f t / sec ) How Fluids Flow
Chap . 4
20,000
100 90 80 70
8ased on form ula
60
Area (sq. in.) = G.P.~. x 0.3208 Velocity (ft./sec.)
50 10,000 9000 8000 7000 6000
40 5·5
4~4 ~
30
4·4
3 ~ 3 ~
5000
33
20
2~2~
4000 15
2
3000
1
2000
12" 1 1
10 9 8 7
4
2
1~
1
12" 11 4
1
7
6
3
4
8 3
5 1000 900 800 700
4 1
2"8
4
3
1
3
8
4 2
5 16
1
ii
300
_ s: u'"
1
4
'"
0 .::
:;; I 0; '"
200
.
'E
c
c.
~
s: u
.s u :.0 :J u I
;:
..S!
u..
0.5 100
0.4
.'"
'E
'"
.~
'"c. '0.
c.
"E
'" c
"0
..S!
"iii
Cl
I
3 2 2 1 0.9 0.8 0 .7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3
3 Maximum recommended velocity for intake lines
5 6 7 8 9 10
0.1 0.09 0.08 07 0.06 0 . 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2
Maximum recommended velocity for pressure lines
15 20
"0"0
0.1 0.009 li 0.008 I 0.007 '"  0.006 '" 0 s: 0.005 "0   0.004 c
40
~
50
"0 '" ·iii Q)
C:.J:l .  :J
 '"
"iii:J
"
uc.
Flow nomograph (English units).
Applications of the Continuity Equation
59
All that is required is to determine which two of the three variables are given by the problem and then use a straightedge across these two values to read the third qua ntity directly. Example 2
Compute the velocity in a Iin. I.D . suction line ofa hydraulic system through which 10 gal/min is being pumped. Solution Using Fig. 42, and placing a straightedge across the values for the 10 gal/min flow rate in the left column and the Iin. actual I.D. pipe size in the center column , the velocity in the suction line is read directl y as 4.1 It/sec from the right column. Values thus determined will be approximately equal to the computed values . Example 3
What size standard pipe would be required to deliver 40 gal/min if the velocity in the line was not to exceed 7 ft/sec ? Solution Placi ng a straightedge acro ss the values for the 40 gal/min in the left colu mn of Fig. 42, and the velocity of? It/sec in the right , the actual I.D . of the pipe is give n at 11/ 2 in., which is slightly less tha n a 11/2 in. standard pipe.
44 VISCOSITY
The viscosity of a fluid determines how easily it will flow and is required to solve most flow problems. Viscosity is a meas ure of the internal resistance of a fluid to shear and is related to the internal friction of the fluid itself. Thick fluids flow more slowly than thin fluids, because they have more internal friction. Viscosity numbers are assigned to describe the relative differences in the ability of a fluid to flow in comparison with other fluids. Higher numbers are assigned to thicker fluids, lower numbers to thinner fluids. The oil film between the moving and stationary plates may be thought of as a series of fluid layers separating the two parts. Oil adheres to both surfaces. The velocity of the oil at the stationary plate is zero and the velocity of the oil at the movi ng plate equals the velocity of that surface . Between the two surfaces, the velocity of the oil varies on a straig ht line between zero at the stationary surface , and the speed of the moving plate at its surface. What happens is the moving plate cau ses the adjacent layers of oil between the two plate s to shear and the force necessary to move the plate is what we call viscosity (Fig. 43). There are really two ways to describe the visco sity of a fluid: one is the absolute or dynamic viscosity desig nated by J1. (Greek letter mu), and the other is the kinematic viscos ity designated by v (Greek letter nu). Absolute viscosity equals the force required to move a flat surface with an area of one unit at a velocity of one unit , when the two are separated by an oil film one unit thick. Absolute viscosit y is illustrated in Fig. 44. Kinematic viscosity, which is used freq uently in hydraulic calculations , is simply equal to the absolute viscosity divided by the mass den sity of the fluid . That is, J1. v=
(41)
p
60
How Fluid s Flow
Chap. 4
Veloc ity (v)
~
Oil film thi ck ness (v) Figure 43
Viscous friction. Unit velocity
____ Force
Moving surfac e
Oil fi lm {
St at io na ry surfa ce
Slope
Unit distance
Iu
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Figure 44
Absol ute viscosity.
Bec au se viscosity is calculated in all three sys tems of unit s: English (ft, slug, sec), traditional metric (em, gm, sec) and SI metri c (rn, kg, sec), it is sometimes difficult to rem ember which viscos ity is being descr ibed . Figure 45 can be used as a refer ence to keep them separate. Becau se the reyn and poise are large unit s of absolute viscos ity, the micro reyn (one millionth of a rey n or 10 6 rey n) and centipoise (one hundredth of a poise or 10 2 poise) are used to simplify calculation s. To follow through from absolute to kinematic visco sity, the equivalent kinem atic unit of viscosity to the centipoise (cP) is the centi stoke (cSt). Absolute viscosity
Kinematic viscosity
English units
tbsec/tts lbsec/in" (reyn) Saybolt Seconds Universal (SSU)
ft2/sec (no name) in2/sec (Newts)
Traditional metric units
dynesec/ems (poise, P)
crnvsec (Stokes, St) Stokes x 10 2 = cSt
SI metric units
N's/m 2 (Pascalsecond)
poise x 10 2
Figure 45
Sec. 44
Viscos ity
= cP
mvsec (no name)
Viscosity units .
61
When absolute viscosity is converted to kinematic viscosity, using Eq. 41, care must be exercised to assure that the units are correct. When p. is given in reyns, Ibfsec) Ib~sec) (~) p. ( in.? p. m.2 ft
(
v(in. 2I sec) =    
slUgs) p ( in. !
p (
lbfsec 2 x _1_) ft in.'
and  12p.(reyns) p (I s ugs)
v (N ewt s) 
When p. is given in poise, p. (
d ynesec) ern?
p. (
= 
v(cm 2I sec)
p
and v(Stokes) =
(~:3)
p (
dynesec) ern?
d y nesec 2) em
(_I) ern!
p.(poise) ( I 3) P gm ern
When p. is given N . s/ rn", P.
(N~2 s)
v (m 2I sec) =    
p
(~)
p
(N~ S2) (~3)
and _ p.(Pascalsecond)
v ( no name ) 
p (kg /m 3 )
The conversion from kinematic viscosity in cSt to Newts is given by (Newts)
= (cSt) x
0.001552
(42)
and from cSt to the SI metric system (no name ) by (m 2Isec) = (cSt) x 10 6
(43)
The kinematic viscos ity in cSt and absolute viscosity in cP can be determined by ASTM te st procedure 0 445 which mea sures the time required for a fixed amount of oil to flow through a calibrated capillary instrument using gravity flow at one of the two con stant temperatures. The equipment and procedure are shown in Figure 46. The time is measured in seconds and then multiplied by the calibration con stant for the viscometer to obtain the kinematic viscosity of the oil sample in cSt. The ab solute viscosity is derived by multiplying the kinematic viscos ity by the den sit y of the oil. One of the more common units of absolute viscosity is the Saybolt Second Universal , abbrev iated SSU , and it is mea sured using ASTM te st procedure 088 with equipment like that shown in Figure 47. The resistance of the fluid to flow is 62
How Fluids Flow
Chap. 4
(a) Met hod of charging sampl e
(b) Place in constant temp eratu re bath
Figure 46
Kinematic viscome ter.
Figure 4·7
Sec. 44
Viscosity
(c) Ad just head level 5 mm above sta rti ng mar k
Saybolt viscome ter.
63
measured as the time that it takes a 60 ml sample of oil to drain through a standard orifice at a constant temperature of 100°F (37.7°C) or 210°F (98.9°C). The elapsed time is the SSU viscosity for the fluid at the given temperature . For thicker fluids, the same test is repeated using a larger orifice to derive the Saybolt Seconds Furol (SSF) viscosity . The conversion from kinematic viscosity in cSt to the equivalent viscosity in SSU is read from charts in ASTM Procedure D 2161. Basic conversion values are given for 100°F. For temperatures other than 100°F, kinematic viscosities are converted to SSU viscosities by using temperature correction factors. A number of other conversions are made among the various measures of viscosity using the conversion tables given in Appendix C. Approximate conversions between the four measures of viscosity most commonl y used are given by Fig. 48. By placing a straightedge horizontally across
.,..
.,..
.>
: :: 
Fluid Sg =0 Kinematic viscosity v = 0.05 Newts
Sudden contraction
Sudden enlargement
Manifold
Elbow
Elbow
Figure 5·10
Example 5.
The Kvalues are taken from Fig . 57 and Fig . 59 and substituted into the respective formulas to solve for head losses through the fittings as follows: Fitting
Friction loss
Formula
I . Inward Projection
V2) ( 20.4 2 ) hi = K (2g = (0.78) 2 x 32.2
5.04
2. Outward Projection 2
ho
=
V
K ( 2g
)
= (1.0)
(
2 20.4 ) 2 x 32.2
6.46
3. Globe Valve
(
2 20.4 ) x 32.2
V2) =
(10.0) 2
V2) =
( 20.42 ) (4)(0.90) 2 x 32.2
h g = K (2g
= 64.62
4. 4 Std . 90° Elbows h; = K (2g
Sec. 55
KValues
= 23.26
85
Fr iction loss
Formula
Fitting 5. Sudden Enlargement hn = K
(~:) 3.63
2
he
=K(V2g
)
1)(2g
D he = 0.5 ( 1  D ~
V2)
2
2
1 ) ( 20.4 ) = (0.5) ( 1  22 2 X 32.2
2.42
Summing the minor losses Total
b« =
hi + h; + hg + he + h; + he
and Total hfJ = (5.04) + (6.46) + (64.62) + (23.26) + (3.63) + (2.42) = 105.43 ft. Finally, converting the total head loss hfJ to a total pressure drop
P psif
for the circuit
Tot al hpsif = (0.433)(Sg)(Total hfJ) and Total
h psif
= (0.433)(0.91)(105.43) = 41.5 lbf/in. ?
56 EQUIVALENT LENGTH It is evident that the head or pres sure loss through a sudden enlargement, contrac
tion , fitting, or valve is equivalent to the loss through some length of straight pipe. For example, the loss through a globe valve may be the same as the loss through several feet or meters of the same size straight pipe. In notation , hJJ
=
hJ
where hfJ is the head loss through restriction of some configuration and hJ is the loss through an equivalent length of straight pipe . Expanding the se from Eq s. 511 and 51 , we obtain ) hfJ = K
2 LV2) (2Vg ) = f (D2 g
= hf
from which (5 15)
86
Friction Losses in Hydraulic Systems
Chap. 5
where Land D are in the same units and K andfare dimensionless. In the English system of units, if D is the diameter of the conductor given in in., and L is to be computed in ft , (516) Example 6 Oil with a Sg of 0.85 and a kinematic viscosity of 0.10 Newt s is flowing through a test rig consisting of a Iin. J.D. cast iron open check valve at the rate of 150 gal/min. Determine the equivalent length of the valve (Fig. 511).

a = 500 gal/min ==r
Fluid Sg. 0.91 Kinemat ic viscosity = 0.10 Newts

/
2·in. check valve
Figure 511 Example 6.
Solution
Fir st, the velocity is determined from
U 
Q
A x 3.12
150 0.785 x 3.12 = 61.24 It/sec
Second , the Reynolds number is computed from
and the flow is completely turbulent. Third , from Table 51 the absolute roughne ss of cast iron is given as 0.00085 ft, and the relative roughness is . e (0.00085) Relative Roughness = D = (0.0833) = 0.010 Substituting the Reynolds number of 7.349 x 103 and a relative roughness of 0.010 in Fig. 53 , the friction factor is read from the margin as approximately 0.045. Finally , solving Eq . 516 to determine the equivalent length ,
and (1)(2.5)
L,
= (12)(0.045) = 4.6 ft
57 CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS
Calcul ating the equivalent length and pre ssure drop for a hydraulic circuit involve s determining the flow rate through the circuit plumbing, computing the Reynolds number, determining the friction factors and equivalent lengths for the Sec. 57
Circuit Calculations
87
pipe and fittings, and then combining the series of equivalent length s into a tot al equivalent length. A final calculation determines either total pre ssure or fluid horsepower loss resulting from the friction of the total equivalent length. Other factors such as the velocity at the suction line become evident , and pipe s can be resized as required to limit velocities at critical places in the circuit. Example 7
Hydraulic oil with a kinematic viscosity of 80 cSt and a Sg of 0.88 is flowing through the system in Fig. 5 12, at the rate of 100 gpm. The pipe and fittings are uncoated cast iron . The valves are cast iron. The discharge pre ssure at the pump is 800 psi. Compute the tot al pressure drop and fluid horsepo wer loss result ing from friction losses in the system. Solution
The velocit y (VI) in the 2in. pipe is computed from
Q 100 (A 1)(3.12) = (3. 14)(3. 12) = 10.20 ft/ sec
VI =
The velocity
(V 2)
in the Iin. pipe is V2 =
100 (0.785)(3.12) = 40.83 ft/ sec
The Reynolds number is computed for each velocity to determine if the flow is laminar or turbulent. For the 2in. pipe, the Reynold s number is computed from N RlI )
=
12vD


II
20 ft
2in. LD. pipe 2ft
16 ft 5ft
2ft
3ft
/ /\
,,' .' '. '
Fluid 59 = O.BB Kinematic viscosity v = BOcSt
Figure 512 Example 7.
88
Friction Losses in Hydraul ic Systems
Chap. 5
where the kinematic viscosity is in Newts. Converting the viscosity given in cSt to Newts (Eq. 42) v(Newts) = 0.001552 (cSt) and v
= (0.001552)(80) = 0.124
Newt s
Substituting in the Reynolds formula N
R(I)
= (12)(10.20)(2) = 0.124
1974
and the flow is laminar in the 2in. pipe section. Again , substituting in the Reynolds formula to solve for N R(2) N
R(2)
= (12)(40.83)(1) = 3951 0.124
and the flow is turbulent in the lin. pipe section. The first equivalent length to be computed is through the 2in. section of pipe and fittings that consist of 70 ft of straight pipe, II elbows, and I check valve. The Kfactors for the fittings are
I Check Valve (K = 2.5)
2.5
II Elbows (K = 0.9)
9.9 Total 12.4
Since the flow is laminar, the friction factor (f) is computed from (Eq . 52) 64
64
f = N R = 1974 = 0.032 The equivalent length for the fittings in the 2in. pipe , then, is
and (2)(12.4)
LE
= (12)(0.032) = 64.58 ft
and the total equivalent length of the 2in. pipe is (70 + 64.58) 134.58 ft. Since the flow is laminar, the pressure drop through the 2in. pipe section is computed from the HagenPoiseuille Formula (Eq. 51)
where f = 0.032 h = (0.032) f
Sec. 57
Circuit Calculations
(134.58 ft)(l0 .2 ft/sec)2 2 in. x I ft) f/ 2 ( 12 in. (2 x 32.2 t sec)
89
and h! = 41.7 ft
Converting the head loss in the 2in. section and fittings h! to pressure loss h pJif hp Jif = (0.433)(0.88)(41.7 ft) = 15.9Ibf/in .2
The equivalent length of the Iin. section of pipe and fittings consists of 2 ft of straight pipe and 2 globe valves. The Kfactor for the globe valves is 2 Globe Valves (K = 10) = 20 Since the flow is turbulent, the friction factor must be obtained from the graph in Fig. 53. Using an absolute roughness for cast iron of 0.00085 for the two valves , the relative roughness is computed from Eq. 55: Relative Roughness = ~ and . (0.00085) Relative Roughness = (1/12) = 0.010 Using Fig. 53 and locating the Reynolds number (N R (2 ) = 3951) and the relative roughness (0.010) for both valves , the friction factor for the valves is approximately 0.05. Computing the equivalent length for both valves
®
L£(2)
=
~~
L E(2 )
=
(1)(20) (12)(0.05) = 33.33 ft
and the total equivalent length of the Iin. pipe is (2 + 33.33 = 35.33 ft). Since the flow is turbulent, the pressure drop through the Iin. section of pipe is computed from Eq. 51 where the value of Jean be taken as 0.05.
h! = (0.05)
. (35.33 ft)(40.8 ft/sec)2 1~2 7n.1 ft) (2 x 32.2 ft/sec)
C and h! = 547.9 ft
Converting the head loss in the Iin. section and fittings h! to pressure loss hp Jif hp Jif
= (0.433)(0.88)(547 .9 ft) = 208.8 lbf/in.?
Notice that a slight error is introduced by adding the equivalent length of the two globe valves with the 2 ft of straight pipe in computing the pressure drop through the Iin. section since the relative roughness and resulting friction factors for the fittings and the straight sections of pipe are not equal (0.05 vs. 0.042). This is not so in the case of the 2in. pipe and fittings, however, where the flow is laminar and the friction is relatively independent of the surface conditions. 90
Friction Losses in Hydraulic Systems
Chap. 5
The total pressure drop for the system from both sections of pipe and fittings is 2in. fittings and section
15.9 lbf/in.?
lin. fittings and section
208.8 Ibf/in . 2 224.7Ibf/in. 2
and the fluid horsepower loss is
p XQ
Fhp=~
Fh
p
= (224.7)(100) = 13 I h 1714 . P
It is also noticed that a velocity of 10.2 fps at the intake line is greater than the 45 fps usually recommended to keep the flow well within the laminar range . In addition , the Iin. fluid lines connected to the pump would be larger in practice to reduce velocities and accompanying pressure and fluid horsepower losses associated with using undersized conductors.
58 SUMMARY
Resistance to flow is generated by friction within the fluid. Head and pressure losses due to friction are computed using the DarcyWeisbach formula. When the flow is laminar and Reynolds numbers are below N R = 2000, the friction factor is relatively independent of the surface conditions of the conductor and has been found experimentally to be 64 j= N R
When this value is substituted in the DarcyWeisbach formula, the result is the HagenPoiseuille formula for head loss when laminar flow prevails. When the flow is turbulentReynolds numbers N R = 4000 and abovethe jfactor for the DarcyWeisbach formula is influenced by the viscosity of the fluid, the ratio of the length to the diameter of the conductor, and the absolute roughness of the conductor wall surface . When friction losses through short restrictions such as orifices, valves, and fittings are encountered, Ccoefficients, Kfactors, and equivalent length values are used to compute losses directly, or losses associated with an equivalent length of pipe that would account for the same loss. Discharge coefficients Cd are commonly used in combination with Torricelli's theorem to compute the flow and head loss associated with an orifice or valve. Kvalues, on the other hand, are defined as the number of velocity heads lost to friction, and as a factor are multiplied by the velocity head v 2 /2g to arrive at the head loss associated with friction through the fittings. Finally, circuit calculations are made by summing the major head loss through the length of pipe or tubing, and then the minor losses through the fittings, valves, sudden enlargements, orifices, and components such as filters and heat exchangers. Sec. 58
Summary
91
STUDY QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 1. A hydraulic oil with a Sg of 0.85 is piped from the pump to the motor through 30 ft. of 1/2in. I.D . hose. If the flow rate is 20 gal/min and the friction factor is 0.040, what would be the pressure drop along the length of the hose? 2. A service truck transfers hydraulic oil with a kinematic viscosity of 200 cSt through a 2in. I.D. hose 100 ft. long to a bulldozer at a flow rate of 50 gal/min. What is the pressure drop between the service truck and the bulldozer if the fluid Sg is 0.85? 3. What diameter pipe would be required to deliver a hydraulic fluid with a Sg of 0.86, 100 ft. through drawn steel tubing if the velocity is limited to 10 ft/sec , the friction factor is 0.05, and the pressure drop to 25 lbf/in. "? 4. Hydraulic oil with a Sg of 0.85 is transferred between two tanks 300 m apart through a 6.5 cm pipe at 1,000 I/min . If the ffactor is given as 0.04, what is the pressure drop between the two tanks? 5. Hydraulic oil with a Sg of 0.90 is pumped 25 ft through a lin , I.D. offline filter loop. If the oil has a kinematic viscosity of 0.1 Newts and the head loss is 5 Ibf/in .2 , what flow rate could be expected through the filter? 6. An oil with a Sg of 0.95 and kinematic viscosity of 50 cSt is pumped through a section of l.5in . I.D. drawn steel tubing at the flow rate of 100 gal/min. Determine the absolute roughness , relative roughness , and friction factor for the tubing. 7. The pressure drop associated with hydraulic fluid with a Sg of 0.93 flowing across a Iin. I.D. sharp edge orifice is 20 lbf/in", If the discharge coefficient is 0.60, what flow rate in gal/min could be expected through the orifice? 8. The flow rate of a hydraulic fluid with a Sg of 1.08 through a 2in. I.D. orifice is 50 gal/ min. If the pressure drop across the orifice is 5 lbf/in. ", what is the discharge coefficient? 9. What pressure drop in lbf/in .? could be expected across a l.5in . I.D. orifice with a Cd = 0.70 through which a hydraulic fluid with a Sg of 0.86 is flowing at the rate of 80 gal/min? 10. What I.D. orifice with a Cd = 0.60 would be required to allow a flow rate of 25 gal/min with a pressure loss of 10 Ibf/in .2 , if the hydraulic fluid has a Sg of l.0? 11. Hydraulic oil with a Sg of 0.92 and a kinematic viscosity of 0.01 Newts flows first through a sudden reduction, and then through a sudden enlargement. If the larger pipe has a 3in. I.D. and the smaller pipe has a lin. J.D., what pressure loss could be expected through these two fittings, if the flow rate is 60 gal/min? 12. Hydraulic fluid with a Sg of 0.95 and a kinematic viscosity of 0.02 Newts is flowing through a 3/4 in. I.D. line at 35 gal/min. If a 3/4 closed gate valve is inserted in the line, what pressure drop could be expected ? 13. A Iin. J.D. hydraulic circuit contains four standard 90° elbows and a swing check valve in series. If hydraulic fluid with a Sg of 0.87 and a kinematic viscosity of 0.03 Newts is flowing at the rate of 30 gal/min , what is the loss through these five fittings? 14. Hydraulic fluid is flowing horizontally 100 m through a 3cm I.D. distribution manifold at 250 I/min. Compute the pressure loss when N R = 2000. 15. A 112 closed gate valve is used as a temporary flow control in a 1I2in. tube to limit the flow to 28 gal/min. If the fluid has a Sg of f.08 and a Kinematic viscosity of 30 cSt, what would be the equivalent length of the valve if the ffactor is assumed to be 0.05?
92
Friction Losses in Hydraulic Systems
Chap. 5
16. What is the equ ivalent length of to cast iron 3/4in. I.D . standard 90° elbow s placed in a hydraulic circuit which carries 48 gal/min of a hydraulic fluid with a S g of 0.86 and a kinematic visco sity of 0.04 Newt s? 17. Oil with a S g of 0.85 and an absolute visco sity of 7 x to b N . s/m 2 is pumped horizontally through a 5 cm I.D. commercial steel pipe at 400 I/min. What is the pre ssure drop associated with the friction in a 200 m section? 18. Fig. 513 illustrates an offline heat exchanger circuit consisting of a tee, three 90° elbows, a check valve, a filter (lip = 5Ibf/in. 2 ) , a control valve (Cd = 0.75), two globe valves , a heat exchanger (lip = 40 lbf/in. ") and 50 ft of lin , drawn steel tubing with an I.D. equaling 0.902 in. If the fluid has a Sg = 0.95 and a v = 0.035 Newts , calculate the maximum velocity, flow rate, and total pressure drop in the circuit if the flow is kept at the upper limit of the laminar flow range. Control valve
Isolation valve
Check valve
Elbow
Tubing size 1 in. (0.902 I.D.)
Heat exchanger Isolation valve
1\
:;'
Reservoir Fluid 5g =0.95 Kinem ati c vis cosity v = 0.035 Newts Figure 513
Problem 18.
19. The relief valve portion of the circuit in Fig. 513 consists ofa tee, relief valve (Cd = 0.5) valve , 90° elbow , and 20 ft. of lin. drawn steel tubing with an I.D . = 0.902 in. If the flow rate remain s in the laminar range, what would be the pressure drop through this portion of the circuit? 20. In Problem 18, assuming the pre ssure drop acro ss the filter and heat exchanger remained the same, what would be the total pre ssure loss if the flow rate were doubled?
Chap. 5
Study Questions and Problems
93
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _CHAPTER
6
HYDRAULIC FLUIDS
61 INTRODUCTION
The primary purpose of the hydraulic fluid is to tran smit power. Fluid is picked up by the pump from the reservoir, fed through the control valves to cylinders and motors where the power is expended, and then returned to the reservoir where it is cooled and settled before starting the cycle again. How well a fluid transmits power is determined by how easily it is pumped, how stiff it is, and a number of other servicerelated properties that determine how suitable it is to a particular application system and environment. About 80% of the fluids used are petroleumbase hydraulic oils. Specific properties that affect the performance of a hydraulic fluid include its viscosity, specific gravity or API gravity, viscosity index, pour point, neutralization number, flash point, fire point, auto ignition temperature, antiwear properties, resistance to oxidation and rust, and defoaming and detergent dispersing properties. These properties determine not only present suitability, but resi stance to deterioration during the time the fluid will be used in the system . Filters are used to keep the fluid clean , and maintenance per sonnel change them periodically to keep fluid contamination levels to an acceptable level. At set intervals, samples are take n from the machines and tested to determine if the fluid shou ld be cleaned, changed, or ret urned to a distributor for complete reclamation . Where a machine failure has been experienced, fluid testing determines where the fault lies. Recently developed inline techniques permit monitoring the condition of the fluid in the machine during the working cycle . I I E.C. Fitch . An Encyclopedia of Fluid Contamin ation Control. (Stillwater, OK : Fluid Power Research Center, Oklahom a State University, 1980). Part 2.6.
94
62 TYPES OF FLUIDS
A number of liquids, including water, have been used as hydraulic fluids. Industry uses five basic types: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Petroleumbase hydraulic oils. Synthetic fluids. Water glycol fluids. Oilinwater and waterinoil emulsions. High Water Content Fluids (HWCF).
About 80% of the 250275 million gallons of oil sold each year is petroleumbase oil, with the remaining 20% being the other four types which are fire resistant. Industries that use fireresistant fluids include forging and extrusion, coal mining, chemicalpetroleum power, die casting, foundries, fabrication, injection molding and the primary metals, and some marine applications. Water was the first hydraulic fluid but, because of several undesirable characteristics, it was replaced by petroleum oil. Water froze, evaporated, corroded the system and was a poor lubricant. Petroleum oil is used because it is relatively inexpensive and has several desirable characteristics. To be effective in a hydraulic system, a fluid must 1. Transmit fluid power efficiently
2. 3. 4. 5.
Lubricate the system Dissipate heat generated by the system Not deteriorate seals and parts of the system Remain stable over time with changes in temperature and operating conditions.
If there is a danger of fire, then fire resistance must be added to this set of characteristics, and that means one of the fireresistant fluids must be selected. Petroleumbase hydraulic oils are refined from selected crude oil and formulated with additives to prevent wear, rust, oxidation, and foaming. They are the least expensive of the hydraulic oils and are used where fire and high temperatures are not a problem. Hydraulic oil has the natural ability to transmit fluid power efficiently, has good lubrication qualities, dissipates heat reasonably well under normal operating conditions, and is compatible with most sealing materials. It is also longlasting and stable so long as the temperature is below 150°F (65SC) , and it is kept free of contaminants by filtration. The condition is checked.periodically by taking a sample and testing it. This determines not only the condition of the oil, but the condition of machine components such as pumps and motors which deposit wear debris in the oil that can cause the system to fail. Fireresistant fluids are of four basic types: 1. synthetics,
2. water glycols, and Sec. 62
Types of Fluids
95
3. waterinoil emulsions with 3540% water (called invert emulsions because oil surrounds the water droplets, and 4. high water content fluids (90% or more water). Typically, a hydraulic fire starts when a hose bursts and sprays fluid against a hot surface. Straight synthetics prevent ignition of the fluid because of the fireresistant qualities of the fluid. Water glycol and waterinoil emulsions prevent ignition when the water in the fluid turns to steam and snuffs out the fire. Waterglycol and waterinoil emulsions are not totally fire resistant, however, and they will burn if the temperature is sufficiently high over an extended period of time. High water content fluids will not burn because the water content to additive ratio is too high for the additive to ignite. Oilinwater emulsions are so called because the oil in each molecule is surrounded by water. This makes the oil the discontinuous phase and the water the continuous phase . Oilinwater emulsions use the continuous water phase for cooling, such as in cutting oil and coolants. Waterinoil emulsions, on the other hand, are mixtures of oil and water with the oil surrounding the water droplets . Thus, the oil is the continuous phase and usually, though not always, this gives superior lubricating quality. Waterinoil emulsions are called invert emulsions. High water content fluids (HWCF) receive their name from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard ANSI B935N Practice for the Use of Fire Resistant Fluids in Industrial Hydraulic Fluid Power Systems. They are often referred to as high water base fluids. Soluble oils were first available as cutting fluids and coolants. In neat form (straight) and higher concentrations, they were also recommended as gear lubricants and hydraulic fluids on the same machine. This arrangement had the advantage of allowing the coolant and lubricant to be mixed, even though the coolant contained very high levels of contaminants from the machining or grinding operation, and in noncritical applications this was acceptable. The HWCF fluids, however, are different. They were developed in the 70s, partly in response to the OPEC situation of 1973, but more importantly, from the potential advantage in cost savings . The cost of HWCF fluids is about 20% that of petroleumbase hydraulic fluids, and 5% that of straight phosphate esters. The magnitude of the savings is dramatic when one considers that the automotive industry, which is the largest user, adds 60 million gallons of makeup oil annually. Typically, HWCF fluids are 95% water and 5% additive, or 90% water and 10% additive. The additive portion consists of viscosity improvers (water is too thin), antifriction additives, rust inhibitors, and bacteria growth and sludge inhibitors. If a fluid contains water, it will grow microbes and this is a continuing problem with HWCF fluids, particularly as the fluid ages. Biocides and fungicides are used to control bacteria growth. There are a number of HWCF fluids available, each with its own chemical composition and performance characteristics. Microemulsions are formulations with emulsified particles less than one micron dispersed in a solution which is nearly clear in concentrate form, but turns opaque when used in a hydraulic system . Microemulsions have a high film strength and good wear resistance. 96
Hydraulic Fluids
Chap. 6
Synthetic solubles contain nonpetroleum water soluble lubricants in an aqueous solution. The lubrication molecules are polarized (charged) and thus attracted to the metal parts in the system where they form a plating that serves as a boundary lubrication layer between moving parts in the system. Thickened fluids is a name given to solutions where the additive forms a mechanical matrix that gives the water solution the viscosity and lubricity of a petroleumbased fluid. The mechanical matrix is unlike conventional petroleumbase thickeners and viscosity improvers which use long chain polymer linkages that break irreversibly under high shear conditions. Instead, the synthetic properties of the mechanical matrix reform without apparent fatigue . N eosynthetic or macroemulsions are nooil chemical compositions that form synthetic lubrication droplets in the 110 micron range. The solution is opaque and resembles the old emulsified mineral oils, even though the macroemulsions are completely synthetic. Macro synthetic emulsions are also polarized to plate component surfaces with a high viscosity layer of lubricant, and some macroemulsions are recommended for multiple use : gear box lubricant in neat form, and cutting fluid and hydraulic fluid in mixed form. Microdispersions are nooil solutions with very fine nonsoluble particles dispersed in the fluid by surface active ingredients . Multiple function microdispersions also contain what are called "second ingredients" to plate surfaces, serve as thickeners , and act as wetting agents to speed heat transfer. All HWCF fluids contain rust and corrosion inhibitors, as well as biocides and defoaming agents. High water base fluids are not affected adversely by fine filtration and the additives do not separate out.
63 FLUID APPLICATIONS
A major task facing fluid power mechanics and technicians is to select the proper fluid for a specific application. The question to be answered is this: which fluid goes in which machine , given its characteristics and the conditions under which it must operate? Under ordinary circumstances , and where fire is not a problem, one of the petroleumbase hydraulic oils is the obviou s choice . If fire is a hazard , then one of the fireresistant fluids must be cho sen . The first step in the process is to consult the equipment manufacturer who has assembled a great amount of information based upon experience and test data. It should also be remembered that the manufacturer's guarantee may require the use of specified hydraulic fluids. Before selecting a fluid to fill a new machine, or before adding fluid to a machine that is in operation , consult the machine manual. Also be sure you know what kind of oil is in the machine , because some of them do not mix and can cause trouble. Oilsynthetic blend s, for example, can attack the seals used with petroleumbase hydraulic fluids. A petroleumbase hydraulic fluid is the least expensive of the hydraulic oils , with the exception of the oilinwater emulsions (water is the continuous phase) and the recently de veloped HWCF fluids composed of water with chemical additive s. Phosphate ester fluids cost about seven times more than hydraulic fluid Sec. 63
Fluid Applications
97
oil. Phosphate esters are true synthetics , howe ver , and have the advantage of continued service without the possibility of separation of the continuous phase from the emulsion , or periodic replenishment of additives which evaporate with continued service, thu s changing the visco sity and wear characteristics of the fluid. Hydraulic fluid is added to replenish the loss from leaks , and this can be very expensive if the system is not leak free. For example, one estimate places the combined leakage at more than one million barrels of oil hydraulic fluid each year in the United States alone. In coal mining, which uses fireresistant fluids, the estimate is one gallon of hydraulic fluid lost for each 17 tons of coal mined in the United States. The most skeptical estimates from the industry believe fully 85% of all hydraulic fluid put in the machinery leak s out. The ongoing co st of adding fluid to the system is important, then , when the loss due to leak s is considered. The risk of contamination also increases each time the reservoir is opened to add makeup fluid. Straight pho sphate esters and oil synthetic blend s which have a phosphate ester base are suitable for all applications, have excellent lubricating and antiwear qualities, and for practical purposes are equal to premium grade petroleumbase hydraulic oil. They are available in a wide range of viscosities which suit them to uses in plants and outside, from highspeed precision machine tools which require low viscosity fluids, to subzero aircraft and mobile equipment applications. Makeup fluid is added directly without regard for changing the visco sity or chemical makeup of the fluid. Water glycol fluids are designed for use in hydraulic sys tems working in areas with a source of heat , ignition , or where there is a potential fire hazard. They are a mixture of water, ethylene glycol, and a high viscosity lubricating and thickening agent, with additives to prevent corrosion. Water glycol fluids can be used in gear pumps at full capacity without premature failure . Vane pumps can be operated at pre ssures to 2000 lbf/in. ? (13.8 MPa) and speeds to 1200 rpm. Axial piston pumps can be operated at pressures of 3500 lbf/in. ? (24 MPa) at 1200 rpm , but if higher speeds are required (1750 rpm), the pre ssure must be reduced to attain equivalent service . Most water glycol fluids are not recommended for use in radial piston pump s. Water glycol fluids are limited to use in low to medium pressure and noncritical applications because their water content limits their lubricating and resistancetowear qualities . Water glycol fluids do attack zinc, cadmium, and aluminum , however, and these metals must be removed from the system to prevent deterioration and contamination of the system. No special hoses, seals, or packing materials are required when changing over from hydraulic oil, although neoprene , Buna N, and viton are the most common compounds used for seals, and nylon, butyl, or neoprene are used most commonly for hoses. The water content in water glycol fluids excludes the use ofleather, cork, untreated cotton, and cellulose packing. Conventional paints are unsuitable for use with water glycol fluids and unles s compatible paints are selected initially , questionable paints should be removed and the surface left unpainted. Fluid filters made of fine mesh metal screens and waterproofed cotton fiber give satisfactory service, but active clay or absorbent filters will remove 98
Hydraulic Fluids
Chap. 6
ingredients in the solution and so must be avoided. Water glycol fluids will dissolve certain pipe sealing compounds and dopes the same as phosphate ester fluids. Only compatible pipe sealing compounds and dopes can be used, and those with questionable contents should be discarded . Water glycol fluids have low toxicity and are not irritants to the skin. The HWCF fluids are relatively inexpensive and have excellent fireresistant qualities. The lubrication quality depends upon which fluid additive is used as does the viscosity stability under severe use and at elevated temperatures . Because 90% of the fluid is water, HWCF fluids have excellent heat transfer qualities, but the temperature must be kept within the range of 40°F to 120°F (4.4°C 48.9°C) to prevent freezing and reduce evaporation, both of which cause the fluid condition and concentration to change. Because the viscosity of most HWCF fluids is lower than petroleum oil and straight synthetics, they tend to scour the system and carry foreign particles in suspension. Fine filtration is recommended. The higher water content requires close monitoring of the oil additive package to keep the chemical balance correct and control the microbe level. Experience gained in the automotive and mining industries indicates that centrally located reservoirs mounted above the pump inlet give the best results. This arrangement prevents pump cavitation and allows the fluid to be added , conditioned , and monitored at one location, rather than at several machines. Figure 61 illustrates an overhead tank power unit with a single motor and pump. This allows the pump to receive fluid without restriction at greater than atmospheric pressure. HWCF fluid pump specifications call for no less than full atmospheric pressure. The inlet filter cartridge is serviced through the top of the reservoir without draining the fluid.
Inlet filter
Utr.::~JJ
Pump  tttt
Figure 61 Overhead reservoir and inlet filter for HWCF fluid application.
Sec. 63
Fluid Applications
99
64 SERVICERELATED PROPERTIES
Properties that affect the performance of fluids include specific gravity, viscosity, viscosity index, bulk modulus, pour point, neutralization number, flash point, fire point, auto ignition temperature, antiwear properties, resistance to oxidation and rust, defoaming, and detergent dispersant properties. The objective is to select a fluid that has the properties for a specific application and then have them remain stable with continued use for the recommended time between changes. This could be as long as 1500 hours (or three years) in some cases. HWCF fluids require a higher standard of maintenance to keep the chemical balance correct, and the level of biocides and fungicides high enough to control microbe growth. In operation, high viscosity fluids cause sluggish operation, transmit power less efficiently, and generate excessive heat in the fluid. This is due to the higher internal friction in the fluid, which has the effect of increasing its static inertia. In extreme cases with high viscosity at low temperatures, pumps and motors will break if the machine is operated. Low viscosity oils flow more easily because of lower internal friction, but slippage in the pump and motor increase, allowing the fluid to bypass the close fitting surfaces of components. External leakage also increases visibly through components that have an exposed moving part such as cylinder rod seals, but so too does internal leakage increase through control valves and past cylinder pistons . The selection of the proper viscosity, then, must be made with the normal operating temperature (usually taken at the pump) of the machine in mind. This will allow the fluid to transmit the power most efficiently, while still lubricating and cooling the machine without excessive leakage. For most applications, this will place the viscosity in the range of 100 SSU to 200 SSU (approx. 20.6 cSt to 43.2 cSt), depending upon the pump being used. Gear pumps are more tolerant of a wide range of viscosity (50 SSU to 1000 SSU) , even though the preferred viscosity would be on the order of 200 SSU given the larger fit and clearances of this pump design. Piston pumps and motors, on the other hand, are less tolerant of a wide range of viscosity (50 SSU to 300 SSU), with a preferred viscosity of about 150 SSU because of the close fit and clearances in the pump and motor design. The manufacturer supplies this information for the pump, and the equipment manufacturer provides it for the complete machine . This viscosity of a number of hydraulic fluids and petroleumbase products is given in Fig. 62. A good reference oil to consider is SAE lOW engine crankcase oil. Notice that the viscosity. of SAE lOW engine oil traces a diagonal line across the graph, and in the temperature range of 100°F to 210°F (37.7° to 98.9°C) has a range of viscosity of just under 22 SS U to just over 45 SS U. SAE lOW engine oil is not a recommended hydraulic fluid, but it is useful as a reference oil against which to compare the viscosity of a number of different hydraulic fluids to get a feel for the change in viscosity with changes in temperature . For example, most petroleumbase hydraulic oils have a similar viscosity pattern, as do the water glycols, phosphate esters, and waterinoil emu lsions, but not HWCF fluids. Plain water at 100°F has a viscosity of 30 SS U, and so do several of the HWCF formulations. This requires that the system be designed around the fluid to accommodate 100
Hydraulic Fluids
Chap. 6
'~
e....:: 10
20
3D
40
50
eo
70
80
90
' ,2
100 110 120 130 140 160 160 170 180 190 200 210220 230
"MPERATURE:. OrGAnS 'AHRENHEIT
Figure 6·2 Viscosity for a number of hydr aulic fluids and petroleum base produ cts (co urtesy of Sun Oil Co.).
the viscosity. Thickeners and viscosity improvers can be added , but this design limitation must be recognized at the outset. The change in the viscosity as the temperature of the fluid increases is described by the viscosity index . It measures the stability between two temperature extremes . As the temperature increases , the fluid becomes thinner and the viscosity decreases. When the viscosity index scale was established in 1929, it measured the degree to which the viscosity of an oil would increase when it wa s cooled from a temperature of 210°F (98.9°C) to 100°F (37.8°C) . A Pennsylvania crude paraffin base fraction was designated to have a VI of 100. A coastal crude naptha base fraction was designated to have a value of 0, indicating that it changes the most with changes in temperature. Other oils were compared to these two reference oils and assigned values between 100 and 0, corresponding to their relative change in viscosity with respect to changes in temperature . Since then , oils have been developed that exceed the VI of 100. The proper viscosity index of a fluid for a specific application is determined from the fluid temperature change requirements of the system. Production machinery, for example, keeps the oil within a narrow temperature range , and a low viscosity index would be suitable . Mobile hydraulic equipment, however, operating where the temperature of the oil may vary from below freezing to near 160°F Sec. 64
ServiceRelated Properties
101
requires a fluid with a very stable viscosity with respect to temperature change, and would call for an oil with a VI of at least 100. Viscosity index is computed by using Saybolt Second Universal (SSU) designations for the reference oils (one with a VI of 100 and the other with a VI of 0) and for the oil for which the viscosity index is to be determined. That formula is VI
= (L
 U) (L  H)
x
100
(61)
where L is the SSU viscosity of a reference oil at 100°F with a viscosity index of 0 that has the same viscosity at 210°F as the oil to be calculated; H is the SS U viscosity of a reference oil at 100°F with a viscosity index of 100 that has the same viscosity at 21 O°F as the oil to be calculated; and U is the viscosity at 100°F of the oil whose viscosity index is to be calculated. The table, composed of SSU values at 100°F, lists viscosity index values vertically down both margins and SSU values at 210°F horizontally across the top. To determine the viscosity index, the SSU viscosity values at 210°F and 100°F are located , respectively, across the top of the table and down the appropriate column, and the third value, viscosity index, is then read from the corresponding vertical margin. Example 1
Determine the viscosity index of an oil with a SSU viscosity of 105 at 210°F and 1376
at 100°F . Solution The SSU viscosity of 90 sec at 210°F given for the oil whose viscosity index is to be determined is found by reading across the top of Table 61. The SS U visco sit y of the sample oil at 100°F is then found by reading down the column under 105. Thi s value is 1376. The viscosity index is then found by tracing the horizontal line of values back to the left or right margins . The VI is 95. This high value indicates a narrow range of viscosity in the temperature interval between 100° and 210°F.
Comparison of oils of different viscosity indexes can be made by plotting viscosity versus temperature curves for several samples. Figure 63 shows a plot offour oils with the same SS U viscosity of 90 at 210°F, but with much different viscosities at 100°F. The corresponding viscosity index for each sample is listed. The procedure generates data that may be used as in Example 1 to determine the viscosity index. Caution must be exercised in the interpretation and use of the viscosity index at elevated temperatures. Fluids with the same SSU viscosity at 100°F and the same viscosity index may have much different viscosities at higher temperatures . That is, the relationship between viscosity and temperature may not be linear, with the result that the actual viscosity index may, in fact, be much different from the computed value outside the temperature range of 100 to 210°F. The implication is that the viscosity index is strictly accurate only within this temperature range. Bulk modulus of elasticity is a measure of the rigidity of the fluid. It gives an indication of how much the fluid "gives" or compresses under pressure . This is particularly important in positioning circuits where the fluid must act almost like a solid to maintain accuracy even with changes in load. Mathematically , bulk mod102
Hydraulic Fluids
Chap. 6
TABLE 61
VISCOSITY IND EX (FROM LUBRICATING ENGINEERS MANUAL, © UNITED STATES STEEL CORPORATION )
V I'
sus 2 10 F 0 5 10 15 20
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
138 136 135
422 414 405 397 389
5% 584 570 557 545
78 1 763 745 727 710
976 953 930 907 884
1182 1153 1124 1095 1066
1399 1364 1329 1294 1259
1627 1585 1543 1502 1460
1865 1816 1767 1718 1670
2 115 2059 2002 1946 1889
2375 2311 2246 2 182 2 117
2646 2573 2500 2427 2355
2928 2846 2765 2683 260 1
3220 3 129 3038 2947 2856
3524 3423 3323 3222 3 12 1
3838 3727 3616 3505 3394
4163 4042 3920 3799 3677
4498 4366 4233 410 1 3968
4845 4701 4557 4413 4269
5202 5046 4890 4734 4578
5570 5402 5234 5065 4897
5959 5768 5587 5406 5225
6339 6145 5950 5756 5562
0 5 10 15 20
132
25 30 35 40 45
130 129 127 126 124
243 238 234 230 225
380 372 364 355 347
532 5 19 506 493 480
692 674 656 638 62 1
861 837 8 14 79 1 768
1038 1009 980 95 1 92 2
1224 1188 1153 1118 1083
1418 1376 1334 1293 1251
1621 1572 1523 1474 1425
1833 1776 1720 1663 1607
2053 1989 1924 1860 1795
2282 2209 2136 2063 1990
2520 2438 2356 2274 2 193
2765 2674 2583 2492 240 1
302 1 2920 28 19 27 18 26 18
3284 3173 3062 295 1 2840
3556 3434 33 13 3 191 3070
3836 3703 357 1 3438 3306
4125 398 1 3837 3693 3549
4423 4267 4111 3955 3799
4729 456 1 4392 4224 4056
5044 486 3 4682 450 1 4320
5368 5 173 4979 4785 4590
25 30 35 40 45
50 55
123 121 119 118 116
22 1 2 16 2 12 207 203
339 330 322 3 14 305
468 455 442 429 416
603 585 568 550 532
745 722 699 676 653
893 864 835 806 777
1048 978 943 908
1209 1167 1125 1084 1042
1377 1328 1279 1230 1181
1551 1494 1438 1381 1325
173 1 1667 160 2 1538 1473
1918 1845 1772 1699 1626
2 111 2029 1948 1866 1788
23 11 2220 2 129 2038 1947
25 17 24 16 23 16 22 15 2 114
2729 26 18 2507 23% 2285
2948 2827 2705 2584 2462
3 173 304 1 2908 2776 2643
3405 3261 3 117 2937 28 29
3643 3487 333 1 3 175 30 19
3888 37 19 355 1 3383 32 15
4139 3957 3776 3595 34 14
4396 4202 4007 38 13 36 19
50 55 60 65 70
90 95
115 113 112 110 109
199 194 190 185 181
297 288 280 272 263
403 39 1 378 365 352
5 14 497 479 461 443
630 606 583 560 537
749 720 69 1 662 633
873 837 802 767 732
1000 958 9 16 875 833
1132 1083 1035 986 937
1268 1212 1155 1099 1042
1409 1345 1280 1216 1151
1553 1480 1408 1335 1262
1703 1621 1539 1457 1376
1856 1765 1674 1583 1492
2014 19 13 1812 17 11 161 1
2 175 2064 1953 184 2 1731
2341 22 19 2098 1976 1855
25 11 2378 2246 2 113 1981
2685 254 1 2397 2253 2 109
2864 2708 255 1 23% 2240
3046 2878 27 10 2542 2373
3233 3052 287 1 2690 2509
3425 3230 3036 2842 2647
75 80 85 90 95
100 105 110 115 120
107 106 104 103 101
176 172 167 163 159
255 247 238 230 222
339 326 3 14 30 1 288
426 408 390 372 355
5 14 491 468 445 422
604 575 546 5 17 488
697 662 627 592 557
79 1 749 707 666 624
888 839 790 74 1 693
986 930 873 8 17 760
1087 1023 958 894 829
1189 1116 1043 970 898
1294 12 12 113 1 1049 %7
1401 1310 1219 1128 1037
1510 1409 1309 1208 1107
1620 1509 1398 1287 1176
1733 161 2 1490 1369 1247
1848 1716 1583 1451 1318
1965 1821 1677 1533 1389
2084 1928 1772 1616 1460
2205 2037 1869 1700 1532
2328 2 147 1966 1785 1604
2453 2259 2064 1870 1676
100 105 110 115 120
125 130 135 140
99 98 96 95
154 150 145 141
213 205 197 188
275 262 249 236
337 3 19 30 1 284
399 375 352 329
460 431 402 373
522 486 451 416
582 540 498 457
644 595 546 497
704 647 59 1 534
765 70 1 636 572
825 752 679 606
886 804 722 640
946 855 764 673
1007
1066 955 844 733
1126 1004 883 76 1
1186 1053 92 1 788
1245 1101 957 8 13
1305 1149 993 806
1364 11% 1027 859
1423 1242 1061 880
1482 1287 1093 899
125 130 135 140
>< 60
~ 65 70
.§
75
. ~ 80 85
133
IOU
Vertical bo ld type  visco sity ind ex . H orizo ntal bold t ype he ad ings S US @ 2 10 F . tabled values a re S U S @ 100 F
....
0 Col
210 F
265 26 1 256 252 247
.;
>
I sus
40
906 805 704
100000 AI'. BI' 1"
Stroke x 2.0
~
Stroke x 4.0
5. Compute the stop tube length if one is applica ble (Fig. 85). Stop tub es are used on the cylinder rod s bet ween the piston and the end cap to pre vent overextension of the rod when the cylinder is fully ex tende d . Misalignm ent , due to long stro kes and unsupported weight, so metimes cau ses rod jackknifing or buckling if the piston rod is allowed to extend the piston fully to the
Figure 85
Sec. 82
Cylinders
Stop t ube length .
167
TABLE 83
PISTON ROD DIAMETER FOR MAXIMUM LOADING *
...en
Piston rod dia mete r in.lmm
co
Load (lbf) 100 150 250 400 700 1,000 1,400 1,800 3,200 4,000 5,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 16,000 20,000 30,000 40 ,000 50,000 60, 000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 160 ,000 200,000 250,000 300,000
V l6 65/165 50/127 38/97 29/74 21/53 17/43 14/36 10/25
1/25
100/254 78/198 58/ 147 48/122 40/102 30/76 25/64 22/56 20/5 1 18/46 15/38 12/30 11 /28
Ii!l35
155/ 394 112/284 94/239 78/ 198 58/ 147 50/ 127 44/ 112 39/99 35/89 30/76 26/66 23/58 18/46 14/ 36

* Tab led
values are stroke in in.l c m.
W 44
190/483 160/406 132/ 335 98/249 85/2 16 75/ 191 67/99 60/ 152 52/132 46/1 17 42/107 35/89 29/7 4 19/48 10/25
2/5 1
210/533 175/44 5 130/ 330 11 0/ 279 98/249 88/224 78/ 198 671170 60/ 152 54/137 46/117 40/ 102 30/76 21/53 12/ 31
21/64
275/699 210/533 170/432 158/40 1 140/356 127/ 323 110/ 279 96/244 92/234 76/ 193 68/ 173 52/132 40/102 30/76 13/33
3/76
300/762 257/653 228/579 200/508 182/462 156/396 138/351 125/3 18 108/274 95/24 1 77/ 196 64/ 163 54/ 137 44/ 112 28/71
31/89
300/762 2801711 252/640 220/559 192/488 178/452 152/ 386 136/345 110/279 94/239 84/2 13 74/188 57/ 145 43/ 109 29/7 4
4/102
300/762 290/737 260/660 236/599 200/508 180/457 145/368 125/318 111/282 101/257 85/2 16 70/178 58/ 147 44/ 112 10/25
4!1 114
300/762 295/749 254/645 228/579 183/465 159/404 140/ 356 130/ 330 110/279 97/246 84/2 13 73/ 185 62/ 157 38/97
5/120
300/762 275/699 220/559 190/483 170/432 155/394 135/343 120/305 11 0/279 97/246 85/2 16 64/ 163
51/ 140
Loa d (k N)
300/762 275/699 240/6 10 2 12/538 192/488 168/427 148/ 376 136/ 345 124/315 112/284 93/236 69/ 175 10/25
0.45 0.67 1.11 1.78 3. 11 4.45 6.23 8.00 14.23 17.79 22.24 26.68 35.58 44.48 53.38 71. 17 88.96 133.44 177.92 222.40 266.88 355.84 444.8 533.76 622.72 7 11.68 889.60 1112.0 1334.0
end of the cylinder. Stop tubes spa ce the piston away from the cylind er end to prevent thi s condition and increase bearing life . Oversized cylind er rod s are not considered an acceptable substitute for cylinder rod stops since they are more expensive , add weight to the system, and if misalignment doe s occur, promote be arin g and seal wear bec au se of increased stiffness of the oversized rod. Stop tub e length is computed using the formula S top T u be Lengt h
=
Corrected Length  40 in. 10
(8 3)
Additional bearing surface at the rod support end of th e cy linder and/ or double piston construction may be necessary for unu sually long stro kes or heav y load s. Example 3 Compute the diameter of a cy linder rod to be used in a cy linde r with a bore diameter of 3 in ., op erating at a maximum pre ssure of 2000 lbf/in. ", cen ter trun nion mounted with a 20in. stro ke (Fig . 86) . Compute the length of the stop tube if one is applicable .
Solution 1. Th e co lumn strength factor from Table 82 equ als 1.5. 2. The corrected length of the rod is then computed from Corrected Length
= 20 x 1.5 = 30 in.
3. Th e thru st on the rod is computed from sys tem maximum pre ssure and the diameter of the cy linder.
F=p XA F
= 2000
x 7.07
=
14,143 Ibf
4. The pist on rod diameter is det erm ined from Table 83 by first locating the ne xt larger value, 16,000, in the left hand column, and moving ac ross to 35, the corrected rod length. Finally, read ing upward to the value at the top , a rod diameter of P/4 in. is indic ated .
Fluid at 2000 ps i
3 in. bo re  L cylind er
Figure 8·6
Sec. 82
Cyl inders
Exa mple 3.
169
5. Finally. stop tube length is computed from Eq . 83 Stop Tube Length
=
Corrected Length  40 in. 10
Stop Tube Length
=
30  40 10
=)
The minus value indicates that a stop tube for a corrected cylinder length under 40 in. is not appropriate in this application.
83 CUSHIONING DEVICES
Cushioning devices are provided in the ends of hydraulic cylinders or as separate units when loads must be decelerated. Hydraulic shocks to the cylinder and system are reduced by slowing down the piston just before it contacts the cylinder end caps . The sleeve or speartype cushioning device is often used as the decelerating mechanism . The energy absorbed by decelerating a body in motion is converted to heat and dissipated to the environment through the fluid and cylinder body. Refer to Fig. 87. As the piston completes its extension stroke, the slightly tapered end cushioning sleeve enters the rod end cap blocking the normal flow of fluid. The flow of fluid is then rerouted through the bypass port and needle valve at a controlled rate, decelerating the piston. Cushioning at the head end of the cylinder during the retraction stroke is accomplished in the same manner by the action of the tapered cushioning spear plunger as it enters the end cap . This blocks the normal flow of fluid and causes fluid to be rerouted through the bypass port and metering valve to decelerate the piston. The check valve, shown only on the blank end of the cylinder, is used to direct fluid at system pressure to the full area of the piston during acceleration.
Figure 8'
170
Cylinder cushioning devices (court esy of Cart er Controls . Inc.).
Hydraulic Cylinders and Cushioning Devices
Chap. 8
The force exerted by a body put into motion is derived from Newton 's law F= Ma
(84)
where the mass (M) is equal to the weight of the body (IV) divided by the acceleration (g) due to gravity , and the acceleration (a) is that given to the body. In notation , IV
M=g
(85)
The force then becomes
w Xa F=g
(86)
where the force (F) is in Ibf (N), the weight (w) is in Ibf (N), the acceleration or deceleration of the body (a) is in ft/sec? (m /s) and the acceleration due to gravity (g) is in ft/sec? (rn/s). An acceleration force factor (ga) can be defined as
a
s: = g
(87)
where the acceleration factor (ga) is without dimension. Values for the acceleration factor (ga) may be read from graphs (Fig. 88) or computed from the acceleration (a) given to the body. The acceleration (a) of a body, for example , attached to a hydraulic cylinder, is computed through a stroke (5) to a velocity (v) . That is (88)
where the acceleration (a) is in ft /sec, the velocity (v ) is in ft /sec and the stro ke (5) is in ft. If the velocity is given in ft /min and the stro ke is in in. , the formula becomes v2 3,600
a=
2 x 5 12
and a
v2
=S x
.00166
(89)
If the acceleration due to gravity (g) is given the value 32.2 ft/sec, the acceleration factor (g a) thus becomes
s, =
v 2 x .00166 5 x 32.2
and 2
s; = Sv Sec. 83
Cushioning Devices
x .0000517
(8 I0)
171
300
.....
rTTT
rrrrr
N
Qj
:; c
'E
... '"c. ~ :=.. '"
60
I
'(3
o
E
I V
40I
30
,
V
20I
V
. "/"./
15
/"
'Vi,./V
10
~~
0.010
t,../
v
V
V
V
V
V
91.4
.>
b::
61.0
~
t:: t:: ~ . /
V
k
V
I~ ~ / v . . . i
v
I
V ~t5"/ ........ v""""V ___ ' 1/V
V
VV~V
V
[.....< p ~
V~t::~t::~~k V vV'
~~r;/VV /
/ . '>
~
I II I I
V V
 (5) F= Wg W
V'
I
VV V ~ /VVVVV~
 (4)F = Wg + W
~V/VVV
I
I
>
I
._J,~~E:::~VV V
:3
.S X "' E
i
vvt::~V
V
I
I
,  If load friction (II I, 10~I~d. 4+~' S  1 ;0./25 mm add or subtract as appl icable . S = 1~ 1n./31 mm ........ 80I ' Cy linder friction need not be S = 11 . 38 ~t::/': considered since it is insignificant . 2 I~.~ ~V ./ ) ~ i n most applications. S = 1% 1n./44 m m /
... >
 (1)F = Wg  (2) F = W(g + f  (3) F = W(g  f
t: 100
>
a;
I" l
III I
For horizontal motion To accelerate or decelerate To accelerate load and overcome friction 200I 'T o decelerate load and friction For vertical motion Accelerat ion upward or deceleration 150I f downward Acceler ation downward or deceleration upward
..I
t.
""""
V~
V
.....
f  
/'
5= 1 " ~
ceW~'3
Figure 88 Acce leration force factor gra ph.
18.3
...>
II>
'"E
' (3 0
4
. ._
i I I
~\o(\
_ . . 1
(\ce 6\
. f
 
. I
0.20 0.25 0.30 0.40 0 .50
9  accelerat ion force factor
24.4
Pt 5 ' J " ,
E
......'" >
II6.1
= = = 
4.6
I~ 3
11 11
0.15
30.5
.S
a;

0.0150.02 0.0250.03 0.040.050.06 0.08 0.10 0.07 0.09
:3
VV
~c
V
:
i
~\o(\

...
Qj

V
5 = 1" I ~e~'3 4 oece , o~
V
45.7
0.70 0.90 0.60 0.80 1.00
1.50
2.00
The force exerted on or by the system that is attributable only to the weight being accelerated or decelerated equals (811)
if tabled values for gu are used , and IV X
S
F =
v2
x .0000517
(8 12)
for computed value s of gu. Example 4 Compute the force required to de celerate a free bod y weighing 8,000 Ibf (35,584 N ) from 120 ft /min (36. 576 m/min ) within a distance of 1.5 in. (0.038 1 m) (See Fig. 89. ) Solution
First, compute the acceleration factor ( gil) using Eq, 8 10 gil
v2
= :f x
gil =
0.0000517
(120)2
IT x
0.0000517
and gil
= 0.496
Finally , compute the force to accelerate bod y using Eq . 811
F
=
8,000 x 0.496
=
3,968 Ibf
In SI metric unit s the solutio n is computed using the same method and Eq s. 87 and 81 I.
v2 2 x S v2 gil =  g = 2gS
and 1
gil
= (36.576 mlmin x 1/60 min /sec )2 = 0496 (2)(9.8 m/ s2 )(0.038 m) .
Finally , solving for the force to decelerate the body using Eq. 811 F = w
X
gil = (35,584 N)(0.496) = 17.649 kN
8000 Ibs.
J II
Decelerat ion
+i ~ distance 1.5 in. Sec. 83
Cus h io n ing Dev ices
Figure 8·9
Example 4.
173
When a friction factor (f) acts to impede the motion of a body, it must be added to the total force when the body is accelerated and subtracted from the total force when the body is decelerated. For tabled values of the acceleration factor (g a), the basic acceleration or deceleration formula becomes F
=w
F
=
w x
X ga ±
f
and (813)
w(ga ± f)
For computed values of s, F
= w
[( .0000517
X~2) ± f]
(814)
If the coefficient of friction factor (f) is greater than the acceleration factor (g a) and negative, then a negative force (F) results from these two formulas . The additional force being imparted to a vertically moving body being accelerated or decelerated must also be considered and consists of the load resistance of the body itself (w). This situation exists, for example, when a hydraulic elevator must be accelerated or decelerated, and the load must be added or subtracted appropriately. For tabled values of the acceleration factor (ga), the total force during acceleration or deceleration equals F
=
w(ga ± f) ± w
Specifically, the following conditions may exist:
+w w( ga  f) + w w(ga + f)  w
(815)
F = w(ga  f)  w
(818)
Accelerate upward
F
=
Decelerate downward
F
=
Accelerate downward
F
=
Decelerate upward
w(ga + f)
(816)
(817)
Similar formulas are obtained if computed values are substituted for the acceleration factor (g a). For bodies moving horizontally, the additional force (F,J imparted to the body by an actuator that continues to have fluid power applied to it during deceleration must be added to compute the total force . For a body actuated by a cylinder, for example, the formula to compute the total force during deceleration , including friction, is
F
=
w(ga  f) + Fa
(819)
for tabled values of the acceleration factor (ga), and
F
=
w [(.0000517 x
~)

f] + Fa
(820)
for computed values of ga' This is the case existing when a cushioning device is used on the rod side of the piston to decelerate the load as fluid continues to be 174
Hydraulic Cylinders and Cushioning Devices
Chap. 8
supplied to the blind side of the piston. A similar condition exists when a separate cushioning device is used to decelerate a load moving under a continued force supplied by a cylinder actuator. Example 5
Compute the total force necessary to decelerate a load of 1,500 Ibf (6672 N) traveling at 50 ftlmin (15.24 m/min) with a coefficient of friction (f) of 0.12 within a distance of 3/4 in. (0.01905 m). The cylinder actuator moving the load resistance has a 3in. (0.0762 m) bore operating at a maximum relief valve pressure of 750 lbf/in.? (5.172 MPa) (Fig. 810). Solution Since the load is moving horizontally and decelerating under an applied force (Fa), the formulas used are Eq. 819 F = w(ga  f)
+
Fa
for tabled values of the acceleration factor ( g ll), or Eq. 820 F =
II'
[(.0000517
X~2)  f]
+ F lI
for computed values of g ll' The maximum additional force (FlI ) applied by the cylinder to the load resistance during deceleration is F lI =p xA
and
FlI = 750 x 7.065 = 5,299 Ibf Using tabled values for the acceleration factor (gll) (see Fig . 88), the velocity of the load resistance, 50 ftlmin, is located first in the left margin of the table. Moving horizontally to the right, locate the line indicating the length of the stroke (5) for deceleration. This is 3/4 in. Then, moving vertically down to the lower margin, locate the acceleration factor , which is approximately 0.172 . Substituting in Eq. 819
F = 1,500(0.172  0.12) + 5299
and
= 78 + 5299 = 5377 Ibf
F
750 psi relief pressure
1500 load Friction coefficient 0.12
_..  ~ 50 ft /m in
3 in. bore cyl inder
Figure 8·10
Sec. 83
Deceleration distance 0.75 in.
~I ~
/
Cushioning Devices
Example 5.
175
Using Eq. 820 for computed values for the acceleration factor ( ga)' the final force (F) would be computed similarly.
F =
IV
[ ( .0000517
~2)
X
F = 1,500 [ ( .0000517 x
 0.12] + Fa
(~~n

0.12] + 5298.75
and F = 1,500(.052) + 5299 F
= 78 + 5299 = 5377 Ibf
which is the same value obt ained using tabled values for ga' In 81 metric unit s, solving for g" using Eq , 87,
s,
= ~ = (15.24 m/mi n. x
1160 min/sec) 2 = 0 172 (2)(9.8 m/s 2 )(0.019 m) .
2gS
Finally, solving for the deceleration force using Eq , 8 19,
F = lV( g"  f ) + F" and F = (6672 N)(O.I72  0.12)
+ (23 576 N)
= 23922 N
The pres sure generated on the cushion side of the piston is a function of the force app lied and must be taken into account to prevent rupturing the cylinder. An example illustrates this computation. Example 6 Assuming a total deceleration force of 7,500 Ibf on the stationary end of a cylinder with a 3in. bore and I lizin . single end cylinder rod , compute the fluid pre ssure at the rod end of the cylinder (Fig. 81 I) . Solution Fluid pre ssure at the rod end of the cylinder is computed from the force applied duri ng deceleration and the effective area. The effective area of the cylinder 7500 Ibf force
Pressure
3 in . bore
/
Rod d iameter 1.5 in .
Mete ring device
Figure 811 Ex ample 6.
176
Hydraulic Cylinde rs and Cushio ning Devices
Chap . 8
Shoc k
!! absorbers
(a) Stopping of loads transferring from one convey or to anotherpaper rolls , met al coils , slabs, other large loads.
(bl Un iform decelerat ion of product s in aut omati c assembly op erations .
Shoc k absorber
(c) Hydraulic bumpers for railroad cars; endstops for inp lant mater ial tra nsf er cars.
/
/
/'?\
(e) Cushion ing for roll over applicati ons o f all types.
Load force
(d) Disappearing stops in material handling transfe r lines.
Shock absorber
(f) Forward and reverse cushion ing
of shuttle devices.
Figure 812 Typical deceleration application using shock absorbers.
Sec. 83
Cushion ing Dev ices
177
at the rod end is
and AI = 7.065  1.766 = 5.299 in.?
Pre ssur e in the cylinder is then computed from
F p =A and _ 7500 _
p  5.299  1414
tbf/ '
tn.
2
Thi s is the pre ssure the cylinder or cu shioning device must withstand. Since it is at the rod end that has the smalles t effective area, given the same deceleration force in both directions, it will generate the highest unit pressure (lbf/in. t) that must be contained by the cy linder. External hydraulic energy absorbing devices also are employed many times to reduce shock loading of machinery that would result in failure. Carriage stops on turntables , doors, tran sfer machines , turnover s, and small cr ane s requiring controlled deceleration use the se devices (Fig. 812). In operation, fluid is metered through adj ustable orifice s for a wide range of impact load s and velocities. In Fig. 813 , for ex ample , liquid is metered through the orifice plate valve along the tapered metering pin as the piston is forced into the cylinder. Adju stment is accomplished by removing the protective plug and rotating the adjustment screw with a hexagonal socket ke y for more or less damping. The hardened and chrome plated tubular piston re sists buckling and side load s under impact. The metered liquid is stored in the springloaded separator chamber which also repositions the piston. Gu ide Bu sh ing s Wiper.Scraper Seal
Ta pe re d Meter ing P in
NcnE xtr usion Seals
Cyl inde r P rot ec ti ve P lug
A Mount ing Flange
pa rat or Da s hpot Heo d Orifice Vo lve P late Adjus table Meteri ng Scr e w
Figure 8·13 Typical hydraulic shock abso rber with fullrange adjustability (courtesy of Enidi ne Corporation).
178
Hydrau lic Cylinders and Cush ioning Devices
Chap . 8
84 SUMMARY
Hydraulic cylinders convert the high energy level of the fluid to a linear motion by applying the fluid to the movable piston. Movement thereby accomplishes the output objective of the system and lowers the energy level of the fluid, after which it is returned to the reservoir at low pressure . Cylinders are sized not only to meet the force and distance requirements of the machine , but also to provide the strength needed to prevent buckling. The most severe example is rear flange mounting with the piston rod unsupported , which requires an increase in the stroke by a column strength factor of four to provide the necessary strength. One means to prevent overstroking is to install stop tubes on the cylinder rod to limit the stroke. Hydraulic cylinders extend and retract to complete a cycle and sometimes include stepped or spear type cushioning devices in the ends to prevent shock loading and noise associated with inertia and overrunning loads. External cushioning devices are another means to prevent shock loading and use a hydraulic shock absorber principle. They are constructed with springreturned, adjustable pistons and internal metering devices. In both cases , the force to be absorbed by the cylinder or external cushioning device is computed from the magnitude of the load , hydraulic force , acceleration , direction of travel , and the friction factor. S TU D Y QU ESTIONS A ND P R OB LEMS 1. Ignoring friction and fluid losses, how large would the blank end of a cylinder operating at 2000 lbf/in. ? have to be to raise 25 tons? 2. Compute the linear speed of a 2in. bore cylinder receiving fluid at 5 gal/min. 3. A cylinder has a bore of 4 in. and a rod diameter of 2 in. Compute the velocity of the cylinder as it extends and retracts if 10 gal/min is supplied to the system. 4. A lOkN car and 5kN hoist are supported 1.8 m above the floor by a cylinder with a 300mm bore . What pressure will this develop in the system? S. If the car in Problem 4 is lowered at 0.33 ftlsec, what would be the velocity of the fluid through the return line if the cylinder were plumbed with lin, Schedule 40 pipe (clue: see Table 81 for pipe dimensions). 6. A cylinder with a 7cm bore and 2.5cm rod receives fluid at 40 I/min. What is the velocity of the cylinder rod extending and returning? 7. If the cylinder in Problem 6 has a stroke of 40 ern, what is the maximum cycle rate that might be achieved? 8. A hydraulic cylinder with a 2.5in. bore and a 1.25in. cylinder rod receives fluid at 12 gal/min through 3/4 in. Schedule 40 pipe. What is the velocity of the fluid through the return line when the cylinder is retracting (clu e: draw an illustration showing the direction of flow). 9. Calculate the corrected length and diameter size for a piston rod in a rear trunnion mounted hydraulic cylinder that must exert a 5ton force through a 24in. stroke. 10. A center trunnion mounted cylinder with a 35mm diameter cylinder rod and 100cm stroke is extending under a force of 35 kN. How far can the cylinder safely extend without exceeding the recommended stroke? Chap. 8
Study Questions and Problems
179
11. A rear flange mounted cy linder extends 14 in. under a load of 10,000 lbf. What size cylinder rod would be required ? 12. For the cylinder in Problem II, what stop tube length would be required ? 13. Compute the force required to decelerate a free bod y weighing 2000 lbffrom 150ft/min within a distance of 2 in. 14. A 3in. bore cylinder operating at 2000 lbf/in .? is driving a load of 3000 Ibf horizontally at 20 ft/min . Compute the force nece ssary to decelerate the load within a distance of 2 in. if the coefficient of friction is 0.15. 15. A hydraulic cu shioning device has a 2in. bore and a 0.75in. cylinder rod . If the fluid pressure on the rod end of the cylinder increases as a result of absorbing a total deceleration force of 6000 lbf, what is the pressure generated ? 16. Neglecting friction, what force could be expected from the rod end of a cylinder with a 5in. bore if the blank end receives fluid at 2500 Ibf/in. 2? 17. A filled drum weighing 2 kN rolls against a cushing device at I m/s. If friction is negligible, what force would be required to decelerate the drum within 2 em? 18. If in Problem 17 the force is absorbed through a hydraulic cushioning device with a cylinder bore of 350 mrn, what pressure could be expected? 19. A 2000 lbf elevator with a 1000 lbf cargo descends at 2 ft/sec. If the friction factor equals 0.08, and the elevator decelerates within a distance of 6 in., what force downward would the cushioning device have to absorb? 20. In Problem 19, what would be the deceleration distance if the elevator were ascending and the cushioning device absorbed the same deceleration force?
180
Hydraulic Cylinders and Cushioning Devices
Chap. 8
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _CHAPTfR
9
HYDRAULIC MOTORS
91 INTRODUCTION
Rotary actuators convert the energy in the pressurized fluid to the turning motion of a shaft. They exert both limited rotation, as in the case of torque motors , and continuous rotation as with hydraulic motors (Fig. 91). Limited rotation actuators use several novel arrangements of pistons and vanes to achieve rotation, from a few degrees to several rotations . Continuous rotation actuators, commonly called hydraulic motors, use internal geometry similar to gear, vane, and piston pumps to achieve continuous angular motion of the shaft. In addition to offtheshelf units, there are a number of specialized hydraulic motors. Radial piston motors , for example , exert a high torque, low speed characteristic because of the size and geometry of the piston arrangement around a common crankshaft. Twospeed operation of these units is achieved by delivering pressurized fluid to the pistons in sequence or in tandem pairs. Another application of the radial piston motor concept is wheel motors, used for agricultural equipment and offtheroad vehicles. Wheel motors are available as stationary bolton units and as steerable yoke units. The machine tool industry and other precision applications make extensive use of electrohydraulic pulse motors to provide precise positioning and velocity control. These units combine a low power digital stepping motor with a high power precision hydraulic piston motor to achieve a position or speed in proportion to the input pulse rate of the control signal. 181
Actuators
I Linear
I
Rotary
I~
Limited rotation r
Piston
Continuous rot at io n
I ..,
Gear Vane
Vane
Piston HTLS
Wheel motors
EHPM
Figure 91
Actuator cla ssificat ion.
92 TORQUE, SPEED, POWER, AND EFFICIENCY
Rotary actuators convert system pressurized fluid to torque at the dutput shaft. Theoretical torque at the output shaft is derived by equating the basic fluid horsepower formula to the brake horsepower formul a (as wa s done in Eq. 211) and solving for the va lue of T. That is,
p X Q 1,714
=
T xN 5,252
T = p x Q x 5, 252 N x 1,714
in Ibfft
It is ob served in the formula that
Q =v, 

N
(91)
231
where the volume di splacement of the motor ( V m) is in in .! per re volution . If torque in lbfin . is de sired , then T = p
x
Vm x 5,252 x 12 231 x 1,714
and
or (92) where torque ( T) is computed in lbfin. , pressure is in lbf/in .", and displacement of the motor (Vm) is in in .' per revolution. 182
Hy draulic M otors
Chap. 9
Example 1 Compute the theoretical torque from a rotating hydraulic motor operating at 2000 lbf/in. ? with a displacement of 0.5 in. ! per revolution . Solution
Th eoretical torque is computed fro m Eq . 92 T =p x V m x 0.16
a nd T = 2000 x 0.5 x 0.16 = 160 Ibfin.
It should be noticed that the torque is not affected by changes in speed or flow rate so long as the pre ssure remains constant, since from Eq . 91,
v,
Q N
231
Also notice that the theoretical speed (N) of the motor is computed by solving for N N
=
231 x Q
Vm where the speed (N ) of the motor is in rpm. Similarly , theoretical flow through the motor (Q) in gal/min is computed by solving Eq . 91 for Q: Q
v, x N = '...,,231
Example 2 Compute the th eoretical speed of a fluid po wer motor with a 2 in .! (0.0328 I/rev) per re volution displ acement recei ving fluid at the rat e of 7.5 ga l/min (28.39 I/min). Solution
The speed can be computed from Eq . 91 N = 231 x Q
Vm and N = 231 x 7.5 = 866 rpm
2
In 81 metric units , where the displacement of the motor is given in liters and the flow rate is in liters/min, Eq. 91 simply becomes
N
Q
28.39 I/min . I/rev  866 rev /min
= Vm = 0.0328
Example 3 Compute the effective flow rate through a fluid power motor with a displacement of 0.55 in. ' per revolution turning at 3400 rpm . Sec. 92
Torque, Speed, Power, and Efficiency
183
Solution
Flow rate is computed using Eq . 91
Q=
Vm x N 231
Q=
0.55 x 3400 231
and . = 8 .09 ga II rmn
Motor efficiency is measured primarily by how well the fluid horsepower input is converted to useable brake horsepower at the motor output shaft. Overall motor efficiency can be computed by comparing the useable brake horsepower output to the fluid horsepower input. That is,
e = (J
T xN 5252   x 100 p x Q 1714
and
T xN eo = p x Q x 3.06 x 100
(93)
where the torque (T) is measured in lbfft , the speed (N) is in rpm, the pressure (p) is measured across the motor inlet and outlet ports in lbf/in .2 , and the flow rate (Q) is in gal/min. Notice that this formula is the reciprocal of the formu la for overall pump efficiency . Example 4 Compute the overa ll efficiency of a motor operating at a pre ssure of 2,000 Ibf/in .2 , a flow rate of 7.5 gallmin , a speed of 1,200 rpm and exerting a torque of 32 lbfft . Solution Ove rall efficienc y is computed fro m Eq . 93
e
o
=p
T xN x 100 x Q x 3.06
and 32 x 1,200
eo = 2,000 x 7.5 x 3.06 x 100 = 84% The volumetric effic iency of a fluid power motor can be measured by comparing the effective vo lume flow rate (Q e) ind icated by th e product of the d isplaceme nt of the motor (Vm ) times its speed (N), to the actual vo lume flow rate (Q,,) supplied to the motor. That is, e v
ev
184
=
Qe x 100
Q"
Vm x N 231
=  
x 100
Q" Hydraulic Motors
Chap. 9
and ev
v, = Qa
x N x 231 x 100
as a percent
(94)
where the displacement of the motor (Vm) is in in.! per re volution , the speed (N) is in rpm , and the actual volume flow rate ( Qa) is in gal/m in. A major factor in volumetric efficiency that gives an indication of motor condition can be mea sured by ob serving the flow rate of fluid returning from the ca se drain (q) to the reservoir and comparing this value to the tot al actual flow rate ( Qa) supplied to the motor. The percent lost to the case drain ca n then be computed using the formula Percent Case Drain Lo ss
=
Jax 100
(95)
where the ca se drain loss ( q) and the actual flow rat e ( Qa) are measured in gpm . On small motors with minimum leakage, percent case drain loss may be negligible and difficult to compute . Example 5
Compute the volume tric efficiency of a mot or with a displacement of 0. 6 in.! per revolution (0. 00983 l/ rev) turni ng at 2,400 rpm that is rece iving fluid at the rat e of 6.5 gal/min (24.61 l/ min). How much fluid might be ex pec ted to return to the rese rvo ir from the case drain if 50% of the loss in volume tric efficie ncy ca n be attributed to inte rna l leakage ? Solution
Volumetric efficiency for thi s motor is co mputed from Eq. 94 Vm x N ev = Qa x 231 x 100
0.6 x 2,400 e., = 6.5 X 231 x 100 = 95.9% In SI met ric units , where the displacement is give n in liter s/re v, and the del ivery in liters/min , Eq. 94 becomes
e., =
(0.0098 l/rev)(2400 rev/min ) (24.6 1 l/ min) x 100 = 95.9%
Th e tot al fluid flow lost from slippage through the high pre ssure ports and chambers of the pump as well as internal leak age that return s through the case drain is Tot al Fluid Loss
= 0.041
x 6.5
= 0.267 gal/min
If half thi s loss ca n be att ributed to interna l leakage Case Drain Loss Sec. 92
= 0.50 x 0.267 = 0. 134 gal/ min
Torque, Speed, Power , and Effic iency
185
Mechanical efficienc y (em) for the motor is then computed from related efficiencies the same as for hydraulic pumps. That is,
and as a percent where the overall efficienc y (eo) and volumetric efficiency (e v) are also computed as percent. This is a restatement of Eq s. 714 and 715. Example 6 Compute the mechanical efficiency of a fluid power motor that has an overall efficiency of 88% and a volumetric efficiency of 97%. Solution
Mech anic al efficiency of the motor is computed from e
m
=
eo x 100
ev
and 88 em = 97 x 100
= 90.72%
9 3 LIMITED ROTATIO N ACTUATORS
Limited rotation actuators, called torque motors, have a wide variety of applications where a limited specified degree of rotation at the output shaft is required . Rotation is usuall y limited to 720°. The y are used exten sively in indu stry for actuating clamping devices , material handling , rotating cams for braking mechanisms, tumbling and dumping, positioning and turning , and many other situations where an economical application of fluid power for limited rotation is desirable (Fig. 92). Vane type limited actuators apply fluid force to the cro ss section area of single or multiple vane s. Rack and pinion type actuators apply fluid force to the cylindrical chambers which move the rack to drive the pinion gear.
(a)
186
Figure 92 (a) Rack and pinion limited rot ation ac tuator (co urtesy of FloTork , Inc. ); (b) Vane type limited rotation actuator (co urtesy of BirdJohn son ); (c) Ty pical applications of limited rot ation actuators (co urtesy of BirdJohnson ).
Hydraul ic Motors
Chap. 9
(e)
Plug or butter f ly valve turn ing or posi ti o ning
A///~_
cy
~
Osci ll at ing harmonic mot ion
"""    ..... ,
tID 1:[
/'
I /
r

'
"
I I :' I I 1: I
I II
\
"
II , :~ : II
I
\
11'1'  11,
(g C
\
Roll over or posit ion ing f or weldi ng or machin in g f i xt ur es
Flipover between wo rk stat io ns
All bending oper ati ons
OOWELED CONSTRUCTION INTEGRAL GEAR AND SHAFTDESIGN
DRAIN LINE PORT MAXIMUM PEAK SIDE LOAD 4,000 LBS. MAXIMUM SIDELOAD 2,500 LBS. MAXIMUM END THRUST 2,000 LBS.·EITHER DIRECTION
Symbol Figure 919 Hightorqu e lowspeed gear mot or and redu cti on unit (courtesy of Borg Warn er).
multiplies the displacement , flow rate , and torque of the motor by the same amount. At the same time , output shaft speed is reduced to 1/5.41 of motor speed . 97 ELECTROHYDRAULIC PULSE MOTORS (EHPM)
Electrohydraulic pulse motors offer the designer, builder, and user of machines an unusual combination of power and precision for position and velocity control. EHPMs provide precision pos itioning, a high transverse rate, and very simp le control and installation. They are es sentially bolt on and use unit s. An EHPM combines a low power digital electric stepping motor with a high power preci sion hydraulic motor (Fig. 920). Con ventional square wave digital pulses are used as input commands to the electric stepping motor. Thi s , in turn , controls the direction , speed and position of the hightorque hydr aulic motor shaft. Precision control of the shaft is accomplished without requiring the use of external feedback transducers . Since clo sedloop feedback is not used , the EHPM sy stem is defined as open loop. The output shaft speed of the hydr aulic 200
Hydraulic Motors
Chap. 9
Figure 9·20 Electrohydra ulic pulse motor (cou rtesy of Sperry Vickers).
motor is in direct proportion to the input pulse rate to the electric stepping motor. Output shaft position is directly related to the number of input pulse s. The rotational direction of the output shaft is determined by the sequence in which the input pulses are applied to the various phases (or coils) of the electric stepping motor. In operation , low power digital electrical pulses, from a standard digital electronic or NC control , are fed to the electric stepping motor that rotates depending on the sequence, direction , pulse rate , and numbe r of pulses. The stepping motor opens the four way spool valve in either direction by rotating the spool through a gear set, in or out of the ball nut (Fig. 921). HydrauHydrau lic piston motor
Figure 921 ers ).
Sec. 97
Electro hydra ulic pulse motor operation (courtesy of Sp erry Vick
Electrohydraul ic Pulse Motors (EHPM)
201
lie fluid is allowed to pass to the hydraulic motor through the spool at a rate determined by the spool opening. The ball nut is coupl ed to the hydraulic motor shaft, and as the hydraulic motor rot ate s, the ball nut turn s with the spool, tending to close it. When electrical impulses stop, the spool stops rotating. The hydraulic motor continues to rotate until the attached ball nut completely closes the spool. The hydraulic motor remain s positioned under load because of the high stiffne ss of the drive . Positive logic level input pulses are fed to the 32 pha se electronic control (Fig. 922). The electric stepping motor is a fivephase motor and requires that 3 and 2 phases be alterna tely excited . The logic level comm and signal is properly sequenced into 32 phase excitation and amplified to power the electric stepping motor. This controls the fourway hydrauli c valve that , in turn , controls the hydrauli c motor output. Command
Output
Logic level co mmand pulses
+
t A C power 115 volt
Figure 922 Vick ers ).
Hydraulic pow er
Electrohydraulic pulse motor co ntrol syste m (co urtesy of Sp erry
EHPMs are controlled by digital signals and therefore are well suited for industrial applications where digital controls such as numerical control , process controllers, minicomputers, and other digital logic controls are found . The convenience and availabilit y of digital control can be used in applications requiring 120 hp. These includ e NC position and contouring systems, turret indexing , cut to length sys te ms, synchronized drive systems, grinder feed s, conveyer drive systems, ten sion syste ms, winders, and proc ess control.
98 OUTPUT PERFORMANCE AND TESTING Hydraulic motors are performance tested both at the bench and as part of complete systems to determine operation characteristic s. Bench testing of the motor determines such characteristics as torque, speed, brake hor sepower, effective flow rate , volumetric efficienc y, and overall efficiency; whereas testing the motor in a system determines its compatibility with other components. Hydrostatic drive s, for exa mple , that couple variable displacement pump s to fixed displacement motors, add braking loads and other conditions to the motor during the application of overhauling loads which test the appropriateness of the reservoir size, line sizes, oil coolers, and so on , for particular applic ation s. Motor performance data are collected in tabular form and then plotted on graph s. Independent variable s are specified (abscissa) and dependent variables 202
Hydraulic Motors
Chap . 9
(ordinate) are read directl y or computed . Independent variables usually include displacement , pre ssure , and speed. Dependent variables usually include torque , fluid hor sepower, flow rate , and volumetric efficiency . Hor sepower and speed are oftentimes interchanged and specified as independent or dependent variables depending on the purpose and application of the graph. Other variables may also be interchanged to accommodate the purposes of specific manufacturers . Graphs are commonly drawn to represent single independent versus dependent variables. Figures 923, 924, and 925 are typical for a high speed gear motor and illustrate this example. In Figure 923, output horsepower is plotted again st speed for four pre ssures. The pressure range helps the fluid power system designer select the appropriate motor for a given hor sepower requirement , since for a given pressure requirement and motor speed, the output hor sepower can be selected directly from the graph. Figure 924 illustrates the plot of input flow rate in gpm against motor speed for the same four pressures. As pressure increases , the flow rate increases slightly for any given speed, indicating increased slippage
I I
20
~Si
16 ~
,/"
;:
8.
~
~
a
:r: 8 4
o
~
~
~  v V I
1000
2000
3000 4000 Speed (rpm)
2000PS~
I
,
~12
;: a ;;:: 8
o
o
5000
6000
Figure 923 Fluid horsepo wer vs . motor speed .
I I
16
4
I
500 psi
:::: ~
20
'E .,
Lr
V ........ ' / . . . . ~1000 psiI /'
12
Q>
?
1500 psi
V
~
./' 1000
Sec. 98
~~
~
for
2000
....::
,p~
V
~ "
1500 psi
"" 1000 psi :
I :
3000 4000 Speed (rpm )
5000
6000
Output Performance and Testing
Figure 924 Oil flow vs. motor speed .
203
250
 r 
200
c
~
150

Ql
&
:. 2000 psi r i
r
100
C5
r.J
1500 psi I
I
1000 psi
~
50 500 psi
o
I o
1000
2000
3000
4000
Speed (rpm )
5000
6000
Figure 925 speed.
Motor torque
YS.
motor
through the motor with increased load. Figure 925 shows the accompanying droop in torque that occurs because of fluid slippage and increased mechanical friction . The tendency for characteristic curves to droop is an indication of the volumetric and mechanical efficiency of the unit, and is largely influenced by the design of the unit. Gear motors exhibit the greatest droop and least efficiency , but are less expensive to manufacture and purchase than equiv alent vane and piston motor counterparts. Given the approximate speed range and pressure requirements, gear motors appropriate for a specific task can be selected. Where more exacting requirements must be met over a wide range of speed and loads , for example in airborne applications, closefitting piston motors are more appropriate, even though they have a higher initial cost. Another variable affecting motor performance is the viscosity of the fluid. As fluid temperature increases , it has a tendency to thin and increase slippage . Oil that becomes too thin reduces volumetric efficiency below an acceptable minimum. Conversely, selecting a more viscous oil will increase the volumetric efficiency but may also increase mechanical friction and heat associated with excessive fluid shear. Care should be exercised to match the required viscosity of the fluid to the system at the expected operating temperature. While torque is generally considered to be constant with respect to speed for a given pressure in fixed displacement motors , the droop in the torque curves seen in Fig. 925 indicates that this is not the case. To produce a flat torque curve the speed range requires that pressure must be increased from the source to make up the fluid lost through slippage. In matching the pump to the motor in the system, this is taken into account by oversizing the pump so that the additional volume can be made up with increased pressure at higher motor speeds. This is also the case if constant speed is to be maintained at increased torque and pressure. As the load is increased on the motor, pressure and slippage increase, with some loss in speed . To maintain constant speed, pressure and fluid volume flow rate must be increased. 204
Hydraulic Motors
Chap. 9
99 SUMMARY Hydraulic motors convert the high energy level of the fluid to a more useable form by applying the fluid to the movable internal mechanism of the actuator. Movement thereby accomplishes the output objective of the system and lowers the energy level of the fluid, after which it is returned to the reservoir at low pressure. Rotary actuators include continuous as well as limited rotation devices. Limited rotation devices, sometimes called torque motors, rotate from a few degrees to several turns in both directions , and receive widespread application in the production and material handling industries. Another continuous rotation hydraulic actuator is the high torque, low speed motor, used extensively where rotation speed is low, but where substantial torque must be generated. Gear reduction units are commonly connected to the actuator in a common case to keep the size of the unit small. Applications include windlasses, crane hoists, wheel motors, mixers, and others . Rotary actuators are classified by type as gear, vane, and piston motors . Their displacement may be either fixed, as is the case with most gear motors, or variable, as can be the case with vane and piston motors. Cost and efficiency are typically lower with gear motors and higher for piston motors that represent the highest available standard in the industry with respect to precision engineering and machining. Efficiencies are also higher, although the mechanism of the motor is usually less tolerable of dirt , adverse conditions , and system degradation. Where a high level of system and fluid maintenance is provided, and costs are secondary to system quality , piston motors are preferred . Variable displacement piston motors receive widespread use in industry. Displacement may be varied either manually, or the motor may be sensitive to changes in pressure brought about by changes in the load at the output shaft. If the motor receives fluid at constant volume from the pump , a decrease in displacement is accompanied by an increase in the speed of the output shaft. The torque from the variable displacement motor varies with the change in volume displacement and the horsepower, neglecting losses, is constant since the product of the pressure and volume flow rate remains relatively the same. Variable displacement motors , then , provide the capability for a constant horsepower output. Electrohydraulic pulse motors are used on machinery where an unusual combination of power and precision for position and velocity control are required. Recent development in this technology has made them available in bolton versions suitable to a variety of applications . The output shaft speed of an EHPM is proportional to the impulse rate to the stepping motor, and the position of the output shaft is directly related to the number of input pulses. Rotation direction of the output shaft is determined by the sequence in which the input pulses are applied to the various phases of the electric stepping motor. Since EHPMs do not use a feedback loop, they are defined as open loop systems . Hydraulic motors are performance tested both at the bench and as part of complete hydraulic systems to determine characteristics such as speed, torque, brake horsepower, and efficiency. Other variables, such as fluid temperature rise and pressure drop are considered when particular applications are treated . Motor Sec. 99
Summary
205
performance data are typically collected in table form and then transposed to graphs using suitable independent and dependent variables. STUDY QUESTIONS AND PROB LEMS 1. Compute the speed of a hydraulic motor with a fixed displacement of 2.2 in.Vrev receiving fluid at 5 gal/min . 2. What flow rate at 4000 lbf/in .? would it take for a hydraulic motor to deliver 20 FHP? 3. What is the displ acement of a hydraulic motor receiving 18 gal/min at 1500 rev /min? 4. What flow rate would be required to drive a hydraulic motor with a displacement of 20 cmt/rev turning at 2000 rev /min? 5. What FHP would the motor in Problem 4 deliver at a pressure of 25 MPa? 6. What theoretical torque could a 5 hp motor be expected to deliver at a rated speed of 1000 rev/min? 7. If in Problem 6 the pre ssure remains constant at 1750 Ibf/in . 2 , what effect would doubling the speed have on torque? How about halving the speed ? What about at stall? Construct a table listingfiow rate, speed, torqu e, and power to explain what happens . 8. What is the SI metric equivalent of Eq . 91? 9. Compute the theoretical torque from a hydraulic motor with a displacement of2 .5 in. 3 / rev operating at 1500 lbf/in ", 10. What theoretical torque could be expected from a hydraulic motor with a displacement of 75 crnvrev operating at 15 MPa? 11. As suming no volumetric los se s, what is the operating speed of a hydraulic motor with a 28 cm l /rev displacement receiving fluid at 45 liters/minute? U. At what pre ssure mu st a hydraulic motor with a displacement of 3.6 in. Vre v operate to deliver a torque of 50 Ibf/ft? 13. A hydraulic motor with a displacement of 1.1 in.t/rev operates at 1500 rev /min. Assuming no volumetric losses, what mu st be the deli very to the motor? 14. Compute the overall efficiency of a hydraulic motor that operates at a pre ssure of 2500 lbf/in. ", a flow rate of 5 gal/min , a speed of 1500 re v/min, a nd a torque of 20 Ibfft. 15. What is the overall efficiency of a hydraulic motor with a displacement of 4.2 in. t /rev that delivers 78 Ibfft of torque at 1000 rev /min and 1750 lbf/in ."? 16. In a bench test of a gear motor, it was found that a maximum overall efficiency of 84% was achieved at a pressure drop of 3400 lbf/in .? across the ports when the ratio of the flow rate to speed was 0.01. Compute the torque and displacement of the motor. 17. Compute the volumetric efficiency of a hydraulic motor with a displaceme nt of 0.55 in. Vrev turning at 1800 rev /min and receiving fluid at 5 gal /mi n . How much fluid car. be expected to return through the case drain if 75% of the loss in volumetric efficie ncy can be attributed to internal leakage? 18. If the expected wear over the life ofa hydraulic motor with a displacement of 4 in .Vrev results in a ca se drain loss of 3% , how much fluid will be returned through the case drain line at 1200 rev /min? 19. Compute the mechanical efficiency of a motor with a n overall efficiency of 85% and a volumetric efficiency of 95%. 20. Describe the major difference between piston motors and pumps.
206
Hydraulic Motors
Chap. 9
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _CHAPTER
10
VALVES
101 INTRODUCTION
Valve s control the pressure , rate of flow, and direction of fluids in accorda nce with basic principles of flow. Several valves classified by function are listed in Table 101. Pressure control valves limit and reduce pre ssure, sequence hydraulic operations by stepping system pressure, and counterbalance such external load s as vertical pre sses so they can 't fall by maintaining backpressure on the underside of the pre ss cylinders. The y are also used to unload slack cycle circuits at low pre ssure to reduce power consumption and provide switch signals at specified pre ssures to interface hydraulic systems with adjacent electrical controls. Flow control valves vary the fluid flow rate using restrictions in fluid passages which may be fixed, variab le, or flow and pres sure compensated. Directional control valves are used to check, divert , shuttle, proportion , and by other mean s manage the flow of fluid in one , two , three , four , or more ways. Pressure and flow compensation are commonly included in directional control valves . Valve s may be direct acting because of the arrangement of the internal mec hanism design, or pilot operated from an adjacent or remote location. The act uat ing force to operate the valve can be supplied manually by the human operator, directly by the fluid under pressure or from a pilot circuit, or by electrical devices such as solenoids or servo electric drive s. The internal mechanisms which physically accomplish the valving action use a variety of elements including poppets, diaphragms, flat slides , balls, round shearaction plate s, and rotating or sliding spools (Table 102). Other considerations related to valves in hydraulic transmission control include appropriate valve sizing, control pane ls, remote circuitry servo valve controls, and valve testing . 207
TABLE 101
VALVE FUNCTIONS CLASSIFICATION
Pressure co ntro l
Flow control
Directional co ntrol
Pressur e relief Hydraulic fuse Pressure reducing Sequencing Unloading Counte rbalance Press ure switches
Fixed Variable Compensated Dece leration Flow divider Electrohydraulic Servo
Two way Chec k Shuttle Three way Fou r way Limit switches Proportional electro hydra ulic Servo
TABLE 10·2
VALVE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS CLASSIFICATION
Pressure cont rol
Flow co ntro l
Direct ion contro l
Direct acting
j
j
j
Pilot operated
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
MODE OF OPERATION
METHOD OF ACTUATION Manu al Flu id
j
Electrica l ACTUATING ELEMENT Popp et
j
j
j
Diaphragm Plug
j
j
Ball
j
j
Rotating spool Sliding spool
j
j
j
j
j
102 PRESSURE CONTROL VAL VES Relief valves are the most common of the pre ssure control valves . They are located near the pump outlet to protect the pump and provide the system plumb ing and components with protection again st pre ssure overload s. The y also limit the output force exerted by cylinders and rotary motors. Circuits using positive fixed displacement pumps must have pre ssure relief valve s. Figure 101 illustrates the operation of a directacting springtype ball relief valve . Spring pressure act s to keep the ball element again st the seat and the valve in the closed position. System pre ssure at the port marked " inlet" acts again st 208
Valves
Chap. 10
Out let
Sy m bo l
Figure 101 Directacting springtype ball relief valve (co urtesy of Sperry Vickers ).
the exposed area of the ball. When the force of the fluid (press ure x area) becomes greater than the opposing resi stance offered by the spring, the ball is forced from its seat, the valve opens, and fluid is directed to the reser voir at low pre ssure through the port marked "outlet. " The pre ssure at which the valve opens is called the cracking pressure. The pressure at which the rated flow passes through the valve is termed full fl ow pressure. The pre ssure at which the valve ceases to pa ss fluid after being opened is called the closing pressure. Adjustment within the pre ssure range of the valve is made with the adju stment screw which acts to compress the check valve spring. Compound pilot drained pressure relief valves increase pre ssure sensitivity by reducing the pre ssure override usually encountered with valve s using onl y the directacting forc e of sys tem pre ssure against the valve element. The valve in Fig. 102 illustrates the principle of operation. In schematic (a) , fluid pre ssure act s on both sides of piston I , which is held closed on its seat by a relatively light bias spring 2. In schematic (b), when the pre ssure increases sufficiently to move the pilot poppet valve 4 from its seat , fluid behind the piston goes to drain , and the resulting pre ssure imbalance on the valve piston causes it to move in the direction of lower pre ssure . Th is action compresses the piston spring 2 and opens the discharge port , pre venting a further rise in pre ssure. The pre ssure setting is adjusted with the adju stment screw that increases or decreases the pre ssure required to unseat the pilot drain poppet valve . Pre ssure reducing valve s are used to supply branch circuits with fluid at a pre ssure lower than sys tem pres sure . Essentially , the y step the pre ssure down to the requirements of the branch circuit by restricting fluid flow when branch circuit pre ssure reaches the preset limit determined by the rating and adjustment of the spool positioning spring. A pressure reducing valve is seen in Fig. 103. Fluid passes unob structed from C to D in illustration (a). The pre ssure reducing spool valve is held open by spring 2, and leakage around the free floating spool passes at low pre ssure to drain. As the pressure of the system at the outlet of the valve Sec. 102
Pressure Control Valv es
209
3
Drain
\
/
4
D
c ' .v/yh,.L~r//j . 
1
Discharge
ral
2
C  r/.