Bernard R. Gelbaum
John M.H. Olmsted
Theorems and Counterexamples in Mathematics With 24 Illustrations
SpringerVerlag New York Berlin Heidelberg London Paris Tokyo Hong Kong Barcelona Budapest
Bernard R. Gelbaum Department of Mathematics State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo, New York 142143093 USA
John M.H. Olmsted Department of Mathematics Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Illinois 62901 USA
Editor Paul R. HaImos Department of Mathematics Santa Clara University Santa Clara, California 95053, USA
Mathematical Subject Classifications: OOA07
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data Gelbaum, Bernard R. Theorems and counterexamples in mathematics I Bernard R. Gelbaum, John M.H. Olmsted. p. cm  (Problem books in mathematics) Includes bibliographical references and index. I. Mathematics. l. Olmsted, John Meigs Hubbell, 1911II. Title. III. Series. QA36.G45 1990 510dc20 909899 CIP Printed on acidfree paper
© 1990 SpringerVerlag New York Inc. All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher (SpringerVerlag New York, Inc., 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden. The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, etc., in this publication, even if the former are not especially identified, is not to be taken as a sign that such names, as understood by the Trade Marks and Merchandise Marks Act, may accordingly be used freely by anyone. Photocomposed copy prepared by the authors using TEX. Printed and bound by R.R. Donnelly & Sons, Harrisonburg, Virginia. Printed in the United States of America. 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 (Second corrected printing) ISBN 0387973427 SpringerVerlag New York Berlin Heidelberg ISBN 3540973427 SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg New York
PREFACE The gratifying response to Counterexamples in analysis (CEA) was followed, when the book went out of print, by expressions of dismay from those who were unable to acquire it. The connection of the present volume with CEA is clear, although the sights here are set higher. In the quartercentury since the appearance of CEA, mathematical education has taken some large steps reflected in both the undergraduate and graduate curricula. What was once taken as very new, remote, or arcane is now a wellestablished part of mathematical study and discourse. Consequently the approach here is designed to match the observed progress. The contents are intended to provide graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as the general mathematical public with a modern treatment of some theorems and examples that constitute a rounding out and elaboration of the standard parts of algebra, analysis, geometry, logic, probability, set theory, and topology. The items included are presented in the spirit of a conversation among mathematicians who know the language but are interested in some of the ramifications of the subjects with which they routinely deal. Although such an approach might be construed as demanding, there is an extensive GLOSSARY /INDEX where all but the most familiar notions are clearly defined and explained. The object of the body of the text is more to enhance what the reader already knows than to review definitions and notations that have become part of every mathematician's working context. Thus terms such as complete metric space, aring, Hamel basis, linear programming, [lo.qical] consistency, undecidability, Cauchy net, stochastic independence, etc. are often used without further comment, in which case they are italicized to indicate that they are carefully defined and explained in the GLOSSARY/INDEX. The presentation of the material in the book follows the pattern below: A definition is provided either in the text proper or in the GLOSSARY/INDEX. The term or concept defined is usually italicized at some point in the text. ii. A THEOREM for which proofs can be found in most textbooks and monographs is stated often without proof and always with at least one reference. iii A result that has not yet been expounded in a textbook or monograph is given with at least one reference and, as space permits, with a proof, an outline of a proof, or with no proof at all. iv Validation of a counterexample is provided in one of three ways: a. As an Exercise (with a Hint if more than a routine calculation is involved). b. As an Example and, as space permits, with a proof, an outline v
vi
Preface of a proof, or with no proof at all. Wherever full details are not given at least one reference is provided. c. As a simple statement and/or description together with at least one reference.
Preceding the contents there is a GUIDE to the principal items treated. We hope this book will offer at least as much information and pleasure as CEA seems to have done to (the previous generation of) its readers. The current printing incorporates corrections, many brought to our attention by R.B. Burckel, G. Myerson, and C. Wells, to whom we offer our thanks.
State University of New York at Buffalo Carbondale, Illinois
B. R. G. J.M.H.O.
Contents Preface
v
Guide
ix
1 Algebra 1.1
Group Theory 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6
1.2
Axioms Subgroups Exact versus splitting sequences The functional equation: f(x + y) = f(x) Free groups; free topological groups Finite simple groups
+ f(y)
Algebras 1.2.1 Division algebras ("noncommutative fields") 1.2.2 General algebras 1.2.3 Miscellany
1.3
1 2 4 5 9 18 19 20 22
Linear Algebra 1.3.1 Finitedimensional vector spaces 1.3.2 General vector spaces 1.3.3 Linear programming
25 31 37
2 Analysis 2.1
2.2
Classical Real Analysis
2.1.1 aX 2.1.2 Derivatives and extrema 2.1.3 Convergence of sequences and series 2.1.4 aXxY
Measure Theory 2.2.1 Measurable and nonmeasurable sets 2.2.2 Measurable and nonmeasurable functions 2.2.3 Groupinvariant measures
2.3
Bases Dual spaces and reflexivity Special subsets of Banach spaces Function spaces
156 162 165 168
Topological Algebras 2.4.1 Derivations 2.4.2 Semisimplicity
2.5
103 132 143
Topological Vector Spaces 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4
2.4
42 53 66 95
172 174
Differential Equations 2.5.1 Wronskians 2.5.2 Existence/uniqueness theorems
177 177 vii
viii
2.6
Contents
Complex Variable Theory 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 2.6.5 2.6.6
Morera's theorem Natural boundaries Square roots Uniform approximation Rouche's theorem Bieberbach's conjecture
180 180 183 183 184 184
3 Geometry/Topology 3.1 Euclidean Geometry 3.1.1 Axioms of Euclidean geometry 3.1.2 Topology of the Euclidean plane 3.2
Topological Spaces 3.2.1 Metric spaces 3.2.2 General topological spaces
3.3
186 190
Exotica in Differential Topology
4 Probability Theory 4.1 Independence 4.2 Stochastic Processes 4.3 Transition Matrices
198 200 208
210 216 221
5 Foundations 5.1 5.2
Logic Set Theory
223 229
Bibliography
233
Supplemental Bibliography
243
Symbol List
249
Glossary /Index
257
GUIDE The list below provides the sequence in which the essential items in the book are presented. In this GUIDE and in the text proper, the boldface numbers a.b.c.d. e following an [Item] indicate [Item] d on page e in Chapter a, Section b, Subsection Cj similarly boldface numbers a.b.c. d following an [Item] indicate [Item] c on page d in Chapter a, Section bj e.g., Example 1.3.2.7. 35. refers to the seventh Example on page 35 in Subsection 2 of Section 3 of Chapter 1j LEMMA 4.2.1. 218. refers to the first LEMMA on page 218 in Section 2 in Chapter 4.
Group Theory
1. Faulty group axioms. Example 1.1.1.1. 2, Remark 1.1.1.1. 2. 2. Lagrange's theorem and the failure of its converse. THEOREM 1.1.2.1 3, Exercise 1.1.2.1. 3. 3. Cosets as equivalence classes. Exercise 1.1.2.2. 3. 4. A symmetric and transitive relation need not be reflexive. Exercise 1.1.2.3. 3. 5. A subgroup H of a group G is normal iff every left (right) coset of H is a right (left) coset of H. Exercise 1.1.2.4. 3 6. If G : H is the smallest prime divisor p of #( G) then H is a normal subgroup. THEOREM 1.1.2.2. 4. 7. An exact sequence that fails to split. Example 1.1.3.1. 5. 8. If the topological group H contains a countable dense set and if the homomorphism h : G ~ H of the locally compact group G is measurable on some set P of positive measure then h is continuous (everywhere). THEOREM 1.1.4.1. 5. 9. If A is a set of positive (Haar) measure in a locally compact group then AA 1 contains a neighborhood of the identity. pages 56. 10. The existence of a Hamel basis for JR over Q implies the existence in JR of a set that is not Lebesgue measurable. page 6. ix
Guide
x
11. If f (in 1R1R) is a nonmeasurable function that is a solution of the functional equation f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) then a) f is unbounded both above and below in every nonempty open interval and b) if R is one of the relations , ~ and ER,a ~f {x : f(x) R a:}, then for all a: in IR and for every open set U, ER,a n U is dense in U. Exercise 1.1.4.1. 6. 12. There are nonmeasurable midpointconvex functions. Exercise 1.1.4.2. 7. 13. There exists a Hamel basis B for IR over Q and >.(B) = O. THEOREM 1.1.4.2. 7. 14. For the Cantor set Co: Co + Co = [0,2]. Exercise 1.1.4.3. 7, Note 1.1.4.1. 7. 15. The Cantor set Co contains a Hamel basis for IR over Q. Exercise 1.1.4.4. 7. 16. Finiteness is a Quotient Lifting (QL) property of groups. Example 1.1.4.1. 8. 17. Abelianity is not a QL property of groups. Example 1.1.4.2. 8. 18. Solvability is a QL property of groups. Exercise 1.1.4.5. 8. 19. Compactness is a QL property of locally compact topological groups. Example 1.1.4.3. 9. 20. If X is a set there is a free group on X. Exercise 1.1.5.1. 9. 21. The free group on X. Note 1.1.5.1. 10. 22. Every group G is the quotient group of some free group F(X). Exercise 1.1.5.2. 10. 23. A group G can be the quotient group of different free groups. Note 1.1.5.2. 11. 24. The undecidability of the word problem for groups. Note 1.1.5.2. 11. 25. There is a finitely presented group containing a finitely generated subgroup for which there is no finite presentation. Note 1.1.5.2. 11. 26. An infinite group G presented by a finite set {Xl, ... , x n } of generators and a finite set of identities. 27. The MorseHedlund nonnilpotent semigroup potent elements.
~
Note 1.1.5.2. 11. generated by three nilpages 1112.
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28. Every quaternion q is a square. Exercise 1.1.5.3. 13. 29. Two pure quaternions commute iff they are linearly dependent over lR. Exercise 1.1.5.4. 13. 30. If X is a completely regular topological space there is a free topological group Ftop(X) on X. THEOREM 1.1.5.1. 14. 31. A quaternion q is of norm 1: Iql = 1 iff q is a commutator. THEOREM 1.1.5.2. 15. 32. The commutator subgroup of 1Hl* is the set of quaternions of norm 1: Q (1Hl*) = {q : q E 1Hl, Iql = 1}. ~ote 1.1.5.3. 15. 33. In 1Hl* there is a free subset T such that #(T) = # (lR). Remark 1.1.5.1. 17. 34. A faulty commutative diagram. Example 1.1.5.1. 18. 35. The square root function is not continuous on T. Exercise 1.1.5.5. 18. 36. The classification of finite simple groups. Subsection 1.1.6. 18.
37. For two (different) primes p and q, are the natural numbers pQ1
qP1
p1
q1
andrelatively prime? Note 1.1.6.1. 19. Algebras
38. Over 1Hl, a polynomial of degree two and for which there are infinitely many zeros. Example 1.2.1.1. 19. 39. There are infinitely many different quaternions of the form qiq1. Exercise 1.2.1.1. 20. 40. If the quaternion r is such that r2 + 1 = 0 then for some quaternion def • 1 q, r = rq = q1q THEOREM 1.2.1.1. 20. 41. A nonassociative algebra. Exercise 1.2.2.1. 21. 42. The Jacobi identity. Exercise 1.2.2.2. 21. 43. Lie algebras and groups of Lie type. Remark 1.2.2.1. 21.
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44. The Cayley algebra. Exercise 1.2.2.3. 22. 45. Milnor's classification of the alternative division algebras. page 22. 46. e cannot be ordered. Exercise 1.2.3.1. 22. 47. A field with two different orders. Exercise 1.2.3.2. 23. 48. Q is not complete. Exercise 1.2.3.3. 23. 49. A nonArchimedeanly ordered field. Exercise 1.2.3.4. 23. 50. Two complete Archimedeanly ordered fields are orderisomorphic. Note 1.2.3.1. 23. 51. An ordered field K that is not embeddable in JR so that the orders in JR and in K are consistent. Exercise 1.2.3.5. 23. 52. A complete Archimedeanly ordered field is Cauchy complete. Exercise 1.2.3.6. 24. 53. A characterization of Cauchy nets in JR. Exercise 1.2.3.7. 25. 54. A field that is Cauchy complete and not complete. Example 1.2.3.1. 25. Linear Algebra
55. The set [V]sing of singular endomorphisms of an ndimensional vector 2 space V over e is a closed nowhere dense null set in THEOREM 1.3.1.1. 26.
en .
56. The set [V] \ [V]sing ~f [V]inv is a dense (open) subset of en2 . COROLLARY 1.3.1.1. 26. 2 57. In the set V of diagonable n x n matrices is nowhere dense; its complement is open and dense; An2 (V) = o. Exercise 1.3.1.1. 26. 58. A pair of commuting nondiagonable matrices. Exercise 1.3.1.2. 27. 59. A pair of commuting matrices that are not simultaneously "Jordanizable." Exercise 1.3.1.2. 27. 60. If a finitedimensional vector space over JR is the finite union of subspaces, one of those subspaces is the whole space. THEOREM 1.3.1.2. 27, Remark 1.3.1.1. 28.
en
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61. A vector space that is the union of three proper subspaces. Exercise 1.3.1.3. 28. 62. The MoorePenrose inverse. Exercise 1.3.1.4. 28. 63. A failure of the GauESeidel algorithm. Example 1.3.1.1. 29. 64. The failure for vector space homomorphisms of: (ST = f) ~ (TS = f). Example 1.3.2.1. 31. 65. A vector space endomorphism without eigenvalues. Example 1.3.2.2. 32. 66. A vector space endomorphism for which the spectrum is C \ {o}. Example 1.3.2.3. 32. 67. A vector space endomorphism for which the spectrum is empty. Example 1.3.2.4. 32. 68. A vector space endomorphism for which the spectrum is C. Example 1.3.2.5. 33. 69. A Banach space containing a dense proper subspace; discontinuous endomorphisms; absence of nonHamel bases; for a Banach space V, T· exists in [V·] implies T is continuous. page 34. 70. A Euclidean vector space endomorphism having no adjoint. Example 1.3.2.6. 34. 71. A noninvertible Euclidean space endomorphism that is an isometry. Example 1.3.2.7. 35. 72. Sylvester's Law of Inertia. THEOREM 1.3.2.1. 35. 73. The set of continuous invertible endomorphisms of Hilbert space is connected. THEOREM 1.3.2.2. 36. 74. A commutative Banach algebra in which the set of invertible elements is not connected. Example 1.3.2.8. 37. 75. There is no polynomial bound on the number of steps required to complete the simplex algorithm in linear programming. page 38. 76. The number of steps required to complete Gauf3ian elimination is polynomially bounded. Example 1.3.3.1. 38. 77. Karmarkar's linear programming algorithm for which the number of steps required for completion is polynomially bounded. page 38. 78. A linear programming problem for which the simplex algorithm cycles. Example 1.3.3.2. 39.
xiv
Guide
79. The Bland and Charnes algorithms. pages 4041.
Classical Real Analysis
80. The set ContU) is a G6. THEOREM
2.1.1.1. 43.
81. The set DiscontU) is an Fu. Exercise 2.1.1.1. 43.
82. An Fu that is not closed. Example 2.1.1.1. 43.
83. Baire's category theorem and corollaries. THEOREM 2.1.1.2. 43,
COROLLARY COROLLARY
2.1.1.1. 43, 2.1.1.2. 44.
84. A modified version of Baire's category theorem. Exercise 2.1.1.2. 44. 85. In IR a sequence of dense sets having nonempty interiors and for which the intersection is not dense. Example 2.1.1.2. 44. 86. If f is the limit of continuous functions on a complete metric space X then ContU) is dense in X. THEOREM 2.1.1.3. 45, Remark 2.1.1.1. 45, Exercise 2.1.1.4. 45. 87. If F is closed and FO = 0 then F is nowhere dense. Exercise 2.1.1.3. 45. 88. A nowhere continuous function ft such that 1ft I is constant; a nonmeasurable function 12 such that 1121 is constant. Exercise 2.1.1.5. 47. 89. A somewhere continuous function not the limit of continuous functions; a nonmeasurable function somewhere continuous; a discontinuous function continuous almost everywhere; a discontinuous function equal almost everywhere to a continuous function; a nonmeasurable function that is somewhere differentiable. Exercise 2.1.1.6. 47. 90. A continuous locally bounded but unbounded function on a bounded set. Exercise 2.1.1.7. 47. 91. A continuous function having neither a maximum nor a rmmmum value; a bijective bicontinuous function mapping a bounded set onto an unbounded set. Exercise 2.1.1.8. 47.
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92. A bounded function defined on a compact set and having neither a maximum nor a minimum value there. Exercise 2.1.1.9. 48. 93. A nowhere semicontinuous function f defined on a compact set and such that liminf f{x) == 1 < f{x) < 1 = lim sup f{x) == 1. Exercise 2.1.1.10. 48. 94. A nonconstant continuous periodic function in JRIR has a least positive period. THEOREM 2.1.1.4. 48. 95. A nonconstant periodic function without a smallest positive period. Exercise 2.1.1.11. 48. 96. For A an arbitrary Fa in JR, a function f such that Discont(f) = A. Exercise 2.1.1.12. 48. 97. If f in JRIR is monotone then # (Discont(f)) ~ # (I'll); a function for f which Discont(f) = Q. Exercise 2.1.1.13. 49. 98. For a positive sequence {dn}nEN such that E:'=l dn < 00 and a sequence S ~f {an}nEN contained in JR, a monotone function f such that Discont(f) = Sand f{a n
+ 0) 
f{a n

0) = dn , n E N.
Exercise 2.1.1.14. 49. 99. A continuous nowhere monotone and nowhere differentiable function. Exercise 2.1.1.15. 50. 100. A function H : [0, 1] ~ JR that is zero a.e. and maps every nonempty subinterval (a, b) onto JR. Example 2.1.1.3. 51. 101. Properties of kary representations. Exercise 2.1.1.16. 52. 102. Two maps f and C such that foe is the identity and C 0 f is not the identity. Exercise 2.1.1.17. 52. 103. Every point of the Cantor set Co is a point of condensation. Exercise 2.1.1.18. 52. 104. A differentiable function with a discontinuous derivative; a differentiable function with an unbounded derivative; a differentiable function with a bounded derivative that has neither a maximum nor a minimum value. Exercise 2.1.2.1. 53. 105. A derivative cannot be discontinuous everywhere. Remark 2.1.2.1. 53.
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106. If a sequence of derivatives converges uniformly on a compact interval I and if the sequence of corresponding functions converges at some point of I then the sequence of functions converges uniformly on I. THEOREM 2.1.2.1. 53. 107. A sequence of functions for which the sequence of derivatives converges uniformly although the sequence of functions diverges everywhere. Note 2.1.2.1. 54. 108. If a function h defined on a compact interval I is of bounded variation on I and also enjoys the intermediate value property then h is continuous. THEOREM 2.1.2.2. 54. 109. If a derivative f' is of bounded variation on a compact interval I then f' is continuous. COROLLARY 2.1.2.1. 54. 110. Inclusion and noninclusion relations among the sets BV(I), BV (lR), AC(I), and AC (lR). Remark 2.1.2.3. 55. 111. On [0,1], a strictly increasing function for which the derivative is zero almost everywhere. Example 2.1.2.1. 55. 112. A characterization of null sets in lR. Exercise 2.1.2.2. 56. 113. A set A in lR is a null set iff A is a subset of the set where some monotone function fails to be differentiable. THEOREM 2.1.2.3. 56. 114. For a given sequence S in lR a monotone function f such that Discont(f) = Nondiff(f) = S. Exercise 2.1.2.3. 57. 115. A differentiable function monotone in no interval adjoining one of the points where the function achieves its minimum value. Exercise 2.1.2.4. 57. 116. A function for which the set of sites of local maxima is dense and for which the set of sites of local minima is also dense. Example 2.1.2.2. 58. 117. If h E lRR, if h is continuous, and if h has precisely one site of a local maximum resp. minimum and is unbounded above resp. below then h has at least one site of a local minimum resp. maximum. Exercise 2.1.2.5. 60. 118. Functions, each with precisely one site of an extremum, and unbounded both above and below. Example 2.1.2.3. 60. 119. A nonmeasurable function that is infinitely differentiable at some point. Remark 2.1.2.5. 61.
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120. An infinitely differentiable function for which the corresponding Maclaurin series represents the function at just one point. Example 2.1.2.4. 61. 121. Bridging functions. Exercises 2.1.2.6. 62, 2.1.2.7. 62, 2.1.2.8 62, 2.1.2.9 63. 122. A differentiable function for which the derivative is not Lebesgue integrable. Example 2.1.2.5. 63. 123. A uniformly bounded sequence of lliemann integrable functions converging everywhere to a function that is not lliemann integrable on any nonempty open interval. Exercise 2.1.2.10. 64. 124. A Riemann integrable function having no primitive. Exercises 2.1.2.11. 64, 2.1.2.12. 65. 125. A function with a derivative that is not Riemann integrable. Exercise 2.1.2.13. 65. 126. An indefinite integral that is differentiable everywhere but is not a primitive of the integrand. Exercise 2.1.2.14. 65. 127. A minimal set of criteria for absolute continuity. Exercise 2.1.2.15. 65, Example 2.1.2.6. 65. 128. Relationships between bounded variation and continuity. Exercise 2.1.2.16 65, Example 2.1.2.7. 66. 129. The composition of two absolutely continuous functions can fail to be absolutely continuous. Exercise 2.1.2.17. 66, Example 2.1.2.8. 66. 130. For a given closed set A in lR a sequence {an}nEN for which the set of limit points is A. Exercise 2.1.3.1. 67. 131. A divergent series such that for each p in N, the sequence {Sn}nEN of partial sums satisfies: limn + oo ISn+p  snl = O. Exercise 2.1.3.2. 67. 132. For a strictly increasing sequence {v(n)}nEN in N, a divergent sequence {an}nEN such that limn+ oo lav(n)  ani = O. Exercise 2.1.3.3. 67. 133. For a sequence {v(n)}nEN in N and such that v(n) + 00 as n + 00, a divergent unbounded sequence {an}nEN such that
Exercise 2.1.3.4. 67. 134. Strict inequalities for the functionals lim sup, lim inf. Exercise 2.1.3.5. 67.
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135. Identities for the set functions lim sup, lim info Exercise 136. In JR a decreasing sequence {An}nEN of sets such that # (An) = # (JR) and b) nnEN An = 0. Exercise 137. Criteria for absolute convergence of numerical series. Exercise 138. The Riemann derangement theorem. Exercise 139. The Steinitz derangement theorem.
2.1.3.5. 68. a) for all n, 2.1.3.6. 68. 2.1.3.7. 69. 2.1.3.8. 69.
THEOREM
2.1.3.1. 70.
THEOREM
2.1.3.2. 70.
140. The Sierpinski derangement theorem. 141. Another derangement theorem of Sierpinski. Remark 2.1.3.3. 70. 142. A special case of the Steinitz derangement theorem. Exercise 2.1.3.9. 71. 143. Subseries of convergent and divergent numerical series. Exercise 2.1.3.10. 71. 144. A divergent series ~:=1 an for which liffin+oo an = O. Exercise 2.1.3.11. 72. 145. A convergent series that dominates a divergent series. Exercise 2.1.3.12. 72. 146. A convergent series that absolutely dominates a divergent series. Exercise 2.1.3.13. 72. 147. The absence of a universal comparison sequence of positive series. THEOREM 2.1.3.3. 72. 148. A divergent series summable (C,l). Example 2.1.3.1. 74. 149. Fejer's kernel. Exercise 2.1.3.14. 74. 150. Fejer's theorem. Exercise 2.1.3.15. 75. 151. Two Toeplitz matrices. Exercises 2.1.3.16. 76, 2.1.3.17. 77. 152. Partial ordering among summability methods. page 76. 153. Absence of a universal sequence of Toeplitz matrices. THEOREM 2.1.3.4. 77. 154. Toeplitz matrices and z ~ eZ • Exercise 2.1.3.18. 79. 155. Counterexamples to weakened versions of the alternating series theorem. Exercise 2.1.3.19. 79.
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156. Relations between rapidity of convergence to zero of the sequence of terms of a positive series and the convergence of the series .. Exercise 2.1.3.20. 80, Remark 2.1.3.5. 80, Exercise 2.1.3.21. 80. 157. Failure of the ratio test, the generalized ratio test, the root test, and the generalized root test for convergence of positive series. Exercises 2.1.3.22. 81, 2.1.3.23. 81, 2.1.3.24. 81. 158. Relations among the ratio and root tests. Exercises 2.1.3.25. 82, 2.1.3.26. 82. 159. A divergent Cauchy product of convergent series. Exercise 2.1.3.27. 82. 160. A convergent Cauchy product of divergent series. Exercise 2.1.3.28. 82. 161. A Maclaurin series converging only at zero. Exercise 2.1.3.29. 82. 162. For an arbitrary power series, a Coo function for which the given series is the Maclaurin series. Example 2.1.3.2. 83, Remark 2.1.3.7. 84. 163. Convergence phenomena associated with power series. Example 2.1.3.3. 84. 164. Cantor's theorem about trigonometric series. THEOREM 2.1.3.5. 85, Note 2.1.3.2. 86. 165. A general form of Cantor's theorem. THEOREM 2.1.3.6. 86. 166. A faulty weakened general form of Cantor's theorem. Example 2.1.3.4. 86. 167. Abel's lemma. LEMMA 2.1.3.1. 87. 168. A trigonometric series that is not the Fourier series of a Lebesgue integrable function. Examples 2.1.3.5. 87, 2.1.3.6. 87, Remark 2.1.3.9. 88. 169. A uniformly convergent Fourier series that is not dominated by a positive convergent series of constants. Exercise 2.1.3.30. 88. 170. A continuous function vanishing at infinity and not the Fourier transform of a Lebesgue integrable function. Example 2.1.3.7. 88. 171. The FejerLebesgue and Kolmogorov examples of divergent Fourier series of integrable functions. page 89, Note 2.1.3.3. 89. 172. A continuous limit of a sequence of everywhere discontinuous functions. Exercise 2.1.3.31. 90. 173. A sequence {fn}nEN converging uniformly to zero and such that the sequence of derivatives diverges everywhere. Exercise 2.1.3.32. 90.
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174. An unbounded function that is the nonuniform limit of bounded functions. Exercise 2.1.3.33. 90. 175. Discontinuous functions that are the nonuniform limits of continuous functions. Exercises 2.1.3.34. 90, 2.1.3.35. 90, Remark 2.1.3.10. 91. 176. An instance in which the interchange of I and lim is valid although the limit is not uniform. Exercise 2.1.3.36. 91. 177. A Riemann integrable limit of Riemann integrable functions where the interchange of I and lim is not valid. Exercise 2.1.3.37. 92. 178. A function that is Lebesgue integrable, is not Riemann integrable, and is the nonuniform limit of uniformly bounded Riemann integrable functions. Exercise 2.1.3.38. 92. 179. A power series in which the terms converge uniformly to zero and the series does not converge uniformly. Exercise 2.1.3.39. 92. 180. A sequence {fn}nEN that converges nonuniformly to zero while the sequence {!2n}nEN converges uniformly (to zero). Exercise 2.1.3.40. 93. 181. The failure of weakened versions of Dini's theorem. Exercise 2.1.3.41. 93. 182. A sequence of functions converging uniformly to zero on [1,1] although the sequence of their derivatives fails to converge on [1,1]. Exercise 2.1.3.42. 93. 183. A sequence converging uniformly on every proper subinterval of an interval and failing to converge uniformly on the interval. Exercise 2.1.3.43. 93. 184. A sequence {fn}nEN converging uniformly to zero on [0,00) and such that 1[0,00) In(x) dx i 00. Exercise 2.1.3.44. 93. 185. A power series that, for each continuous function I, converges uniformly, via grouping of its terms, to I. Example 2.1.3.8. 93, Note 2.1.3.4. 94. 186. A series of constants that, for each real number x, converges, via grouping of its terms, to x. Exercise 2.1.3.45. 94. 187. An instance of divergence of Newton's algorithm for locating the zeros of a function. Example 2.1.3.9. 95. 188. Uniform convergence of nets. Exercise 2.1.4.1. 95.
Guide
xxi
189. A function I in 1R1R2 and continuous in each variable and not continuous in the pair. Exercise 2.1.4.2. 95. 1R2 190. In 1R functions I discontinuous at (0,0) and continuous on certain curves through the origin. Exercises 2.1.4.3. 96, 2.1.4.4. 96. 191. In 1R1R2 functions I nondifferentiable at (0,0) and having first partial derivatives everywhere. Note 2.1.4.1. 96. 1R2 192. In 1R functions I for which exactly two of lim lim I(x, y), lim lim I(x, y), and
zOyO
yOzO
lim
(z,y)_(O,O)
I(x, y)
exist and are the equal. Exercise 2.1.4.5. 96. 193. In
1R1R2
functions
I for which exactly one of
lim lim I(x, y), lim lim I(x, y), and y_O zO
zO y_O
lim
(z,y)_(O,O)
I(x, y)
exists. Exercise 2.1.4.6. 97. 194. The MooreOsgood theorem. THEOREM
195. In 1R1R2 a function
2.1.4.1. 97.
I for which both lim lim I(x, y) and lim lim I(x, y) yO yO zO
zO
exist but are not equal. Exercise 2.1.4.7. 97. 196. A false counterexample to the MooreOsgood theorem. Exercise 2.1.4.8. 97. 1R2 197. In 1R a function I differentiable everywhere but for which Iz and Iy are discontinuous at (0,0). Exercise 2.1.4.9. 98. 198. The law of the mean for functions of two variables. page 98. 199. In 1R1R2 a function I such that Iz and Iy exist and are continuous but Izy(O,O) '" lyz(O, 0). Exercise 2.1.4.10. 98.
xxii
Guide
200. In y.
]RR2
a function I such that Iy == 0 and yet I is not independent of Exercise 2.1.4.11. 99, Note 2.1.4.2. 99.
201. In ]RR2 a function I without local extrema, but with a local extremum at (0,0) on every line through (0,0). Exercise 2.1.4.12. 99. 202. In ]RR2 a function I such that
Exercise 2.1.4.13. 100.
203. In
]RR2
a function
I
such that
1111
I(x,y)dxdy = 1
11 11
I(x, y) dydx
= 1.
Exercise 2.1.4.14. 204. A double sequence in which repeated limits are unequal. Exercise 2.1.4.15. 205. Counterexamples to weakened versions of Fubini's theorem. Note 2.1.4.3. 206. Kolmogorov's solution of Hilbert's thirteenth problem. Example 2.1.4.1. 101, THEOREM 2.1.4.2.
100. 100. 101. 102.
Measure Theory
207. The essential equivalence of the procedures: measure It nonnegative linear functional nonnegative linear functional It measure. Remark 2.2.1.1. 208. A Hamel basis for lR is measurable iff it is a null set. THEOREM 2.2.1.1. 209. No Hamel basis for lR is Borel measurable. THEOREM 2.2.1.2. 210. A non~Borel subset of the Cantor set. Remark 2.2.1.2.
104. 104. 105. 105.
Guide
xxiii
211. In every neighborhood of 0 in R. there is a Hamel basis for R. over Q. THEOREM
2.2.1.3. 105.
212. A nonmeasurable subset of R..
Example 2.2.1.1. 106. 213. In R. a subset M such that:
i. A*{M) = 0 and A*{M) = 00 (M is nonmeasurable)j ii. for any measurable set P: A*{P n M) = 0 and A*{P n M)
= A{P).
Example 2.2.1.2. 106 214. Every infinite subgroup of T is dense in Tj 1 x T is a nowhere dense
infinite subgroup of T2. Exercise 2.2.1.1. 107. 215. A nowhere dense perfect set consisting entirely of transcendental num
bers. Example 2.2.1.3. 108, Exercise 2.2.1.2. 108. 216. In [0, I] an Fer a) consisting entirely of transcendental numbers, b) of
the first category, and c) of measure one. Exercise 2.2.1.3. 109. 217. A null set H such that every point in R. is point of condensation of H.
Exercise 2.2.1.4. 109. 218. In some locally compact groups measurable subsets A and B such that
AB is not measurable. Examples 2.2.1.4. 109, 2.2.1.5. 110. 219. In R. a thick set of the first category.
Example 2.2.1.6. 110. 220. Disjoint nowhere dense sets such that each point of each set is a limit
point of the other set. Exercise 2.2.1.5. 111. 221. Two countable ordinally dense sets are ordinally similar. THEOREM
2.2.1.4. 111.
222. A nowhere dense set homeomorphic to a dense set.
Exercise 2.2.1.6. 112. 223. Dyadic spaces as preimages of some compact sets. LEMMA
2.2.1.1. 112.
224. A special kind of compact Hausdorff space.
Exercise 2.2.1.7 113. 225. A compact Hausdorff space that is not the continuous image of any
dyadic space. Exercise 2.2.1.8. 113. 226. The distinction between the length of an arc and the length of an arc
image. Example 2.2.1.7. 114. 227. A nonrectifiable arc for which the arcimage is a line segment PQ.
Example 2.2.1.7. 114.
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Guide
228. A continuous map that carries a linear null set into a thick planar set. Example 2.2.1.8. 114. 229. A continuous map that carries a null set in R. into a nonmeasurable set (first example). Example 2.2.1.8. 114. 230. For n greater than 1, in R.n nonrectifiable simple arcimages of positive ndimensional Lebesgue measure. Example 2.2.1.9. 115, Exercise 2.2.1.9. 117, Note 2.2.1.3. 117. 231. In R. 2 a Jordan curveimage of positive measure. Examples 2.2.1.10. 117, 2.2.1.12. 123. 232. A compact convex set in a separable topological vector space is an arcimage. Exercise 2.2.1.10. 117. 3 233. In R. a set that, for given positive numbers '1 (arbitrarily small) and A (arbitrarily large), a) is homeomorphic to the unit ball of R.3 and b) has a boundary for which the surface area is less than '1 but for which the threedimensional Lebesgue measure is greater than A. Example 2.2.1.11. 118, Exercise 2.2.1.11. 118, Remark 2.2.1.4. 121, Note 2.2.1.4. 121. 234. A faulty definition of surface area. Exercise 2.2.1.12. 123. 235. The Kakeya problem and a related problem. THEOREMS 2.2.1.5. 124, 2.2.1.6. 129. 236. When p = 3 the bisectionexpansion procedure yields the optimal overlap in the construction of the Perron tree. Exercise 2.2.1.13. 129. 237. In R. 2 a nonmeasurable set meeting each line in at most two points. Example 2.2.1.13. 130. 238. In R.IR a function having a nonmeasurable graph. Exercise 2.2.1.14. 131. 239. In R. 2 regions without content. Examples 2.2.1.14. 131, 2.2.1.15. 131, 2.2.1.16. 131, Exercise 2.2.1.15. 131. 240. Two functions 1/J and t/J such that their difference is Lebesgue integrable and yet S ~f { (x, y) : t/J(x) '5: Y '5: 1/J(x), x E [0, I]} is not Lebesgue measurable. Exercise 2.2.1.16. 132. 241. A nonmeasurable continuous image of a null set (second example). Example 2.2.2.1. 132. 242. Any two Cantorlike sets are homeomorphic. Remark 2.2.2.1. 133.
Guide
xxv
243. A nonmeasurable composition of a measurable function and a continuous strictly monotone function. Exercise 2.2.2.1. 133. 244. The composition of a function of bounded variation and a measurable function is measurable. Exercise 2.2.2.2. 133. 245. Egoroff's theorem. THEOREM 2.2.2.1. 133. 246. Counterexamples to weakened versions of Egoroff's theorem. Examples 2.2.2.2. 133, 2.2.2.3. 134. 247. Relations among modes of convergence. Exercises 2.2.2.3. 135, 2.2.2.4. 135, 2.2.2.5. 135, 2.2.2.6. 135, 2.2.2.7. 136, 2.2.2.8. 136, Example 2.2.2.4. 136. 248. A counterexample to a weakened version of the RadonNikodym theorem. Exercise 2.2.2.9. 137. 249. The image measure catastrophe. Examples 2.2.2.5. 137, 2.2.2.6. 138. 250. A bounded semicontinuous function that is not equal almost everywhere to any Riemann integrable function. Exercise 2.2.2.10. 138, Note 2.2.2.1. 139. 251. A Riemann integrable function f and a continuous function 9 such that fog is not equal almost everywhere to any Riemann integrable function. Exercise 2.2.2.11. 139. 252. A continuous function of a Riemann integrable resp. Lebesgue measurable function is Riemann integrable resp. Lebesgue measurable. Exercise 2.2.2.12. 139. 253. A differentiable function with a derivative that is not equal almost everywhere to any Riemann integrable function. Example 2.2.2.7. 139. 254. A function that is not Lebesgue integrable and has a finite improper Riemann integral. Exercise 2.2.2.13. 140. 255. If Rn t 00 there is in L1 (JR, JR) a sequence {fn}nEN of nonnegative functions converging uniformly and monotonely to zero and such that for n in N,
Exercise 2.2.2.14. 140.
256. Fubini's and Tonelli's theorems. pages 140141.
xxvi
Guide
257. Counterexamples to weakened versions of Fubini's and Tonelli's theorems. Examples 2.2.2.8. 141. 258. A measurable function for which the graph has infinite measure. Exercise 2.2.2.15. 142. 259. In JRR2 a function that is not Lebesgue integrable and for which both iterated integrals exist and are equal. Example 2.2.2.9. 142. 260. In JRR2 a function that is not Riemann integrable and for which both iterated integrals exist and are equal. Remark 2.2.2.2. 142. 261. Criteria for Lebesgue measurability of a function. Exercise 2.2.2.16. 143. 262. Inadequacy of weakened criteria for measurability. Exercise 2.2.2.17. 143. 263. A group invariant measure. Example 2.2.3.1. 144. 264. The group 80(3) is not abelian. Example 2.2.3.2. 145. 265. The BanachTarski paradox. pages 144156. 266. The number five in the Robinson version of the BanachTarski paradox is best possible. THEOREM 2.2.3.4. 155, Exercise 2.2.3.8. 155. Topological Vector Spaces
267. In an infinitedimensional Banach space no Hamel basis is a (Schauder) basis. Exercise 2.3.1.1. 156. 268. The DavieEnflo example. pages 1578. 269. The trigonometric functions do not constitute a (Schauder) basis for C(T,C). Note 2.3.1.1. 158. 270. A nonretrobasis. Example 2.3.1.1. 159. 271. In [2 a basis that is not unconditional. Example 2.3.1.2. 160. 272. For a measure situation (X, S, 1') and an infinite orthonormal system {4>n}nEN in eX, where lim n..... oo 4>n{x) exists it is zero a.e. THEOREM 2.3.1.1. 160.
Guide
xxvii
273. If 00 < a < b < 00, {¢n}nEN is an infinite orthonormal system in L2 ([a, b], JR), and sUPnEN l¢n(a)1 < 00 then limsuPnEN var(¢n) = 00. COROLLARY 2.3.1.1. 161. 274. Phenomena related to THEOREM 2.3.1.1 and COROLLARY 2.3.1.1. Exercise 2.3.1.2. 161, Example 2.3.1.3. 162. 275. A maximal biorthogonal set {xn,X~}nEN such that {Xn}nEN is not a basis. Example 2.3.1.4. 162. 276. Banach spaces that are not the duals of Banach spaces. Example 2.3.2.1. 163, Exercises 2.3.2.1. 163, 2.3.2.2. 163, Remark 2.3.2.1. 163, Example 2.3.2.2. 163. 277. In lJ' (JR, JR) an equivalence class containing no continuous function. Exercise 2.3.2.3. 163. 278. A separable Banach space for which the dual space is not separable. Example 2.3.2.3. 164. 279. A nonreflexive Banach space that is isometrically isomorphic to its second dual. Example 2.3.2.4. 164. 280. In Cp (JR, JR) a dense set of infinitely differentiable functions. Example 2.3.3.1. 165. 281. In Cp (JR, JR) a dense set of nowhere differentiable functions Example 2.3.3.2. 165. 282. In C (T, JR) the set of nowhere differentiable functions is dense and of the second category; its complement is dense and of the first category. THEOREM 2.3.3.1. 166, Exercise 2.3.3.1. 166. 283. In a normed infinitedimensional vector space B there are arbitrarily large numbers of pairwise disjoint, dense, and convex subsets the union of which is B and for which B is their common boundary. THEOREM 2.3.3.2. 167 through Exercise 2.3.3.5. 168. 284. Separability is a QL property. Exercise 2.3.3.6. 168. 285. Noninclusions among the lJ' spaces. Example 2.3.4.1. 170. 286. A linear function space that is neither an algebra nor a lattice. Exercise 2.3.4.1. 170. 287. A linear function space that is an algebra and not a lattice. Exercise 2.3.4.2. 170. 288. A linear function space that is a lattice and not an algebra. Exercise 2.3.4.3. 170. 289. The set of functions for which the squares are Riemann integrable is not a linear function space. Exercise 2.3.4.4. 170. 290. The set of functions for which the squares are Lebesgue integrable is not a linear function space. Exercise 2.3.4.5. 170.
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Guide
291. The set of semicontinuous functions is not a linear function space. Example 2.3.4.2. 171. 292. The set of periodic functions is not a linear function space. Exercise 2.3.4.6. 171. 293. A linear function space with two different norms such that the unit ball for one norm is a subset of the unit ball for the other and the difference set is norm dense in the larger ball. Example 2.3.4.3. 171. Topological Algebras
294. The algebra C~oo) (JR, C) can be a topological algebra but cannot be a Banach algebra. Example 2.4.1.1. 172, Note 2.4.1.1. 174, Exercise 2.4.1.1. 174. 295. Semisimplicity is a QL property. Example 2.4.2.1. 174. 296. Semisimplicity is not a homomorphism invariant. Example 2.4.2.2. 175, Note 2.4.2.1. 175. 297. A radical algebra. Example 2.4.2.3. 175. Differential Equations
298. Wronski's criterion for linear independence. THEOREM 2.5.1.1. 177. 299. A counterexample to a weakened version of Wronski's criterion. Exercise 2.5.1.1. 177. 300. An existence/uniqueness theorems for differential equations. THEOREM 2.5.2.1. 178. 301. A differential equation with two different solutions passing through a point. Exercise 2.5.2.1. 178. 302. Rubel's example of superbifurcation. Example 2.5.2.1. 178. 303. Lewy's example of a partial differential equation lacking even a distribution solution. Example 2.5.2.2. 179. 304. A counterexample to a weakened version of the CauchyKowalewski theorem. Example 2.5.2.3. 180, Note 2.5.2.1. 180.
Guide
xxix
Complex Variable Theory
305. Morera's theorem. THEOREM 2.6.1.1. 180. 306. A counterexample to a weakened version of Morera's theorem. Exercise 2.6.1.1. 180. 307. A power series for which the boundary of the circle of convergence is a natural boundary for the associated function. Exercise 2.6.2.1. 181.
308. For a given closed subset F of TR ~f {z : z E c, Izl = R} a function holomorphic in D(O, R)O and for which the set SR(f) of singularities on TR is F. Example 2.6.2.1. 181. 309. A function f a) holomorphic in D(O, 1)0, b) having T as its natural boundary, and c) represented by a power series converging uniformly in D(O, 1). Example 2.6.2.1. 182. 310. Functions a) holomorphic in D(O, 1)°, b) having T as natural boundary, c) represented by power series converging uniformly in D(O, 1), and d) such that their values on T are infinitely differentiable functions of the angular parameter () used to describe T. Examples 2.6.2.2. 182, 2.6.2.3. 182, Exercise 2.6.2.2. 182. 311. A region n that is not simply connected and in which a nonconstant holomorphic function has a holomorphic square root. Example 2.6.3.1. 182. 312. A counterexample to the Weierstraf3 approximation theorem for Cvalued functions. Example 2.6.4.1. 183. 313. Every function in H (D(O, 1)°) n C (D(O, 1), C) is the limit of a uniformly convergent sequence of polynomials. Exercise 2.6.4.1. 183. 314. A counterexample to a weakened version of Rouche's theorem. Example 2.6.5.1. 184, Remark 2.6.5.1. 184. 315. De Brange's resolution of the BieberbachRobertsonMilin conjectures. pages 1845. 316. A counterexample to a weakened version of the Bieberbach conjecture. Example 2.6.6.1. 185.
Guide
xxx
The Euclidean Plane
317. Counterexamples for the parallel axiom. Examples 3.1.1.1. 187, 3.1.1.2. 187. 318. Desargue's theorem. THEOREM 3.1.1.1. 187. 319. Moulton's plane. Example 3.1.1.3. 188. 320. Nonintersecting connected sets that "cross." Example 3.1.2.1. 190. 321. A simple arcimage is nowhere dense in the plane. Exercise 3.1.2.1. 191. 322. A connected but not locally connected set. Example 3.1.2.2. 191. 323. Rectifiable and nonrectifiable simple arcs. Exercise 3.1.2.2. 191. 324. A nowhere differentiable simple arc. Example 3.1.2.3. 192. 325. An arcimage that fills a square. Example 3.1.2.4. 192. 326. An arcimage containing no rectifiable arcimage. Exercise 3.1.2.3. 193. 327. A function f for which the graph is dense in R? Example 3.1.2.5. 193, Exercise 3.1.2.4. 193. 328. A connected set that becomes totally disconnected upon the removal of one of its points. Example 3.1.2.6. 193. 329. For n in N, in ]R2 n pairwise disjoint regions 'R 1 , ••• , 'Rn having a compact set F as their common boundary. pages 195198. 330. Aspects of the four color problem. Note 3.1.2.1. 198. 331. NonJordan regions in R? Example 3.1.2.7. 198. 332. A nonJordan region that is not the interior of its closure. Example 3.1.2.8. 198.
Guide
xxxi
Topological spaces
333. A sequence {Fn}nEN of bounded closed sets for which the intersection is empty. Exercise 3.2.1.1. 198. 334. A nonconvergent Cauchy sequence. Exercise 3.2.1.2. 199. 335. Cauchy completeness is not a topological invariant. Note 3.2.1.2. 199. 336. In a complete metric space, a decreasing sequence of closed balls for which the intersection is empty. Exercise 3.2.1.3. 199. 337. In a metric space an open ball that is not dense in the concentric closed ball of the same radius. Exercise 3.2.1.4. 200. 338. In a metric space two closed balls such that the ball with the larger radius is a proper subset of the ball with the smaller radius. Exercise 3.2.1.5. 200. 339. Topological spaces in which no point is a closed set and in which every net converges to every point. Example 3.2.2.1. 200. 340. A topological space containing a countable dense set and a subset in which there is no countable dense set. Exercise 3.2.2.1. 200. 341. A topological space containing a countable dense set and an uncountable subset with an inherited discrete topology. Exercise 3.2.2.2. 201. 342. Nonseparable spaces containing countable dense spbsets. Exercises 3.2.2.2. 201, 3.2.2.3. 201. 343. The failure of the set of convergent sequences to define a topology. Exercise 3.2.2.4. 201. 344. In topological vector spaces the distinctions among standard topologies. Exercise 3.2.2.5. 202. 345. The equivalence of weak sequential convergence and normconvergence in l1. Exercise 3.2.2.6. 202. 346. The ''moving hump." Remark 3.2.2.1. 202. 347. A sequence having a limit point to which no subsequence converges. Exercise 3.2.2.7. 202. 348. Properties of the unit ball in the dual of a Banach space. Remark 3.2.2.2. 203. 349. A continuous map that is neither open nor closed. Exercise 3.2.2.8. 203.
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Guide
350. A map that is open and closed and not continuous. Exercise 3.2.2.9. 203. 351. A closed map that is neither continuous nor open. Exercise 3.2.2.9. 203. 352. A map that is continuous and open but not closed. Exercise 3.2.2.10. 203. 353. An open map that is neither continuous nor closed. Exercise 3.2.2.11. 203. 354. A map that is continuous and closed but not open. Exercise 3.2.2.12. 203. 355. Two nonhomeomorphic spaces each of which is the continuous bijective image of the other. Example 3.2.2.2. 204. 3 356. Wild spheres in R. • Figures 3.2.2.2. 206, 3.2.2.3. 207. 357. Antoine's necklace. Figure 3.2.2.4. 207. Exotica in Differential Topology
358. Homeomorphic nondiffeomorphic spheres. Example 3.3.1. 208. 359. There are uncountably many nondiffeomorphic differential geometric structures for R.4 • page 208. 360. The resolution of the Poincare conjecture in R.n , n =f 3. pages 2089. Independence in Probability
361. For independent random variables the integral of the product is the product of the integrals. Exercise 4.1.1. 211. 362. A probability situation where there are only trivial instances of independence. Exercise 4.1.2. 211. 363. Pairwise independence does not imply independence. Example 4.1.1. 212. 364. Compositions of Borel measurable functions and independent random variables. Exercise 4.1.3. 212.
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Guide
365. Random variables independent of no nontrivial random variables.
Example 4.1.2. 212, Note 4.1.1. 213. 366. The metric density theorem.
page 213. 367. Independent random variables cannot span a Hilbert space of dimen
sion less than three. THEOREM 4.1.1. 214. 368. In THEOREM 4.1.1 three is best possible.
Remark 4.1.1. 215. 369. The Rademacher functions constitute a maximal set of independent
random variables. Exercise 4.1.4. 215. 370. A general construction of a maximal family of independent random
variables. Example 4.1.3. 215. Stochastic Processes 371. If I and 9 are independent and if I ± 9 are independent then
I, g, I ± 9
are all normally distributed. LEMMAS 4.2.1. 218, 4.2.2. 218. 372. The nonexistence of a Gauf3ian measure on Hilbert space.
LEMMA 4.2.3. 220. 373. The nonexistence of a nontrivial translationinvariant or unitarily in
variant measure on Hilbert space. Example 4.2.1. 220. Transition matrices 374. For a transition matrix P a criterion for the existence of limn_co pn.
THEOREM 4.3.1. 222. 375. The set 'P of n x n transition matrices as a set in the nonnegative
orthant lR{ n 2 .+} . Exercise 4.3.1. 222. 376. The set 'Pco of n x n transition mattices P such that limn_co pn exists
is a null set {A n 2  n } and 'P \ 'Pco is a dense open subset of 'P. Exercise 4.3.2. 222.
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Logic
377. GOdel's completeness theorem. page 225.
378. GOdel's count ability theorem. page 225.
379. The LowenheimSkolem theorem. page 226.
380. Godel's incompleteness (undecidability) theorem. page 226.
381. Computability and the halting problem. pages 2268.
382. Hilbert's tenth problem. page 228. 383. The BoolosVesley discussion of GOdel's incompleteness theorem. Note 5.1.4. 229. Set Theory
384. The consistency of the Continuum Hypothesis. page 230. 385. The independence of the Axiom of Choice and the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis. page 230. 386. Solovay's axiom and functional analysis. pages 2301.
Algebra
1.
1.1. Group Theory
1.1.1. Axioms By definition a group is a nonempty set G and a map G x G 3 {x,y}
1+
xy E G
subject to the following axioms: i. Ifx,y,z E G then x(yz) = (xy)z (associativity). ii. There is in G an element denoted e with two properties: iia. if x E G then ex = x (e is a left identity); iib. if x E G there is in G a left inverse y such that yx = e.
Consequences of these axioms are: iii. There is only one left identity e. iv. For each x in G there is only one left inverse. v. The left identity is a right identity: xe = x, x E G, and there is only one right identity. vi. The unique left inverse of an element x is a right inverse of x: yx = e xy = e, x, y E G, and there is only one right inverse of x.
'*
The unique (left and right) inverse of x is denoted
XI.
1
Chapter 1. Algebra
2
The axiom ii is replaceable by: if. There is in G an element denoted e with two properties: if a. if x E G then xe = x (e is a right identity); if b. if x E G there is in G a right inverse y such that xy
= e.
or by vii. For each pair {a, b} in G x G: viia. there is a solution x for the equation ax = bj viib. there is a solution y for the equation ya = b.
However, assumptions about left identities and right inverses may not be mixed. In other (more formal) terms, if ii is replaced either by: if'. There is in G an element denoted e with two properties: iia. if x E G then ex = x (e is a left identity)j if b. if x E G there is in G a right inverse y such that xy =
ej
or by if". There is in G an element denoted e with two properties: if a. if x E G then xe = x (e is a right identity)j iib. if x E G there is in G a left inverse y such that yx = ej
then G may fail to be a group.
Example 1.1.1.1. Assume that G is a set consisting of at least two elements and that x, y E G ::} xy = y. A direct check shows that i (associativity) obtains. Nevertheless in G every element may serve as a left identity (iia is satisfied) but, since there are at least two elements in G, there is no unique left identity (iii is denied). Furthermore if one element, say e, is singled out to serve as a left identity then xe = e for every x in G and so every element has a right inverse e (if b is satisfied) but if x =F e then x has no left inverse since yx = x =F e for every y (iib is denied). Furthermore in G viia obtains but viib does not: b is the solution of ax = b but if a =F b then ya = b has no solution. [Remark 1.1.1.1: A similar difficulty arises if, in ii, one rephrases iib as: if' b. If x E G there is in G a right inverse y such that xy is a left identity.]
1.1.2. Subgroups Let #(S) denote the cardinality of the set S. If G is a group then #(G) is the order of G. What follows is a classical theorem about a finite group and the orders of it and of its subgroups.
Section 1.1. Group Theory
3
THEOREM 1.1.2.1. (LAGRANGE) IF G IS A FINITE GROUP AND H IS A subgroup THEN #(H) IS A FACTOR OF #(G): #(H)I#(G).
On the other hand, the converse of the statement above is false. Exercise 1.1.2.1. Show that in the symmetric group 8 4 the subgroup H consisting of the following twelve permutations contains no subgroup of order six. ( 1,2,3,4) ( 1,2,3,4) 1,2,3,4 1,3,4,2 1,2,3,4) 1,2,3,4) ( ( 2,1,4,3 1,4,2,3 1,2,3,4) 1,2,3,4) ( ( 3,4,1,2 3,2,4,1 ( 1,2,3,4) ( 1,2,3,4) 4,3,2,1 4,2,1,3 ( 1,2,3,4) ( 1,2,3,4) 2,3,1,4 2,4,3,1 1,2,3,4) 1,2,3,4) ( ( 4,1,3,2 . 3,1,2,4 Thus if G is a finite group and k is a factor of #( G), G need not contain a subgroup of order k. A subgroup H of a group G engenders a decomposition of G into equivalence classes according to the equivalence relation R: xRy iff x E yH, i.e., iff x is in the coset yH. Exercise 1.1.2.2. Show that R as described above is an equivalence relation, i.e., for all x, y, z in G, a) xRx (R is reflexive), b) xRy if yRx (R is symmetric), and c) if xRy and yRz then xRz, (R is transitive). Exercise 1.1.2.3. Find the error, via a counterexample, in the argument that symmetry and transitivity of a relation R imply reflexivity. A subgroup H of a group G is normal iff for all x in G, xl H x = H. Exercise 1.1.2.4. Show that H is a normal subgroup of a group G iff for all x in G, xH = Hx ("every xleft coset is the same as the corresponding xright coset"), iff every left coset is some right coset, iff every right coset is some left coset. Exercise 1.1.2.5. Show that if the index i.e., G : H ~f #(G)/#(H) (in N) of H in G is 2 then H is a normal subgroup. Show that the index of normal subgroup H of a group G need not be two. At some time in the early 1940s Ernst G. Straus, sitting in a group theory class, saw the proof of the first result in Exercise 1.1.2.5 and immediately conjectured (and proved that night):
Chapter 1. Algebra
4
THEOREM 1.1.2.2. IF G : H IS THE SMALLEST PRIME DIVISOR P OF #(G) THEN H IS A NORMAL SUBGROUP.
PROOF. As the next lines show, if a
~
H the p cosets
H,aH, ... ,aP1H
are pairwise disjoint. Indeed, otherwise there is a least r and a least s such that Then, since left cosets are R equivalence classes with respect to cRd s, ml#(G),
and there are natural numbers q, t such that m = qs + t, 1 :5 q, 0:5 t e = am = at(aB)q
<s
= eH = am H = at(aB)q H = at(aB)q1a BH = at(aB)ql H = ... = at H. Since s is minimal it follows that t = 0, sl#(G), in contradiction of the definition of p. However #(G) = p' #(H), whence G = l:J}:~aj H. H
If bE G\H, hE Hand bhb 1 ~f a ~ H then there is a natural number r and in H a k such that b = a r k. Hence a = khk 1 E H, a contradiction, i.e., H is normal.
o 1.1.3. Exact versus splitting sequences Let G, H, K be a set of groups. If the homomorphisms G.!. Hand H :J:.. K are such that the image 4>( G) (~f im( 4») is a subset of the kernel t/Jl(e) (~f ker(t/J», i.e., im(4)) C ker(t/J), the situation is symbolized by the sequence
G.!. H:J:..
K.
Section 1.1. Group Theory
5
If im(l/» = ker(.,p) the sequence is exact. When G and K are abelian the sequence splits if H is the direct product G x K of G and K, I/> is the injection: I/> : G 3 g 1+ {g,e} E G x K, and .,p is the surjection:
.,p: G x K 3 ({g,k})
1+
k E K. In that case G:' H;!!.. K is exact.
Example 1.1.3.1. If G and K are abelian, I/>(G)
= H, and .,p(H) = e
then
G:'H;!!..K is exact. If #( G)
+ #(K) > 2 and H
1.1.4. The functional equation: f(x
{e} the sequence does not split.
=
+ y)
= f(x)
+ f(y)
Let G be a locally compact topological group and let J.t be a Haar measure on the (Iring S(K) (generated by the set K of compact sets of G) [Balm, Loo]. Let H be a topological group for which there is a homomorphism: h : G 1+ H. Then his: t> continuous iff h 1(U) is open for every open set U in Hj t> open iff h(V) is open for every open set V in Gj t> measurable iff h1(U) E S(K) for every open set U in H.
THEOREM 1.1.4.1. IF H CONTAINS A countable dense SET S ~r {Sn}~=l AND IF THE HOMOMORPHISM h: G 1+ H IS measurable ON SOME SET P OF POSITIVE MEASURE THEN h IS CONTINUOUS (EVERYWHERE). PROOF. Let W and U in H be neighborhoods of e and such that UU 1 c W. It may be assumed that J.t(P) is finite. Then, since S is dense, 00
H=
U
USn.
n=l
00
U(Pnnp) = P. n=l
Hence there is an no such that J.t(Pno n P) > O. If A ~r Pno n P then there is in G an open set V containing e and contained in AA 1. Indeed, XA denoting the characteristic function of A,
Chapter 1. Algebra
6
is: t> t> t>
a unilormly continuous function of Xj positive at e and hence in a neighborhood V of ej zero off AAl.
Hence V C AA 1 • It follows that h(V) C UU 1 C W whence h is continuous at e. Because h is a homomorphism continuous at e, h is continuous everywhere.
o The set JR may be regarded as vector space over Q. Since JR is uncountable there is an infinite set that is linearly independent over Q. According to Zorn's lemma there is a set B that is linearly independent over Q and properly contained in no other set that is linearly independent over Q: B is a maximal linearly independent set, i.e., a Hamel basis for JR over Q. Then B is uncountable and hence there is in JR a limit point b of B. Hence there is in B an infinite sequence S ~f {x,xn }~=l such that limn_ex> X,xn = b. Define 1 : JR 1+ JR as follows: if x = x,xn if x = L,xEA a,xx,x E span(S) if x E B \ span(S). Then I(x + y) = I(x) + I(y), x, y E JR, and 1 is not continuous (at b). The argument that proved THEOREM 1.1.4.1. 5 shows that if 1 is Lebesgue measurable then 1 is continuous everywhere. Hence 1 is not Lebesgue measurable and hence there is an open set U such that 11(U) is not Lebesgue measurable. (In Section 2.2 there is an alternative proof of the existence in JR of a subset that is not Lebesgue measurable. Nevertheless, the Axiom of Choice is part of the argument.) The Axiom 01 Choice, which implies the existence of a Hamel basis for JR over Q, implies the existence in JR of a set that is not Lebesgue measurable. Exercise 1.1.4.1. Let 1 (in JRIR) be a nonmeasurable function that is a solution of the functional equation I(x + y) = I(x) + I(y). Show that 1 is unbounded both above and below in every nonempty open interval. ii. Let R stand for one of the relations , ~ and let ER,a. be I.
{X : I(x) R Q} . Show that for all in U.
Q
in JR and for every open set U, ER,a. n U is dense
Section 1.1. Group Theory
7
[Hint: Show that the discontinuity of 1 at 0 implies there is a positive f and a sequence {Xn}~=l such that limn_oo Xn = 0 and I/(xn)1 ~ f. For each m consider the set {f(mXn)}~=l.] If U is an open subset of JR, a function 1 in JRu is convex iff whenever t E [0,1]' x, y, tx + (1 t)y E U then I(tx + (1 t)y) $ tl(x) + (1 t)/(y): "the curve lies below the chord." It follows [Roy, Rud] that a convex function is continuous everywhere and differentiable a.e. A less restrictive definition of convexity for a function 1 is the requirement that 1 be midpointconvex: "at the midpoint of an interval the curve lies below the chord," i.e., x+y) 1 1 1 ( 2$ "2 / (x) + "2 / (Y).
Exercise 1.1.4.2. Show that Axiom of Choice implies that there are nonmeasurable midpointconvex functions. THEOREM 1.1.4.2. THERE IS FOR JR OVER Q A HAMEL BASIS B SUCH THAT .>.(B) = O. The PROOF is a consequence of the conclusions in Exercises 1.1.4.3 and 1.1.4.4. Exercise 1.1.4.3. Let Co be the Cantor set: Co
={
f:
fle 3 1e
: fie
= 0 or 2,
kEN}.
Ie=l
Show that !Co + !Co ~f {x + y : x, y E Co} = [0, I]. [Hint: For t in [0, I] consider a binary representation of t.] [Note 1.1.4.1: The PROOF of THEOREM 1.1.4.1. 5 shows that if A is a measurable set of positive (Haar) measure in a locally compact group then AAl contains a neighborhood of the identity. When the group is abelian and the binary operation of the group is symbolized by + the set AA l is written AA. The Haar measure (Lebesgue measure) of Co in Exercise 1.1.4.3 is zero. Hence the measure of the set A ~f Co U Co is zero and A = A. Since A  A = A + A = [2,2] the condition: measure 01 A is positive is a sufficient but not necessary condition for the conclusion that A  A contains a neighborhood of the identity.] Exercise 1.1.4.4. Let B be a maximally Qlinearly independent subset of Co (or of !Co). Show B is a Hamel basis for JR over Q. 0
Chapter 1. Algebra
8
For further properties of Hamel bases in R. see Section 2.2. In the category g of groups and homomorphisms the following phenomenon often occurs. There is a property P(G) of (some) groups G and whenever
{O}
'+
B
'+
A .:!... C ~ {O}
is a short exact sequence of groups then P(B) A P(C)
=* P(A).
(1.1.4.1)
For simplicity, let a property P for which (1.1.4.1) (or its analog in some other category) holds be called a Quotient Lifting (QL) property. Example 1.1.4.1. In the context just described, e.g., l. (1.1.4.1) is valid if P(G) means "G is finite;" n. (1.1.4.1) is valid if P(G) means "G is infinite."
In next two Examples there are illustrations of both the absence and the presence of the Q L property. Example 1.1.4.2. Let P(G) mean "G is abelian." Then (1.1.4.1) fails for P. Indeed, if S3 is the symmetric group of order 6, i.e., S3 is the set of all permutations of the sequence 1,2,3, if A3 is the alternating subgroup of S3, i.e., the set of even permutations in S3, and C = S3/A3, then #(A3) = 3, #(C) = 2 and so (THEOREM 1.1.2.2. 4) A3 is a normal, cyclic, hence abelian subgroup, C is cyclic, hence also abelian, but S3 is not abelian, i.e., "abelianity" is not a QL property. Exercise 1.1.4.5. Show that "solvability" is a QL property. [Hint: Assume H is a normal subgroup of the group G and that both Hand G / H ~f K are solvable. If K ~f Ko :::> KI :::> ••• :::> K r 
l
:::> {e}
H ~f Ho :::> HI :::> ••• :::> H s 
1
:::> {e}
are finite sequences of subgroups, if each subgroup is normal in its predecessor, and if all the corresponding quotient groups are abelian then there are in G subgroups N b ••• , N r  l such that in the sequence
Section 1.1. Group Theory
9
each subgroup is normal in its predecessor and the corresponding quotient group is abelian. It follows that each subgroup in
G ::) Nl ::) ... ::) N r  1 ::) Ho ::) ... ::) H s  1 ::) {e} is normal in its predecessor and the corresponding quotient groups are all abelian.] The QL theme ((1.1.4.1), page 8) is repeated in a number of other categories, cf. Subsection 2.3.3, Section 2.4. Example 1.1.4.3. In the category CeQ of locally compact topological groups and continuous open homomorphisms let P(G) mean "G is compact." Then (1.1.4.1), page 8 is valid for P. [PROOF. Let V be a compact neighborhood of the identity in A. Then A = UaEA aV, C = AlB = UaEA l/>(aV). Since C is compact, there are in A elements aI, ... ,an such that C = U~=1 1/>( ai V) whence U~1 ai VB = A. Since B is compact it follows that A is compact. D] 1.1.5. Free groupSj free topological groups
If X is a nonempty set, a free group on X is a group F(X) such that: i. F(X) contains a bijective image of X (by abuse of language, Xc F(X))j
u. if G is a group and I/> : X homomorphism 4> : F(X)
1+ 1+
G is a map then I/> may be extended to a G.
Exercise 1.1.5.1. Show that if X is a set there is a free group on X. [Hint: Consider the set W(X) ~f {X~l ... x~n : Xi E X,
fi
= ±1,
n E {O} UN}
of all words. (If n = 0 the corresponding word is the empty wor d 0) . For WI def. = XIi ... x~n and W2 def6 = Yl 1 ••• ym6m , define theIr. product WI W2 to be
Each symbol x~· is a factor of the (nonempty) word
Chapter 1. Algebra
10
Call two words WI and W2 adjacent if there are words u and v and in X an x such that WI = UXEXEV and W2 = uv. (The word WI is said to simplify or to reduce and W2 is a simplification or a reduction of WI.) Call two words u and v equivalent (u '" v) iff there are words WI, ... ,Wn such that u = WI, Wi and wi+ 1 are adjacent, 1 ~ i ~ nl, and Wn = v. Show that", is an equivalence relation. If W E W(X) let [w] denote the equivalence class of w. Show that the set F(X) ~f W(X)/ '" of equivalence classes with multiplication of equivalence classes defined by multiplication of their representatives is a group, a free group on X. In particular: i. the equivalence class [0'] of the empty word is the identity; u. the equivalence class [x;En ... xIEl] of x;En ... x1E1 is the in
verse of the equivalence class [X~l ••• x~n] of X~l ••• x~n; iii. if x EX, the equivalence class [x] of x may be identified with x and X is in bijective correspondence with a subset of F(X). For details see [Hal].]
[ Note 1.1.5.1:
If X ~X then F(X) is isomorphic to a proper
subgroup H(X) of F(X): F(X) e!! H(X) ¥F(X). If r/J : X
1+
G
is a map then r/J may be extended to a map of X into G and hence to a homomorphism ~ : F(X) 1+ G. However if :F is any group containing X then the bijection r/J : X 3 x 1+ X E :F may be extended to a monomorphism (an injective homomorphism) ~ : F(X) 1+ :F. Hence F(X) may be regarded as a minimal free group on X, i.e., F(X) is the free group on X.]
Exercise 1.1.5.2. Show that any group G may be regarded as the quotient group of some free group F(X) on some set X.
[Hint: Let G be a group and regard G as a set X. Then F(X) is the free group on the set X and, if r/J is the identity map: r/J : X 3 x
1+
X E
G,
r/J may be extended to a homomorphism ~
: F(X)
1+
G.
Consider F(X)/~I(e) (= F(X)/ker(~)).] If G is a group and is regarded as the quotient group of a free group F(X) according to the procedure in the Hint above then G is called a free group iff ~ is an isomorphism. If S is a subset of a group G and wE W(S) there is the element 'Y(w) calculated by multiplying the factors
Section 1.1. Group Theory
11
in w according to the multiplication defined in G. The set S is called free iff for each word w in W(S):
y(w)
= e ¢:} w '" 0.
[ Note 1.1.5.2: Although every group G is the quotient group of a free group F, there need not be just one free group of which G is a quotient group, e.g., if #( G) = 1 then G is a quotient group of every free group F: G = F / F. Thus there arises the notion of the presentation of a group G, namely the definition of a set X of generators of a free group F(X) and the definition of an epimorphism ~ : F(X) 1+ G. The normal subgroup N ~f ker(~) ~f ~l(e) then defines (a set of) relations among the elements of X. These relations may be regarded as constituting in W(X) a subset R of words corresponding to a minimal set of generators of N or, alternatively as a set of identities imposed on those words. The group G is said to be presented by the set X of generators and the set R of relations. If both X and R are finite the group is finitely presented. If a group G is presented in the manner described above, there arises the word problem, i.e., whether there is an algorithm that successfully determines whether a word in W(X) is equivalent to 0. Boone and Novikov independently showed that there are groups for which there are presentations that admit no such algorithm. Their work was shortened by Britton [Boo, Brit, Rot].
Baumslag, Boone, and Neumann [BBN] gave an example of a finitely presented group containing a finitely generated subgroup for which there is no finite presentation. Yet another related and very old problem is the Burnside question: If X ~f {Xl!"" x n }, if ki E N, 1 ::; i ::; n, and if the identities 1 ::; i ::; n, are imposed, is the group G presented in this way finite?
X:i '" '0,
The question remained open for many years until 1968 when Novikov and Adian answered it negatively by means of a counterexample [Ad, NovA].] In a similar vein Morse and Hedlund [MoH] exhibited a semigroup E containing 0 and such that: i. E is generated by three elements denoted 1, 2, 3;
Chapter 1. Algebra
12 n. Oa
= aO = 0,
a E ~; 12
= 22 = 32 = 0;
iii. for no k in N is it true that every product of k different elements of ~ is 0 (~ is not nilpotent).
What follows is a sketch of the MorseHedlund development. Assume ao = 1, bo = 2 al
= aobo, bl = boao
CaCI ... C2n1 Ci = 1 or 2, Ci T
= an, n = 0,1, ... = C;l. i E N
= ... C2ClCaCIC2 ...
def
Thus, e.g., COCI ...
= 1221 2112 2112 1221 2112 1221 1221 2112 2112 1221
and there are no more than two successive l's or 2's in T. In T let B;, i E Z, be the block CiCi+l. whence each B; has one of the four forms: 11, 12, 21, 22. Denote these forms by 1, 2, 3, 4. Then
S ~f ••• B2B_IBoBIB2 ... BoBI'" = 2432 3124 3123 2432 3123 2431 and there is in S no block PQ (of any size) for which P = Q. In S replace each 4 by 1 and call the result U. Thus U contains the block 2132 3121 3123 2132 3123 2131. Let ~ be the semigroup generated by the three symbols 1, 2, 3 and assume 12 = 22 = 32 = O. The set of nonzero elements of ~ is the set of all blocks (of any size) in U. Thus ~ is a semigroup enjoying the properties described at the start of the discussion. If G is a topological group, it and all its subsets are completely regular topological spaces. Hence in the category of topological groups and continuous homomorphisms the counterpart of a free topological group on a set X is definable only if X is a completely regular topological space. If X is a completely regular topological space a free topological group on X is a topological group Ftop(X) such that:
{. Ftop(X) contains a topological image of X (by abuse of language, X C Ftop(X)); i{. if G is a topological group and cP : X
1+ G is a continuous map then cP may be extended to a continuous homomorphism ~ : Ftop(X) 1+ G.
Section 1.1. Group Theory
13
The following facts about JH[, the noncom mutative field (division ring, skew field, sfield) of quaternions (cf. Subsection 1.2.1) will prove useful in the development that follows. I> I>
The quaternions constitute a fourdimensional algebra over R. There is for JH[ a Hamel basis {1,i,j,k} over Rand 1 . q = q, q E JH[ i 2 = j2 = k 2 = 1 ij
I>
= ji = k,
jk = kj
= i,
ki
= ik = j.
If JH[ 3
q
= a1 + b'1 + CJ• + dk , { a" b c, d} C
def
D 1ft.
the conjugate of q is q=a def 1
 b'l  C•J  dk
and the nonn of q is
(Hence Iql = 0 iff q = 01 + Oi + OJ + Ok ~f 0.) The norm of the product ab of two quaternions a and b is the product of their norms: labl I>
= lal ·Ibl·
If q =F 0 then the inverse ql of q exists, 1
q
I>
q
= Iq12'
(and qql = 1). A quaternion of the form bi + cj + dk is a pure quaternion.
Exercise 1.1.5.3. Show that every quaternion q is a square: there is a quaternion r such that q = r2. Exercise 1.1.5.4. Let qm ~f bmi + emj + dmk, m = 1,2 be two pure quaternions. Show that they commute (qlq2 = ~ql) iff they are linearly dependent over R. [Hint: Show that they commute iff the rank of the matrix
Chapter 1. Algebra
14
is not more than 1.) THEOREM 1.1.5.1. IF X IS A COMPLETELY REGULAR TOPOLOGICAL SPACE THERE IS A FREE TOPOLOGICAL GROUP Ftop(X) ON X. PROOF outline: I>
Let lHll be the set of quaternions of norm 1 and let F be the set of continuous maps f : X 1+ lHl 1 . 1>1> In lHll there is an infinite set S ~f {Sn}nEN that generates a free subgroup of lHlb i.e., F(S) is isomorphic to the intersection of all subgroups oflHll that contain S [Grood, Hau], cf. also Remark 1.1.5.1. 17. As a subgroup of lHlb F(S) is a topological group on
S.
If Pb" . ,Pn are n different points of X and if 101 = ±1, ... ,IOn ± 1 then, because X is completely regular, there is in Fan f such that f(Pk) = S~k, 1 ~ k ~ n. For each f in F let lHlJ be a copy of lHll and let lHloo be the (compact) topological group that is the topological Cartesian product I1JE.1"lHlJ' 1>1>
I>
I>
I>
For x in X let 8(x) ~f x in lHloo be the vector for which the fth . f( x ) def component is = x J:
Then 8 is a topological embedding of X in lHloo . Correspondingly embed F(X) in lHloo: if X~l ... x~n represents an element ~ in F(X) let e(~) be the vector
8 ~f (f(Xl)El ... f(xnyn )JE.1'"
I>
So embedded F(X) inherits a topology that makes F(X) a topological group in which X is topologically embedded. Let Tmax be the supremum of the (nonempty!) set of topologies T such that: 1>1> F(X) is a topological group in the topology Tj 1>1> X inherits its original topology from T.
Topologized by Tmax , F(X) is a topological group Ftop(X) and conforms to the requirements f, ii'. For details see [Ge4, Ge5] and for alternative approaches see [Kak2, Ma]. The construction described above is a streamlined version of the construction described next. The latter provides added insight into the subject. Again let X be a completely regular topological space. Let lHl* be the multiplicative group of nonzero quaternions and this time let F be the set of
Section 1.1. Group Theory
15
bounded continuous l!ll* valued functions. In .1'let Q be the group consisting of elements that have reciprocals in .1', i.e., Q is the set of invertible elements in the multiplicative structure of.1'. (Alternatively, f E Q iff f E .1' and is bounded.) In analogy with the procedure used before, for each f in Q let l!llj be a copy of l!ll* and let l!ll~ be the topological group that is the topological Cartesian product TI!EQ l!llj. The embedding X 3 x 1+ X ~f (f(X))!EQ is a topological embedding and the procedure outlined earlier leads to the free topological group F(X). If G is a group and if Q( G) is the subgroup generated by all elements of the form aba 1 b 1 (commutators) then Q(G), the commutator subgroup of G, is a normal subgroup and the quotient group GIQ(G) is abelian, whence GIQ(G) is called an abelianization of G. Since GIG is abelian the set of abelianizing subgroups of G is nonempty and Q( G) is the intersection of all normal subgroups G such that GIG is abelian. By abuse of language Q(G) is the smallest of all normal subgroups G such that GIG is abelian. Thus GIQ(G) is the abelianization of G. In the discussion that follows the next result will be helpful.
J
THEOREM 1.1.5.2. A QUATERNION IS A COMMUTATOR.
[ Note 1.1.5.3:
q IS
OF NORM 1:
Iql = 1 IFF q
The kernel of the homomorphism t : l!ll* 3
q 1+ t(q) ~f Iql E JR+
is S ~f {q : Iql = I}. Since the multiplicative group JR+ of positive real numbers is abelian it follows that S :::> Q(l!ll*). Hence a corollary to the THEOREM is the equality: S = Q(l!ll*).) PROOF. If q is a commutator the equality labl = lal'lbl implies that Iql = 1. If Iql = 1 and q # 1 then q + 1 ~f 0 is such that 0 0  1 = q. If q = 1 then q = ii 1 . In short if Iql = 1 there is an 0 such that q = 0 0  1 . If q = 1 then q
= 11 1 11 1 .
Thus it may be assumed that q # 1. Since q # 1 it follows that there are real numbers d, e, f, not all 0, and a real number c and such that o
= c1 + di + ej + fk ~f c1 + ,8.
The nonzero quaternion ,8 is a pure quaternion.
16
Chapter 1. Algebra For any q, both q and q are zeros of the polynomial
pq(x) ~f X2

(q + q)x + qq
in which the coefficients are multiples of 1, i.e., Pq is a polynomial over lR. It follows that p~(fj) = p~(/3) = O. Hence the JRspan of 1 and fj is a twodimensional commutative proper subfield ][{ of 1HI: ][{ ¥1HI. TJie dimension of the set of pure quaternions is three and thus there is a pure quaternion "Y not in the span of the pure quaternion fj. However
6 ~f fj"Y  "Yfj = 0 span(fj) = spanb')
(Exercise 1.1.5.4. 13) whence 6 "# O. Furthermore since fj is pure, /3 = fj and so fj2 = lfjI21. Thus, because 6 "# 0 it follows that 6 1 exists and so /36 = fj6
= [lfjI2"Y  fj"Yfjj = 6fj /3 = 6fjr 1 0: = cl + /3 = 6(cl + fj)6 1 = 60:6 1 q = 0:0: 1 = 0:60: 1 6 1 • D The added interest in the second method of construction of the free group on a set X comes from the notion of a free abelian group A(X) on a set X. The equivalence relation", is replaced by a new equivalence relation ",': WI ",' W2 iff WI '" W2 OR there are words u and v such that WI = uv and W2 = vu. Then A(X) = W(X)/ ",'. The free abelian group A(X) on X may be viewed as the minimal group, by abuse of language, containing X and such that if cP : X 1+ A is a map of X into an abelian group A there is an extension ~ of cP that is a homomorphism of A(X) into A. The second construction of the free topological group on X can be mimicked for the construction of Atop(X), the free topological abelian group on the (completely regular) set X: 1HI* is replaced by JR+, the abelianization of 1HI*, Q is replaced by 'R, the set of bounded continuous functions I : X 3 x 1+ I(x) E JR+ such that is also bounded.
t
To find an infinite free subgroup of JR+ let B ~f {r.\hEA be a Hamel basis for JR over Q. Then A is necessarily infinite. In fact, since B c JR it follows that #(A) :5 #(JR). On the other hand, the set ~A of finite subsets of A has the same cardinality as that of A: #(~A) = #(A). If cP ~f {x'\p'''' x.\n} E ~ A the cardinality of the set of those real numbers expressible as n
LakX'\t, ak E Q k=1
Section 1.1. Group Theory
17
is [#{Q)]n {= #(Q) = #(N)). Hence #(R.)
= #(N)#{~A) = #(~A) = #(A).
The set R ~ {2 r ,\ }IEA generates a free subgroup of R.+ and is used in place of S in the first construction. [Remark 1.1.5.1: The abelianizing map () : E* 3
q ...... Iql E R.+
may be used to demonstrate the existence in E* of a set T free in E* and such that #(T) = # (R.). Indeed, if T = ()I{R) then T is free and #(R.) ~ #(T) ~ #(A) = #(R.). As noted earlier, in R. there must be an infinite set ~ linearly independent over Q. The existence of such a set is independent of Zorn's lemma and engenders the set ()1 (~) that is perforce an infinite free subset of E* . Let F{T) be the (free) group generated in E* by T. Let C be the set of all commutators xyx 1 yl, X, yET, x i: y. Then since T is free so is C. Hence there is in Q{E*) the free set C and #(C) = #(R.).] In [Mal it is shown that Atop{X) is the abelianization of Ftop{X). Hence the second construction of Ftop{X), the topological free group on X, leads to the following parallel: The underlying structure or source R.+ for constructing the abelianization Atop{X) of F{X) is the abelianization ofthe underlying structure or source E* for constructing Ftop{X). The parallel above may be viewed as a kind of commutative diagram (1.1.5.1) if a is used as the generic symbol for the quotient map arising from abelianization:
{X id ! {X
, E*}
!
+
a
, R.+}
+
Ftop{X) ! a . Atop (X)
(1.1.5.1)
Let G be a group, Y be a set, and P ~f {W.\hEA be a subset of W{Y). The elements y of Y may be viewed as "parameters" the "values" of which may be taken as elements 9 of G. Thus a word y~l ... y~n is replaced by g~l ... g~n. (Some of the elements gl,' .. ,gn of G may be the same, e.g., gl = g3.) Let N{P, F{Y)) be the normal subgroup generated in F{Y) by P. Correspondingly let N{P, G) be the normal subgroup generated in G after replacing in all possible ways the parameters y by elements 9 of G. Of particular interest are N{P, E*), and, in the norminduced topology of E*, the closure N (P, E*) of N (P, E*).
Chapter 1. Algebra
18
If X is a completely regular topological space the set N(P, Ftop(X)) is taken as the closed normal subgroup generated in Ftop(X) after replacing in all possible ways the parameters y by elements 9 of Ftop(X). If w is the generic symbol for the quotient map arising from dividing 1Hl* resp. Ftop(X) by N(P, 1Hl*) resp. N(P, Ftop(X)) the diagram that corresponds to (1.1.5.1) looks like this:
{X, id ! {X
1Hl*
}
! w
, 1Hl* /·7: N""';:(p=,1Hl=*:: :)
}
_
Ftop(X) ! w Ftop(X)/N(P, Ftop(X))
(1.1.5.2)
Regrettably, as the next few lines show, the diagram (1.1.5.2) is not necessarily commutative.
Example 1.1.5.1. Let X be T, the set of complex numbers of absolute value 1, and let P be {yy}. If f is T 3 (a+bi) 1+ a1+bi E 1Hl* then there is in Q no function h such that (h(a1 + bi))2 = f(a + bi), cf. Exercise 1.1.5.5. below. Thus f ¢. N(P, Ftop(X)) and so Ftop(X)/N(P, Ftop(X)) consists of more than one element. Since every quaternion is a square (Exercise 1.1.5.3. 13) it follows that N(P,IHl*) = 1Hl* and so 1Hl* /N(P,IHl*) = {I}. The set of Ql of continuous bounded functions f : X 3 x 1+ f(x) E {I} consists of one element and cannot be the source in the second construction of the quotient Ftop(X)/N(P, Ftop(X)). Exercise 1.1.5.5. Show that there is in ClI' no continuous function h such that for z in T, (h(Z))2 = z. ("The square root function is not continuous on T.") [Hint: For each z in T there are in [0, 211') a unique 0 such that z = e i6 and a unique ¢(O) such that h(z) = e i ,p(6). For each 0 in [0,211'), 211' < 2¢(O)  0 < 411' and 2¢(O)  0 E 211'Z, whence, for any 0 in [0,211'),
a) 2¢(O)  0 = 211' or b) 2¢(O)  0 = 0. If ¢ is discontinuous, i.e., if the switch a) ++ b) occurs, then h switches to h. If only one of a) or b) obtains for all 0 in [0,21l') then lim6T27f e i ,p(6) =F ei,p(O). Thus h is discontinuous on T.) 1.1.6. Finite simple groups
No discussion of group theory can ignore the achievement in early 1981 of the classification of all finite simple groups. The success culminated more
Section 1.2. Algebras
19
than 30 years of research by tens of mathematicians publishing hundreds of papers amounting to thousands of pages. One of the great achievements in the early part of the effort was the result of Feit and Thompson to the effect that every group of odd order is solvable or, equivalently, every finite simple nonabelian group is of even order. Their paper [FeT] occupied an entire issue of the Pacific Journal of Mathematics. [ Note 1.1.6.1: In [FeT] there arises the question: For two (different) primes p and q, are the natural numbers pQl qPl andpl
ql
relatively prime? Simple illustrations, e.g., with the first 100 primes, suggest that the answer is affirmative. Had the answer been known, [FeT] would have been considerably shorter. To the writers' knowledge, the question remains unresolved.] In effect, every finite simple group is either a "group of Lie type" (cf. Subsection 1.2.2) or, for some n in N, the alternating group An, or one of precisely 26 "sporadic" groups. The largest of the sporadic groups consists of approximately 1054 elements. For a thorough exposition, together with a good deal of motivation and history, the interested reader is urged to consult Gorenstein's books [Gorl, Gor2]. 1.2. Algebras
1.2.1. Division algebras ("noncommutative fields")
By definition the binary operation dubbed multiplication in a field K is commutative: for a, b in K, ab = ba. A noncommutative field S or skew field or sfield or division algebra is a set with two binary operations, addition and multiplication that behave exactly like the binary operations in a field except that multiplication is not necessarily commutative: the possibility ab 1: ba is admitted. If p is an nth degree polynomial with coefficients in C then p has at most n different zeros. If C is replaced by 1Hl, the noncommutative field of quaternions (cf. Subsection 1.1.5), an nth degree polynomial may have more than n zeros.
Example 1.2.1.1. The polynomial p(x) ~f x 2 + 1 regarded as a polynomial with coefficients from IHl has infinitely many zeros. Indeed, if . a zero 0 f p. . t . th en r q def. q IS any nonzero qua ermon = qlq 1 IS
20
Chapter 1. Algebra
Exercise 1.2.1.1. Show that there are infinitely many different quaternions of the form r q . [Hint: Assume a, b E IR and a2 + b2 = 1.
Let q be a1
+ bj.]
THEOREM 1.2.1.1. LET r BE A QUATERNION SUCH THAT r2 + 1 = O. THEN THERE IS A NONZERO QUATERNION q SUCH THAT r = rq ~f qiql. [ Note 1.2.1.1:
See Exercise 1.2.1.1 above.]
PROOF. Let q ~f a1 + bi + cj + dk be such that Iql2 = 1. Then ql = a1  bi  cj  dk. If r ~f cd + fji + 'Yj + 15k the equation r2 + 1 implies (0: 2  fj2 _ 'Y2  0'2) 1 + 20:fji + 2'Yo:j + 20:0'k = 1. If 0: '" 0 then fj = 'Y = 0' = 0 and so 0: 2 = 1, an impossibility since 0: E R Hence 0: = 0, i.e., r is pure. To find a nonzero q such that r = rq is to find a nonzero q such that rq = qi. Hence q should be such that 0' 'Y fj
(1.2.1.1)
o In matrixvector form (1.2.1.1) is Ux = x. Viewed as vectors in 1R4 , the rows of U are pairwise orthogonal. Furthermore, U '" I, U = Ut , and UU t = U2 = I, i.e., U is an orthogonal selfadjoint matrix and its minimal polynomial is z2  1, whence one of its eigenvalues is 1. Hence (1.2.1.1) has a solution x that is a (nonzero) eigenvector corresponding to the eigenvalue 1, i.e., the quaternion q exists.
o 1.2.2. General algebras If one pares away the various restrictive axioms that are used to define an algebra, there emerge interesting classes of structures that behave like algebras in some ways and yet violate the discarded axioms. A nonassociative algebra over a field 1K is one in which multiplication is not necessarily associative, i.e., in which the identity x(yz) = (xy)z is not necessarily valid. If A is an algebra in which multiplication is associative but not necessarily commutative, there is a counterpart algebra {A} in which "multiplication" is defined as follows: XO
Y
def
= xy 
yx.
Section 1.2. Algebras
21
Exercise 1.2.2.1. Let A be the algebra of n x n matrices over a field K. Show that {A} is a nonassociative algebra. Show that if A is any (associative) algebra over a field K then {A} is associative, i.e., (xoy)oz = xo(yoz),iff yxz + zxy = xzy + yzx.
Exercise 1.2.2.2. Show that if A is an associative algebra over a field K then the binary operation 0 is such that for x, y, z in A and c in K,
(cx) 0 y = c( x 0 y) xoy+yox=O x 0 (y 0 z) + z 0 (x 0 y)
+ Y 0 (z 0 x) = O.
(1.2.2.1)
The last is a version of the Jacobi identity. [Remark 1.2.2.1: The equations (1.2.2.1) are the starting point for the definition and study of Lie algebras, which playa fundamental role in the concept of finite groups of Lie type, which in turn are the building blocks for the classification of all finite simple groups (cf. Subsection 1.1.6). The formalism for passing from a Lie algebra to a group of Lie type is rather complex, depending, as it does, on a profound analysis of the structure of Lie algebras. Nevertheless an outline of the ideas can be given in the following manner. Let C be a Lie algebra in which the product of two elements p and q is denoted [pq). For a fixed element a of C, the map
Ta : C 3 x
t+
[xa)
is a linear endomorphism of C. For special kinds of Lie algebras there are singled out finitely many special elements ai, 1 ~ i ~ N, for which each corresponding map Ta; is nilpotent: for some ni in N, T::'; = O. If C is an algebra over a field K and if t E K then the formal power series for exp (tT.a; )
~f I + ~ (tTa;)k L.J
k!
k=l
has only finitely many nonzero terms, whence exp (tTa;) is welldefined and is an invertible endomorphism of C, i.e., an automorphism. If the field K is finite then the finite set
{tTa; : t E K, 1
~ i ~
N}
Chapter 1. Algebra
22
generates a finite group of Lie type of automorphisms of C. Finite simple groups of Lie type constitute one of the three classes of finite simple groups (cf. Subsection 1.1.6).) The set C of complex numbers is a field that is also a finitedimensional vector space over JR: dim (C) = 2. The set H of quaternions is an example of a division algebra that is a finitedimensional vector space over JR: dim (H) = 4. Exercise 1.2.2.3. Let C be the set H x H regarded as an eightdimensional vector space over JR. Define a binary operation ("multiplication") according to the following formula: . : C 3 ((a, b), (e, d))
t+
(a, b) . (e, d)
def
= (ae 

db, eb + ad).
Show that the Cayley algebra C so structured is an alternative (division) algebra, i.e., C behaves just like a division algebra except that multiplication is neither (universally) commutative nor (universally) associative. [Hint: Show that I ~f (1,0) is the multiplicative identity and that if (a, b) f. (0,0) then there is a (e, d) such that (a, b)· (e, d) = I. To prove absence of universal associativity examine products of three elements, each of the form
(a,b), a,b E {i,j,k}.)
Milnor [Miln2] showed that the only vector spaces (over JR) that can be structured, via a second binary operation, to become a field, a division algebra, or an alternative division algebra are: JR, C, Hand C. See also the book by Tarski [T], where it is shown that if a vector space V over a realclosed field K is an alternative algebra then dim(V) must be 1,2,4, or
8. 1.2.3. Miscellany A field K is ordered iff there is in K a subset P such that: i.
x, yEP
=> x + yEP and xy E Pj
ii. P, {O}, and P are pairwise disjoint and P U {O} U P = K, i.e., K = Pl:J{O}l:J  P (whence P f. 0).
By definition x
> y iff x
 yEP.
Exercise 1.2.3.1. Show that C cannot be ordered.
Section 1.2. Algebras
23
[Hint: If i E P then i 2 , i4 E P and yet i 2 + i4 mutandis, the same argument obtains if i E P.]
= 0;
mutatis
Exercise 1.2.3.2. Show that the field IK ~f Q( v'2) ~f
{
r
+ sv'2 : r, sEQ}
can be ordered by defining P to be either the set of all positive numbers in IK or by the rule r + sv'2 E P r  sv'2 > O. Show also that these two orders are different. An ordered field IK is complete iff every nonempty set S that is bounded above and contained in IK has a least upper bound or supremum (lub or sup) in 1K, viz.: If S '" 0 and there is a b such that every s in S does not exceed b then there is in IK an I such that: I> I>
every s in S does not exceed I; if I' < I there is in S an s' such that I' < s'. The number I is unique and lub(S) = sup(S) ~f I.
Exercise 1.2.3.3. Show that Q in its usual order is not complete, e.g., that {x : x E Q, x 2 $ 2} is bounded above and yet has no lub. An ordered field IK is Archimedean iff I'll (necessarily a subset of an ordered field) is not bounded above. Exercise 1.2.3.4. Show that the field IK consisting of all rational functions of a single indeterminate x and with coefficients in lR: IK
= {~ :
j, 9 E lR(x), degree[GCD(j,g)]
=0}
is ordered but not Archimedeanly ordered when P is the set of elements ; in which the leading coefficients of j and 9 have the same sign. [Note 1.2.3.1: If IK and 1K' are complete Archimedeanly ordered fields then they are orderisomorphic. Customarily the equivalence class of orderisomorphic, complete, Archimedeanly ordered fields is denoted lR [01].] Exercise 1.2.3.5. Show that IK as in Exercise 1.2.3.4 cannot be embedded in lR so that the orders in lR and in IK are consistent. [Hint: The set I'll is naturally a subset of both lR and IK but is unbounded in lR and not in 1K:
xn
 1  = x  n E P, n E I'll,
i.e.,
Chapter 1. Algebra
24
for all n in N, x > n.] A net in a set S is a map A :3 A 1+ a" E S of a directed set {A, ~ } (a diset). When S is endowed with a topology derived from a uniform structure U, e.g., that provided by a metric, a net {a,,} is a Cauchy net iff for each element (vicinity) U of the uniform structure U there is in A a AO such that (a",a,.) E U if A,/J ~ AO. A net {a,,} is convergent iff there is in S an a such that for each neighborhood V of a there is a AO such that a" E V if A ~ AO. If every Cauchy net is convergent ("converges") S is Cauchy complete (cf. [Du, Ke, Tol]). [Remark 1.2.3.1: Let A be the set of finite subsets of N. If A, /J E A let A ~ /J mean A :::> /J. Then {A, ~} is a diset. If A E A let be the largest member in A. For each sequence {Xn}nEN there is a net {X"hEA defined by the equation x" = xn>,. The sequence {xn>, }nEN is a Cauchy resp. convergent sequence iff the net {X"hEA is a Cauchy resp. convergent net.] Two Cauchy nets {a"hEA and {b'Y}'YEr are equivalent ({a,,} '" {boy}) iff for each vicinity U there is a pair {AO, 'Yo} such that (a", b'Y) E U if A ~ AO and 'Y ~ 'Yo. The Cauchy completion SCauchy is the set of "'equivalence classes of Cauchy nets. The set SCauchy is Cauchy complete. An ordered field lK has a uniform structure provided by P: a vicinity is determined by an f in P and is the set of all pairs (a, b) such that  f < a  b < f.
n"
Exercise 1.2.3.6. Show that a complete Archimedeanly ordered field, i.e., essentially JR, is Cauchy complete. [Hint: Let {a"hEA be a Cauchy net in lR. For each n in N choose An so that ~ < < ~ if A, /J ~ An. Then
a"  a,.

00
< a"n
1 .  ::; mf a" n
">"n
def
= In ::; Ln def =
sup a" ::; a"n
">"n
1
+  < 00 n
In ::; In+1 ::; Ln+1 ::; Ln. In other words, the sequences
are monotone increasing resp. decreasing and {a"hEA converges to a ~f lim In (= lim L n ).] n~oo
n ...... oo
If {a"hEA is a net in JR one may define
L,.
= sup { a" : A ~ /J }
def
I,. ~f inf {a" : A ~ /J} .
Section 1.3. Linear Algebra Then Jl.
25
> v ~ III :5 lIS :5 LIS :5 L II • Hence there are defined · 1Imsupa~ ~EA
f a~ l" Imlll ~EA
= ISEA
def'fL III IS
= ISEA sup I IS'
def
Exercise 1.2.3.7. Show that a net · 1Imsupa~ ~EA
. f = l'Imlll ~EA
{a~hEA
a~
in R. is a Cauchy net iff
l'1m = ~EA
(def
a~
).
Example 1.2.3.1. The ordered field lK in Exercise 1.2.3.4. 23 has a Cauchy completion. Nevertheless that Cauchy completion is an ordered field that is perforce Cauchy complete and yet, owing to Exercise 1.2.3.5. 23, is not embeddable in R.. Ordered fields are special instances of algebraic objects endowed with (usually Hausdorff) topologies with respect to which the algebraic operations are continuous. For example, a topological division algebra A is a division algebra endowed with a Hausdorff topology such that the maps A x A 3 (a, b) A x A 3 (a, b)
A \ {O}
3 a
t+
a  bE A
t+
ab E A
t+
aI E
A
are continuous. 1.3. Linear Algebra 1.3.1. Finitedimensional vector spaces
If V is a finitedimensional vector space and T : V t+ V is a linear transformation of V into itself, i.e., T is an endomorphism of V, the eigenvalues of T are the numbers A such that T  AI is singular. The eigenvalue problem  the problem of finding the eigenvalues, if they exist, of an endomorphism T  is central in the study of endomorphisms of finitedimensional vector spaces. If a vector space V is ndimensional over C then the set [V] of its endomorphisms may, via the choice of a Hamel 2 basis, be regarded as the set of all n x n matrices (over e): [V] = en . • . . . If A def = ( aij )m,n i,j=1 18 an m x n matrIX Its transpose At def = (b ji )n,m j,i=1 IS the n x m matrix in which the jth row is the jth column of A: bji = aij' The adjoint A* ~f (Cji)'l,t'::,l is the matrix At, i.e., the matrix At in which
Chapter 1. Algebra
26
each entry is replaced by its complex conjugate: Cji = aij' If K is a field then K n resp. Kn is the set of all n x 1 matrices (column vectors) resp. the set of all 1 x n matrices (row vectors) with entries in K. THEOREM 1.3.1.1. THE SET [V]sing OF SINGULAR ENDOMORPHISMS 2 OF AN nDIMENSIONAL VECTOR SPACE V IS CLOSED IN en AND THE LEBESGUE MEASURE OF [V]sing IS 0: An 2 ([V]sing) = O. PROOF. 1fT E [V] and T l exists let M be IITllI, the Euclidean norm ofT l (in en2 ). If A E [V] and IIAII < then IIT l All $ IITlIlIiAIl < 1,
k
I + E~=l (Tl Ar converges in en2 to say, B, and B (I  T l A) = I. Hence I  T l A and T  A (= T (I  T l A)) are invertible. In sum, all elements of the open ball {T  A : IIAII < IITllI l } are invertible. Hence [V]inv ~f [V] \ [V]sing, the set of invertible elements of [V], is open, 2 i.e., [V]sing is closed, in en . The Identity Theorem for analytic functions of a complex variable implies that if a function f is analytic on a nonempty open subset U of lR then either f is constant in U or for every constant a
A[fl(a) n U]
= O.
It follows by induction [Ge5] that if f is a real or complexvalued function on lRk and iffor some constant a the Lebesgue measure A(fl(a» is positive then f == a in any region R where f is analytic and such that R:::> fl(a). If A ~f (aij )~j'!:l E [V] there are on lRn2 polynomial functions p, q such that det(A) = p{all, ... ,ann ) +iq(all, ... ,ann ). The result cited above and applied in the present instance shows that A([V]sing) = O.
o
COROLLARY 1.3.1.1. THE SET [V] \ [V]sing ~f [V]inv IS A DENSE 2 (OPEN) SUBSET OF en . PROOF. Since [V]sing is a closed null set it follows that [V]sing is 2 nowhere dense and hence that [V]inv is (open and) dense in en .
o
A SQUARE matrix A is diagonable iff there is an invertible matrix P such that p l AP is a diagonal matrix. There is a unique minimal polynomial rnA such that a) rnA(A) = 0, b) the leading coefficient of rnA is 1, and c) the degree of rnA is least among the degrees of all polynomials satisfying a) and b). The matrix A is diagonable iff the zeros of its minimal polynomial are simple [Ge9]. 2
Exercise 1.3.1.1. Show that in en the set V of diagonable n x n
Section 1.3. Linear Algebra
27
matrices is nowhere dense, that its complement is open and dense and that An2 (V) = O. (Note how the conclusions here are parallel to those in Theorem 1.3.1.1 and Corollary 1.3.1.1. All these results are in essence reflections of elaborations, cited above, of the Identity Theorem.) [Hint: A polynomial p has simple zeros iff p and p' have no nonconstant common factor, i.e., iff their resultant vanishes. (The resultant of two polynomials: f(x) ~f aoxm + ... + am and g(x) ~f boxn + ... + bn is if, e.g., m < n, the determinant of the matrix
m+n+2
ao
am
ao
m+l
am
ao bo n+l
am
bn
bo
bn
bo
...
bn
and thus is a polynomial function of the coefficients of f and g.)] If M is a finite set of n x n diagonable matrices then they are simultaneously diagonable iff they commute in pairs, i.e., there is an invertible matrix P such that for every A in M the matrix pl AP is a diagonal matrix iff each pair A, B of matrices in M is such that AB = BA [Ge9].
Exercise 1.3.1.2. Show that the matrices
commute and that neither is diagonable. Show also that there is no invertible matrix P such that both p 1 AP and p 1 BP are in Jordan normal form:
THEOREM
1.3.1.2. IF V IS A FINITEDIMENSIONAL VECTOR C, IF W~f {Wkh9~K IS A SET OF SUBSPACES
OVER IR OR OVER AND IF
K
V= UWk k=l
THEN THERE IS A
ko
SUCH THAT
V = Wko.
SPACE OF
V,
Chapter 1. Algebra
28
PROOF. If no Wk is V it may be assumed that W is minimal: 1 ~ k' ~ K::}
U Wk ¥V. k¥k'
Thus in each Wk there is a vector Xk not in the union of the other Wk'. In S ~f {tXI + (1  t)X2 : 0 ~ t ~ I} there are infinitely many vectors and so two different ones among them must belong to some subspace, say Wk'. But then
whence and so
o
a contradiction. [Remark 1.3.1.1: The space V need not be finitedimensional. The argument can be generalized somewhat. If the underlying field is merely infinite or if it is finite and its cardinality exceeds K the argument remains valid.] Exercise 1.3.1.3. Show that if IK is the finite field {O, I}, i.e.,
if x and yare indeterminates, V
=
def {
ax+by
a,b ElK},
and WI ~f { ax
a ElK}
W2 ~f { ay
a ElK}
W3~f{a(x+y) : aEIK} then V = WI U W 2 U W3 and yet V is none of WI. W2, W3, i.e., THEOREM 1.3.1.2 does not apply to V. Exercise 1.3.1.4. Let A ~f (aij)~j~l be an m x n matrix. Show that there is an n x m matrix T ~f (tpq);:;'::l such that AT A = A. The matrix T is the MoorePenrose or pseudoinverse A+ of A, cf. [Ge9].
Section 1.3. Linear Algebra
29
[Hint: If V resp. W is an mdimensional resp. ndimensional vector space then for every choice of bases for V and W there is a natural correspondence
[V, W] 3 T
++
A E Matmn
between the set [V, W] of linear maps of V into Wand the set Mat mn of m x n matrices. Fix bases in em and en let TA in [em, en] correspond to A given above. Choose a Hamel basis y' for im (TA) and let X' be a set such that TA(X') = Y' and #(X') = #(Y'). Fill Y' out to a Hamel basis Y for en and fill X' out to a Hamel basis X for em. Define the linear transformation S E [en,e m] by the rule:
S(Y')
= X',
TAS
= I,
S(Y \ Y')
= {OJ.
Then TASTA = TA. Let S correspond to the matrix A+.] The GaufJSeidel algorithm is one of the accepted recursive techniques for approximating the solution(s) of a system Ax = b of linear equations. Like Newton's algorithm (cf. Example 2.1.3.9. 95) for finding the real root(s) of an equation f(x) = the Gauf3..Seidel algorithm can fail by producing a divergent sequence of "approximants."
0,
Example 1.3.1.1. Let the system Ax = b be
(Xl) = (bl) . (21 1) 2 X2
Then
b2
A_(2 1)=(21 20)_(00 1 2
1)~fp_Q
0
and a direct calculation shows
The eigenvalues of pIQ are 0 and ~ and, PM denoting the spectral radius of the matrix M, PP1Q = ~ < 1. If XO
=(:)
then, via the GauBSeidel algorithm, there arises the recursion n
Xn+l ~f (pIQ)n+l xo + L(pIQ)k PIb, n E N. k=O
Chapter 1. Algebra
30
The identity (I  Bn+1) = E:=o Bk(I  B), stemming from the algebraic identity 1  zn+1 = E:=o zk(1  z), is valid for any SQUARE matrix B. Since PPIQ = ~ it follows that n
I
= n+oo~ lim "(P1Q)k(I _
p1Q)
k=O
lim
n ..... oo
xn+1
= (I 
p 1Q)1 P 1b
(1.3.1.1) A direct check shows that the (column) vector in the right member of (1.3.1.1) is indeed the solution of Ax = b. On the other hand, Eij denoting the identity matrix I with rows i and j interchanged, the system may be rewritten AE12 E 12 x = b, i.e., as follows:
(=~ ~) (:~) = (:~).
The matrix B of the system is AE12 , the unknown y of the system is E 12 X and the right member of the system is unchanged: By = b. This time write
B
= (=~ ~)
Then 8 1
= (=~ ~)
 (~
~2) ~f 8 T.
and 8 1T
= (~ ~).
This time the eigenvalues of 8 1T are 0 and 4 whence Furthermore, if Yo
then
def
=
(c) d
PSIT
= 4
> 1.
Section 1.3. Linear Algebra
31
The sequence {yn} converges iff the coefficients of 4n and 4n+l in (1.3.1.2) are 0, i.e., iff In that case for all n
Yn
= (t(b1 a(2b 1
2b 2 ) ) 
b2 )
and the Yn converge (trivially) to the solution found before. Hence iff one uses for Yo a vector in which the second component d is the very special number ~(2bl  b2 ) does the sequence {Yn} converge at all. 1.3.2. General vector spaces If V is a vector space and T E [V] then T is invertible iff there is in [V] an S, the inverse of T, such that ST = TS = I. If V is finitedimensional then [Ge9] there is an S such that ST = I iff there is an R such that TR = I. If such an S (and hence an R) exists then R = S, whence inverses are unique. The last statement is not necessarily valid if V is infinitedimensional.
Example 1.3.2.1. Let V be the vector space C(z] of polynomials of a single (complex) variable z. If 1 E V let [0, z] be the line segment connecting 0 and z in C and let T(f)(z) be [
I(w) dw.
1[0,z)
Then T is a monomorphism: T is linear and T(f) = T(g) ~ 1 = g. If S(f) = f' then ST = I. However if 0 =F a E C and I(z) == a then S(f) = 0 and TS(f) = 0 =F I(f) = I. [Remark 1.3.2.1: The range of T is the vector space W of polynomials with constant term 0, whence TS(f) = 1 iff 1(0) = O. Restricted to W, T does have an inverse: ST = T S = I.] If V is a vector space and T E [V] the spectrum O'(T) is the set of numbers A such that T  AI is not invertible. If V is finitedimensional then O'(T) is the (nonempty!) finite set of eigenvalues of T. If V is a Banach space and T is continuous then O'(T) is compact and nonempty although the set of eigenvalues of T may well be empty. By contrast, if V is infinitedimensional without further restriction then the continuity of T may be meaningless and, as the Examples below reveal, the neat results cited above are absent in rather striking ways: i. T may fail to have even one eigenvalue; ii. T may have a nonempty open spectrum; iii. T may have an empty spectrum; iv. T may have as its spectrum the noncompact, open, and closed set C.
32
Chapter 1. Algebra Example 1.3.2.2. Let V be the set of all twosided sequences
a
=
def {
}
an oo (ax + by, z) b) (x,y) = (y, x) c) (x,x) ~ 0, (x,x) = 0
= a(x, z) + b(y, z)
v > f(b), i.e., if v is between f(a) and f(b), there is between a and b a c such that f(c) = v: f enjoys the intermediate value property on I.
OF
f
THEOREM 2.1.1.1. THE SET CONT(f) OF POINTS OF CONTINUITY IS A COUNTABLE INTERSECTION OF OPEN SETS, i.e., CONT(f) IS A
G6 [HeSt].
Exercise 2.1.1.1. Show that Discont(f) is a countable union of closed sets, i.e., an Fa. Example 2.1.1.1. Every closed set is an Fa. However Q is an Fa but Q is not closed. A set S is of the first category if it is the union of count ably many nowhere dense sets. A set that is not of the first category is of the second category. The next result is frequently cited as Baire's (category) theorem although the term category is used first in COROLLARY 2.1.1.1. The collection of these results has wide application, e.g., in the proofs of the open mapping and closed graph theorems, which playa vital role in the study of Banach spaces [Ban]. THEOREM 2.1.1.2.
IF (X, d) IS A COMPLETE METRIC SPACE AND
IF {Un}nEN IS A SEQUENCE OF DENSE OPEN SUBSETS OF X, THEN G ~f IS DENSE IN X [HeSt, Rud].
nnEN Un
The complement of a dense open set is a nowhere dense (closed) set. COROLLARY 2.1.1.1. A NONEMPTY OPEN SUBSET OF A COMPLETE METRIC SPACE IS OF THE SECOND CATEGORY, i.e., IS NOT THE UNION OF COUNTABLY MANY NOWHERE DENSE SETS.
44
Chapter 2. Analysis
COROLLARY 2.1.1.2. IF X IS A COMPLETE METRIC SPACE AND {Fn}nEJ'II IS A SEQUENCE OF CLOSED SETS SUCH THAT
CONTAINS A NON EMPTY OPEN SUBSET THEN AT LEAST ONE OF THE Fn CONTAINS A NON EMPTY OPEN SUBSET.
Exercise 2.1.1.2. Show that the conclusion of Baire's theorem obtains if each Un is not necessarily open but does contain a dense open subset. However, in Baire's theorem the dense open sets Un may not be replaced by arbitrary dense sets Dn with merely nonempty interiors D~. Example 2.1.1.2. Let Q ~f {tn}nEJ'II be the set of rational numbers and let Vn be (n, n)U(Q\ {tb ... , t n }). Then each Vn is dense in the complete metric space R. and has a nonempty interior but nnEJ'II Vn = (1, 1)\Q, which is not dense in R.. There are yet other aspects of Baire's theorem. i. The completeness of X plays an important role. For example, Q in its topology inherited from R. is not complete. If Q ~f {rn}nEJ'II and Un ~f Q \ {rn}, n E N, then each Un is a dense open subset of Q and yet nnEJ'II Un = 0. On the other hand, Baire's theorem remains valid if X is replaced by a perfect subset S of X or by the intersection S n U of a perfect subset S and an open subset U of X. ii. Although a complete metric space was originally and is now most frequently the context for applying Baire's theorem, it is nevertheless true that a locally compact space X (even if X is not a metric space) is also not of the first category, cf. Corollary 2.1.1.1. [PROOF (sketch). If {An}nEJ'II is a sequence of nowhere dense subsets of X and if X = UnEJ'II An then the closures An, n E N are also nowhere dense and so it may be assumed a priori that each An is closed. In Vl ~f X \ Al there is a nonempty open set containing an nonempty open subset U l for which the closure Kl ~f U l is a compact subset of Vl. Then V2 ~f Ul \ A2 is a nonempty open set containing a nonempty open subset U2 for which the def closure K2 = U2 is a compact subset of Kb ... . There is an inductively definable sequence {Kn }nEJ'II consisting of compact closures of open sets and such that Kn+1 c K n , n E N. The intersection nnEJ'II Kn ~f K is a nonempty compact
Section 2.1. Classical Real Analysis
45
set by virtue of the finite intersection property of the sequence {Kn}nEN of closed subsets of the compact set K 1 • On the other hand K meets none of the sets in {An}nEN, i.e., K is not in X, a contradiction.] m. In its discrete topology N may be regarded as both a complete metric space and as a locally compact space. Thus N is a countable topological space that, on two scores, is a space of the second category. THEOREM 2.1.1.3. IF EACH
In
lim
n ..... oo
IS CONTINUOUS ON R. AND
In = I
ON R. THEN CONTU) IS DENSE IN R.: CONTU) = R.
[BeSt]. [Remark 2.1.1.1: If R. is replaced by a (Cauchy) complete metric space X the conclusion remains valid.]
Let So denote the interior of a set S: So is the union of all the open subsets of S. Exercise 2.1.1.3. Show that if F is a closed set and its interior FO is empty then F is nowhere dense. Exercise 2.1.1.4. Prove THEOREM 2.1.1.3 with R. replaced by a complete metric space X. [Hint: The sets
Flon Fk
~ [D. {x U Fkm
=
def
mEN
Gkm Gk
~f

~f
J;10
L'km
U
Gkm
mEN
G~f
n
Gk
kEN
I/m{x) 1.{x)1
~ ~ }1
Chapter 2. Analysis
46
have a number of important properties listed below. I> I> I> I>
I>
I>
I> I>
Each Fkm is closed because the In are continuous. Each Fk is X because the In converge everywhere. If Fkm = 0 then Fkm is nowhere dense because Fkm is closed. Not all Fkm are empty because X is Cauchy complete and hence not of the first category. The set Rkm ~f Fkm \ Fkm is closed and its interior is empty, whence Rkm is nowhere dense and Rk ~f UmEN Rkm is of the first category. Since Gk = X\Rk it follows that Gk, as the complement of a nowhere dense set Rk in a complete metric space X, is dense. The set Gk, as a union of open sets, is open and so Gk is a dense open set. Baire's Theorem implies that G is dense. At each point x of G the limit function I is continuous. [PROOF. For each k in N there is in N an mk such that x E Fkmt , i.e.,
Since Fkmt is open it contains a neighborhood U(x) and for every z in U(x)
whence and so
I/(z)  l(x)1 ~ I/(z)  Imt(z)1 + I/mt(z)  Imt(x)1 + I/mt(x)  l(x)l· The first and third terms in the right member of the last disOwing to the continuity of Imt' conplay do not exceed tained in U(x) is a neighborhood W(x) such that if z E W(x) then the second term is less than Hence I is continuous at x, as required. 0]
l.
l.
Thus Cont(f) is dense in X.] Let XS denote the characteristic function of the set S: I XS () x = {
o
ifxES
otherwise.
47
Section 2.1. Classical Real Analysis
Exercise 2.1.1.5. Show that there is in JRIR a function:
h that is continuous nowhere and yet Ih I is constant (hence continuous everywhere) ; ii. 12 that is nonmeasurable and yet 1121 is constant (hence measurable). t.
[Hint: For fp choose a set Ep and the function XE", P = 1,2.] Exercise 2.1.1.6. Show that there is in JRIR a function: i. 91 that is continuous somewhere and yet is not the limit of a sequence of continuous functions; ii. 92 that is not measurable but continuous somewhere; iii. 93 that is continuous a.e. but is not continuous everywhere; iv. 94 that is equal to a continuous function a.e. but is not itself continuous; v. hk that is not measurable but somewhere differentiable of order k.
[Hint: For v choose a nonmeasurable set E and consider x xk (XE  XIR\E)']
1+
Exercise 2.1.1.7. Let S be a noncompact subset of JR. Show that: i. if S is unbounded and f(x) = x on S then f is continuous and unbounded on S;
ii. if S is bounded there is in S
\S
a point a and then if on S
f(x) ~f _l_ xa
f is continuous and unbounded on S. [Remark 2.1.1.2: In i and ii above the function f is locally bounded: if xES there is an open set N(x) containing x and such that f is bounded on S n N(x).] Exercise 2.1.1.8. Assume S is a noncompact subset of JR. i. Show that if S is unbounded above there in S a sequence {an}nEN such that n < an < an+l' Show that if, for each x in S, f(x)
={
(I)nn tf(a n ) + (1 t)f(an+d 1
ifx=an, n=2,3, ... if x = tan + (1 t)an+b 0 < t if x E (00, at}
0 AND IF 0 < X < p THEN X IS NOT A PERIOD OF I. PROOF. Otherwise there is a sequence {an}nEN such that an ! 0 and each an is a period of I. Since the set of periods of any function is an additive group, the group GI of periods of I is dense in JR. Since I is not constant, let b be such that I(b) =F I(a). Then there is a sequence {en}nEN of periods such that b+cn  a whence I(b) = I(b+c n )  I(a), a contradiction.
D Exercise 2.1.1.11. Show that XQ is a nonconstant periodic function without a smallest positive period. Not only is the set Discont(f) of points of discontinuity of a function I an Fu (cf. Exercise 2.1.1.1. 43) but, as the next Exercise reveals, every Fu is, for some I, Discont(f). Exercise 2.1.1.12. Show that if A is an Fu then:
49
Section 2.1. Classical Real Analysis
i. there is a sequence {Fn}nEN of closed sets such that Fn C Fn+l! n E N, and A = UnENFn; .. 1'f EO D def U. = 0,1'f and if
2 n
f(x) = { 0
if x E Bn if x ¢ UnENBn
then Discont(f) = A. [Hint: For c in A there is an n such that such that c E Fn+k' k E
N, in which case c is a limit point of Dn ~f B n 1 U B n+!. If x E Dn then If(c)  f(x)1 ~ 2 n  1 • If c ¢ A then f(c) = O. For a positive € choose N in N so that 2 N < € and then a neighborhood N(c) of c so that N(c) n FN = 0. Then If(x)  f(c)1 < 2 N < € if x E N(c).) Exercise 2.1.1.13. Show that if f E IRIR and if x = ~, m E Z \ {O}, n EN, and (m, n) if x = 0 otherwise
~
f(x)
={ 1 o
=1
then Discont(f) = Q.
Exercise 2.1.1.14. If f E 1R1R, f is a monotone increasing function, and a E Discont(f) then
limf(x) ~f f(a  0) < f(a zla
+ 0) ~f limf(x). z!a
Hence corresponding to a there is in (f(a  0), f(a + 0)) a number in Q. Hence show that Discont(f) is at most countable. Conversely, let S ~f {an}nEN be a subset of IR and assume that dn is positive and EnEN dn < 00. Show that if
. ( )_ {O
Ja x  I
then
ifx
L...J
2 n •
n=l
The function Co is further defined on anyone of the count ably many intervals that constitute [0,1] \ Co by (continuous) linear interpolation (whence Co is constant on each such interval). Then Co is continuous, monotone increasing on [0, l]j Co exists a.e. and is on [0,1] \ Co. In Figure 2.1.2.1
°
Chapter 2. Analysis
56
there is an indication of the graph of Co (cf. Exercise 1.1.4.3. 7, Exercise 2.1.1.17. 52). As in the construction of Example 2.1.1.3. 51 there is a sequence {Cn}~=l of Cantorlike functions, one defined for each of the deleted intervals. Each function is appropriately scaled so that for n in N, 0:::; Cn :::; 2~. Then on [0,1]: a)
converges uniformly to a function C, continuous and strictly increasing, i.e., 0:::; x < y :::; 1 => C(x) < C(y)j b) C' exists and is 0 a.e. Furthermore C may be extended to a function Ccontinuous and strictly increasing on R. where I C exists and is 0 a.e. If I E R.IR then the results in Subsection 2.1.1 imply that: a) If I E R.IR then Discont(f) is an FtT . b) If E e R. and E is an FtT then for some I in R.IR , E = Discont(f). The result below is an almost flawless parallel. E E
THEOREM 2.1.2.3. a/ ) IF I E BV THEN ..\ (Nondiff(f)) = O. b / ) IF e R. AND "\(E) = 0 THEN THERE IS IN BV A CONTINUOUS I SUCH THAT e Nondiff(f).
PROOF. The proof of a/ ) is standard [Gr, HeSt, Roy, Rud, SzN]. The proof of b / ) follows from the results in Exercise 2.1.2.2 below.
Exercise 2.1.2.2. 1) Show that if E e R. then "\(E) = 0 (E is a null set) iff for each positive f, there is a sequence :l ~f {(an, bn)}nEN of intervals such that every point x of E belongs to infinitely many of the intervals in :land E~=I(bn  an) < f. 2) Let E and :lbe as in 1) and let lab be x 1+ X[a,bj(X)(X  a) + (b  a)X(b,oo) (x). Show that I ~f E~=1 lanbn is monotone, continuous, and E C Nondiff(f). [Hint: ad 1). If "\(E) = 0 and n E N there is a sequence {(Onk,.Bnk)hEN such that E e UkEN(onk,.Bnk) and the lengthsum E~1 (.Bnk  Onk) < f2 n  1. Consider {(Onk,.Bnk)}n,kEN· ad 2). If c E E, kEN, and (a, b) is the intersection of k .7intervals {( an1 , bn1 ) , ... , (a nk , bnk )} containing c then for x in (a, b), k
I(x)  I(c) ~ ' " In; (x)  In; (c) ~ k.] xc L.J xc
o
j=1
[Remark 2.1.2.4: The parallel drawn above is defective: "e" in b / ) is not the same as "=" in b). To the writers' knowledge, the true analog of b) has not been established.]
Section 2.1. Classical Real Analysis
57
Exercise 2.1.2.3. Show that for
f in Exercise 2.1.1.14. 49,
Nondiff(f) = Discont(f) = {an}nEN. If f is a differentiable function defined on an open subset of R. then I'(a) = at the site a of an extremum (maximum or minimum) of f. Furthermore if f"(a) < resp. f"(a) > then f(a) is a local maximum resp. local minimum. It is quite possible that I' (a) = and that a is not the site of an extremum, e.g, f(x) = x 3 , a = 0, and that a is an extremum and f"(a) = 0, e.g., f(x) = x4, a = 0. Of greater interest are Exercises 2.1.2.4, 2.1.2.5 and Examples 2.1.2.2, 2.1.2.3 that follow.
°
°
°
°
Exercise 2.1.2.4. Show that if f E R.IR and if x ¥= if x =
°
°°
then at f is at an absolute minimum, 1'(0) = 0, but that in no interval (a,O) or (O,b) is f monotone. Cantorlike sets permit the construction of a continuous function f such that in every nonempty open subinterval J of [0, 1) there are two points xj resp. x J such that
x E J \ {xj}
'* f(xj) > f(x) > f(x]).
In other words: The set Smax of sites of proper local maxima of f is dense in [0,1) and the set Smin of sites of proper local minima of f is dense in [0,1). Example 2.1.2.2. The Cantor set Co may be viewed as the interval [0,1) from which "middlethird" open intervals have been deleted. Let I be [0,1). Let {I~n}mEN, 1~n9ml be the set of open intervals deleted from I in the construction of Co. The intervals I~n' mE fIl, 1 :5 n :5 2m  1 , are numbered and grouped so that the length of the first is 3 1 , the length of each of the next two is 3 2 , ••• , the length of each of the next 2n is 3(n+1), etc. For each of the intervals I~n define a function g~n for which gt1 is the paradigm. The graph of gt1 is given in Figure 2.1.2.2. 57 below. Outside the interval of definition gt1 = 0. The area of each triangular lobe formed by the graph of y = gt1(X) and the horizontal axis is ~. Each g1nn is situated with respect to I~n as gt1 is situated with respect to 111 and the graph of g1nn is similar to the graph of gt1. Finally,
G1
def""
1 = L...Jgmn· mn
58
Chapter 2. Analysis
The series converges since if mEN and 1 ~ n ~ 2m domains [0,1] \ (g~n) 1 (0) are pairwise disjoint.
1
then the significant
yaxis
xaxis
Figure 2.1.2.2. The graph of y
= g}I(X).
The midpoints of the intervals [~n together with the sites of the local maxima and minima of G 1 partition each [~n into four consecutive subintervals: [~n' [:;n, [i:n' [:n~, all of the same length. From this point on the description of the function f to be constructed will be given verbally rather than by unavoidably impenetrable formulas. On each of the intervals II [14 I mn"'" In construct a Cantorlike set ll emn"'"
e14
mn
and for C~n and C:n~ construct the analogs G~n and G::n of G 1 • For C:;n and ci:n construct the analogs G~n and G:;n of G 1 • There emerges
Section 2.1. Classical Real Analysis
59
Mathematical induction and inbreeding lead to a sequence G ll G 2 , .•. , and, owing to the manner of construction, maxz IGk+l(x)1 maxz IGk(X)1
1
= 3'
(2.1.2.1)
Hence f ~f E:'=i Gn exists and is a continuous function on [0,1]. In each interval Ifnn the function Gi achieves two proper local extrema: maxi n and minin' Owing to the construction of G ll G2,'" (on the sites of their significant domains) and (2.1.2.1), maxin and minin persist as proper local extrema of f. A careful check reveals that a typical segment of the graph of G i + G 2 has the form depicted in Figure 2.1.2.3 (over an interval I!;tn or It!) or in Figure 2.1.2.4. 60 (over an interval It~ or It~).
Figure 2.1.2.3. The graph of y
= Gi + G2 over I!;tn U Ifn"n.
60
Chapter 2. Analysis
Figure 2.1.2.4. The graph of y = G 1 + G2 over I;;n U I;;n. Similarly, the two indicated local extrema of G 1 + G 2 , one a proper local maximum, the other a proper local minimum, persist as proper local extrema of /, etc. If J is a nonempty open subinterval of [0,1], infinitely many of the intervals used in the construction of / are subintervals of J. It follows that / has in J infinitely many sites of proper local maxima and infinitely many sites of proper local minima. Hence each of the sets Sma:/: and Smin is dense in [0,1]. Other constructions can be found in [Goe) and
[PV). Exercise 2.1.2.5. Show that if h is a continuous function in
]RIR
then:
i. if h achieves a local maximum at only one point and h is unbounded above then h achieves a local minimum somewhere; ii. if h achieves a local minimum at only one point and h is unbounded below then h achieves a local maximum somewhere. By contrast there are the functions described next.
Example 2.1.2.3. Each of the continuous functions (x, y)
1+
9 : ]R2 3 (x, y)
1+
/ : ]R2 3
3xeY  e3y  x 3 x 2 + y2(1 + X)3
Section 2.1. Classical Real Analysis
61
in R.R2 achieves only one local extremum (a local maximum at (1,0) for I and a local minimum at (0,0) for the polynomial g) and each of I and 9 is unbounded both above and below. The function 9 : R. 3 x
t+
is in Coo and, if a
{eoxp ( _x 2 )
if x if x
i:
=
°°
(2.1.2.2)
> 0, 9 is represented in (0,2a) by the Taylor series (n)() L !L.f(x  a)n. n. 00
n=O
°
However g(n) (0) = 0, ~ n < 00, and so the Taylor series at 0, i.e., the Maclaurin series, for 9 does not represent 9 in any open interval centered at 0.
[Remark 2.1.2.5: The function 9 in (2.1.2.2) can be used to define a nonmeasurable function goo such that somewhere goo is infinitely differentiable, i.e., somewhere each of g~), kEN exists (cf. Exercise 2.1.1.6. 47).] Computations aside, 9 has no Maclaurin series representation because is an essential singularity of the function
°
(C \ {O}) 3 Z t+ exp (_Z2). In this context the next result is derivable.
Example 2.1.2.4. If IE CC and le(z)
= {eoxp((Z 
c)2)
if Z E C \ {c} if Z = c,
and a i: c then Ie may be represented by its Taylor series in any open disk centered at a and not containing c. If x and c are real then ~ le(x) ~ 1. If {Tn}nEN is an enumeration of Q then
°
00
L 2 nIr .. (z) n=l
a) converges on C, b) converges uniformly on every compact subset ofC\R., and c) defines a function F holomorphic in C \ R.. Furthermore, d) F is infinitely differentiable on R., e) nevertheless each a in R. is an essential singularity of F, whence F admits no Taylor series representation in any disk centered at any point a of R..
Chapter 2. Analysis
62
The function g in (2.1.2.2) is related to a class of bridging functions. For example, if h is defined on two disjoint closed intervals I and J and is differentiable on each interval, a bridging function H is function such that i. H is in Coo on R \ (I U J); ii. H = h on I U J; iii. H is differentiable on R.
The general approach to the construction of such an H is based upon the following function: {3(x)
o
HxSO
1
if 0 < x < 1 if x ~ 1.
~f { exp [_X2 exp ((1  X2)2)]
Exercise 2.1.2.6. Show that: i. {3 above is in Coo and is strictly monotone on (0,1); ii. if a, b, c, d are real and a < b there are real constants p, q, r, s such that
T'abcd(X)
def
= P + q{3(rx + 8) =
{c
d
ifxSa if x ~ b
is strictly monotone on (a, b).
Exercise 2.1.2.7. Assume w < x < y < z. Find numbers a,b,c,d
and
a', b' , c', d' so that for given numbers A, B, C 6A,B,C(t) ~f T'abcd(tha1b1c1dl(t)
={
A
B C
ift<w if t S y if t ~ z
x;;
and 6A,B,C is strictly monotone on (w,x) and (y,z). For k in N the function F is an antiderivative 01 order k of a function 1 if F(k) = I. By abuse of language F is an antiderivative.
Exercise 2.1.2.8. Show that if x < y and if
there is an antiderivative ." of an appropriate T'abcd so that
=X =y .,,(j)(x) = Xj, .,,(x) .,,(y)
1 Sj S k
.,,(j)(y) = Y;, 1 S j S k.
Section 2.1. Classical Real Analysis [Hint: Repeatedly integrate some
63 'Yabcd.]
Exercise 2.1.2.9. Show how, for a given 9 defined and k times differentiable on two disjoint closed intervals I ~f [a, b] and J ~f [e, d] such that a < b < e < d, to construct a bridging function H such that on I U J, if 1 $ j $ k then H(i) = g(i). [Hint: Let H have the form 9 (6A,B,C + 6A',B',C' ).] A function I is smooth on an open set U if I E Coo on U, i.e., if, for each k in N, I is k times differentiable on U.
Example 2.1.2.5. If [a, b] C R. bridging functions permit the construction of a function lab, nonnegative, differentiable on [a, b], and such that for given positive numbers f and Mab,
()_{~+Mab(x(a+!(ba))) 2f + M..all.
I
Jab X

8
lab(a + b  X)
if a $ X $ a + bsa if a + !(b  a) $ x $ a + i(b  a) ifx=~ if ~ < x $ b.
Thus I' is necessarily measurable and its set of points of continuity is (cf. THEOREM 2.1.1.3. 45) a G6 dense in [0,1]. However
[
J{ x : l'(x»O}
f'(t)dt?Mab b  a . 8
If {[an, bn]} nEN is a sequence of pairwise disjoint intervals in [0,1], and if
then F is differentiable on [0,1], F' is measurable, its points of continuity form a G6 dense in [0,1], and
1
,00
F(t)dt?LManb n
{x : F'(x»O}
~~
8
.
n=1
If
Manb n (b n  an) = 1, n E N, then the integral above is infinite: F' is not Lebesgue integrable (hence also not Riemann integrable) although $ F $ 1 + 2f on [0, 1]. There are differentiable functions F for which F' is not Lebesgue integrable. The function F' fails to be Riemann integrable because it is unbounded. It fails to be Lebesgue integrable because it is badly unbounded. In fact,
°
Chapter 2. Analysis
64
IIF'lIco ~ b ':a on [an, bn]. A function h can fail to be Riemann integrable on [0, I] either because h is unbounded or because the set Discont(h) of its discontinuities is not a null set. A function k fails to be Lebesgue integrable on [0, I] because k is not measurable or because the sets where Ikl is large do not have sufficiently small measures. For example, if ifx;i~
g(X)={x!
°
otherwise then 9 is not Riemann integrable on [0, I] because 9 is unbounded on [0, I]. Although 9 is unbounded on [0, I], 9 is Lebesgue integrable on [0, I] and its Lebesgue integral (
g(x)dx = 2.
1[0,1)
In light of the Fundamental Theorem 0/ Calculus (FTC), which relates differentiation and integration, it is of interest to note that mild relaxations of the hypotheses lead to invalidation of the conclusion. Among the numerous versions of the FTC is the following [03]. If / is Riemann integrable on every compact subinterval of an interval 1, if F is continuous on 1 and F' = / on the interior 10 of 1, and if a and b are in 1 then
lb
/(x) dx
= F(b) 
F(a).
In particular if / is continuous and F(x)
= 1:/: /(t)dt,
a E 1, x E
r,
then F' exists on 10 and F' = / on 10 • If S c IR, / E IRs, and if F' = / then F is (on S) a primitive of /. It should be noted that / is Riemann integmble on [a, b] iff / is bounded on [a, b] and Discont(j) is a null set [Gof].
Exercise 2.1.2.10. Prove: If {rn}nEN = Q, a < b, and n E N, then is, but lim n..... co X{rl".,r n } (= XQ) is not, Riemann integrable on [a,b].
X{rt,,,.,r n }
Exercise 2.1.2.11. Show that if / E IRIR and /(x)
~f sgn(x) =
°
{x1xl1
~f x ;i
°
Ifx=O
(the signum/unction) then / is Riemann integrable on 1 ~f [1, I] but has no primitive on 1.
Section 2.1. Classical Real Analysis
65
[Hint: Show that sgn does not enjoy the intermediate value property on [.]
Exercise 2.1.2.12. Show that if 1 is monotone on [0,1] and Discont(f) = Q n [0,1]
(cf. Exercise 2.1.1.14. 49) then 1 is Riemann integrable on [0,1] but has no primitive on any subinterval of [0,1]. Exercise 2.1.2.13. Show that for 1 in Exercise 2.1.2.1ii. 53 there is no constant K and no function g, Riemann integrable on [1,1] and such that I(x) = K + J~1 g(t) dt on [1,1]. [Hint: Note that!' is unbounded on [1,1].] Exercise 2.1.2.14. Show that for given by
~f
g(x)
1 in Exercise 2.1.1.13. 49, if 9 is
1 x
I(t) dt
then: i. g' exists everywhere and g' ii. 9 is not a primitive of I.
= 1 on R \ Qj
Exercise 2.1.2.15. Show that 1 in C[O,I] is absolutely continuous: 1 E AC ([0,1], C), if iiii below obtain: ~. 1 is continuous: 1 E C ([0,1], R); ii. 1 is of bounded variation: 1 E BV ([0, 1], R); m. I(E) is a null set in R whenever E is a null set in [0,1]. Example 2.1.2.6. If, in Exercise 2.1.2.15, anyone of iiii fails to obtain then 1 is not absolutely continuous, i.e., the satisfaction of i iii is necessary and sufficient for the absolute continuity of 1 [BeSt, Rud]. Since an absolutely continuous function is continuous and of bounded variation, it suffices to remark that if 1 is the Cantor function Co then 1 is continuous, monotone, and A [I (Co)] = 1, whence it satisfies i and ii but not iii. Since
°< x ~
1 =>
1 x
!,(t) dt
°
= < I(x) 
1(0)
the Cantor function is not absolutely continuous. Exercise 2.1.2.16. Show that if 1 E C ([0, 1], C) n BV ([0,1], C), if < Tf there is a positive number a such that if P is a partition of [0, 1] and IPI < a then TfP > W.
Tf is the total variation of 1 on [0,1], and if W
Chapter 2. Analysis
66
Example 2.1.2.7. If f is of bounded variation and is not continuous the preceding conclusion can fail to obtain. Indeed if f = X[!,lj' then f is not continuous, Tf = 1, but if p.
n
then
= {[ ~ (k + 1)) 2n',2n'
0:5 k :5 2n

I} n E N
IPnl = 2 n , and TfPn = O.
Exercise 2.1.2.17. continuous on [0,1].
Show that
f
[0,1] 3 x
~
.jX is absolutely
[Hint: If
o < ai < bi
:5
ai+1
< bi+1 :5 1, 1:5 i :5 n
n+1
Lb
i  ai
M(k) it follows that the convergent series S(A) is not dominated by any KS(An), K E JR.
o The idea of the preceding proof can be used to show that there is no sequence of positive divergent series that serves as a universal comparison series sequence for divergence.
74
Chapter 2. Analysis
Even when a series diverges some generalized averaging method might lead to a "reasonable" value to assign as the sum of the series. Such a generalized averaging method is often termed a summability method that is used to sum the series.
= E:'=l(I)n+l then
Example 2.1.3.1. If S(A)
sn(A) = {01 if n is odd if n is even. It follows that the average
(Tn
(A)
+ ... + 8 n(A) _
{~
!
n
if n is odd if n is even.
!, which is regarded as an acceptable
Hence lim n+ oo (Tn (A) = the divergent series S(A).
"value" of
Exercise 2.1.3.14. Let I be Lebesgue integrable on [11",11"], and let the nth Fourier coefficient of I be Cn
1 111" . rn= l(x)e mX dx, n E Z.
def
=
v211"
11"
Let Sf(x) be the (formal) Fourier series
L 00
n=oo N
in:z:
cn _e _
~
inz
and let SN(X) be En=N Cn $. Show that the average N
(TN(X)
=
def
" sn(X) N 1+ 1 'L..J
n=O
111" 1 [sin!(N+l)(xy)/sin!(xy)]2 () 2 N I l y dy. 11" 11" + The function F (x N
) ,y
~ ~ [sin !(N + l)(x  y)/ sin !(x _ y)]2 211"
N
+1
is Fejer's kernel and the integral in the second line of the display above is the convolution, denoted FN * I, of FN and I.
Section 2.1. Classical Real Analysis
75
In discussing convergence resp. uniform convergence it is helpful to use the notation fn + g resp. fn ~ g to signify that the sequence {fn}nEN converges resp. converges uniformly to g as n + 00. Among the properties of Fejer's kernel are [Zy]: i. FN 2:: OJ ii. f::1r FN(X} dx = Ij m. if 0 < f < 7r then FN ~ 0 in [7r,7r] \ (f,f).
Exercise 2.1.3.15. Show: i. the validity of iiii above for FNj ii. that if f is continuous on [7r,7r] and f(7r}
= f(7r}
then
(Fejer's theorem)j iii. that if f is Lebesgue integrable on [7r,7r] then
IIf  fN
* fill ~f
i:
If(x)  FN
[Hint: For iii use ii and the fact that if 8 function g such that IIf  gill < 8.]
* f(x}1 dx + O.
> 0 there is a continuous
More generally let T ~f {t mn }:,n=l be a (Toeplitz) matrix in which each entry is real and for which: i. ii. ... au.
there is an M such that E~lltmnl ~ M, mE N'j limm..... oo tmn = 0, n E N'j I'Imm ..... oo ",,00 t 1 L.m=l mn = . If O'm,T(A} ~f E:=l tmnsn(A} converges for m in N' and if
exists then O'T(A} is the Tsum of S(A}. Thus if
t mn _{ml
o
ifl~n~m otherwise
!,
then the Tsum of E:=l(I}n+l is i.e., T sums S(A}. A matrix T is a Toeplitz matrix iff whenever S(A} converges then its Tsum is also S(A}: O'T(A} = S(A} [To, Wi].
Chapter 2. Analysis
76
Exercise 2.1.3.16. Show that if tmn
= {~ o
if 1 ~ n ~ m otherwise
then T ~f (tmn)~::'l is a Toeplitz matrix and corresponds to the simple averaging procedure described above, cf. (2.1.3.2), page 79. There are two large classes of Toeplitz matrices, those derived from Cesaro summation, denoted (C,a), and those derived from Abel summation. Details about the following statements are discussed in [Zy]. i. If
a>
1, 0
< x < 1, A = {an}~=o
n Sn
= Lak,
n EN
k=O
ISnl S
~ M
< 00, n E N ,,",00
n
(A) ~f L.tnO anx x,a (1 _ x)a+l
s~xn) (~f r::=o (1 x)a
and if
. s~ def hm A = s(C a)(A) ~ ,
n ...... oo
exists then S(A) is said to be (C,a)summable to 8(C,a)(A). ii. If lim Sx o(A) ~f SAbel (A) z ...... 1
'
exists then S(A) is Abelsummable to SAbel(A). iii. If 1 < a < (3 a) and S(C,a)(A) exists then S(A) is (C,(3)summable (S(c,p)(A) exists) and S(c,p)(A) = S(C,a)(A); b) there is an A such that S(A) is (C,(3)summable but is not (C,a)summable; c) and if S(A) is (C,a)summable it is Abelsummable; d) there is an A such that, for each a in (1,00), S(A) is not (C,a)summable but is Abelsummable. iv. For each a in (1,00) there is a Toeplitz matrix Ta such that lim U m T", m+oo' whenever S(C,a)(A) exists.
(A) = S(C ,a) (A)
Section 2.1. Classical Real Analysis
77
v. If Xn II and x ~f {Xn}nEN there is a Toeplitz matrix Tx such that lim
n+oo
Um
'
Tx(A) = SAbel(A)
whenever SAbel(A) exists.
Example 2.1.3.1. 74 shows there are divergent series that can be summed by some Toeplitz matrices. Exercise 2.1.3.17. Show that the (infinite) identity matrix I ~f (!5ij)f,j'=l is a Toeplitz matrix that sums a series SeA) iff SeA) converges. There is no "universal" Toeplitz matrix that sums every series. More emphatic is the next result (cf. THEOREM 2.1.3.3. 72). THEOREM 2.1.3.4. LET {T(k)hEN BE A COUNTABLE SET OF TOEPLITZ MATRICES. THEN THERE IS A SERIES SeA) SUCH THAT
EXISTS FOR EACH m AND EACH k. YET FOR EACH k IN N, lim
m ...... oo
U
m
T(k)
(A)
t
DOES NOT EXIST, [GeO, Hab].
PROOF. Assume that T(k) = {t~l}:,n=l' Owing to iiii in the definition of a Toeplitz matrix, there are in N two strictly increasing sequences: {mp}PEN and {nphEN so that: if m ~ m1 and k = 1, 00
L t~l = 1 + f1m,
If1ml < 0.05,
n=l
00
nl
L t~~n = 1 +!5
b
11511
< 2(0.05),
n=l ifm
~
L n=nl
It~~nl < 0.05; +1
m2 and k = 1,2, 00
L t~l = 1 + f2m,
n=l
nl
If2ml < (0.05)2,
L It~ll < (0.05)2,
n=l
n2
00
n=l
n=n2+1
L t~~n = 1 + 152, 11521< 2(0.05)2, L
It~~nl < (0.05)2;
Chapter 2. Analysis
78
and, in general, if m
~
m p , k = 1,2, ... ,p, and pEN, npl
00
L t~~ = 1 + fpm,
Ifpml
< (0.05)P,
n=l np
L t~~n = 1 + op,
L It~~1 < (0.05)P,
n=l 00
lopl
< 2(0.05)P,
L
It~~nl < (0.05)p.
n=l Let S(A) be such that
sn(A)
~f
{I
if 1 :5 n :5 nl. n2 < n :5 n3, .. . if nl < n :5 n2, n3 < n :5 n4, .. ..
1
(The sequence A itself can be calculated according to the formula
an = If p is odd, p Um
pt
T(k)
> 1,
{ Sl(A) sn(A)  snl(A)
and 1
ifn=1 if 1 < n EN.)
:5 k :5 p then
nl (A) = "L...J t(k ) mpR n=l
n2

" L...J
t(k) mpn
+ ...
n=nl+l 00
 ... + "L...J
_ ... +
t(k) mpn Sn (A)
(~t(k) _ ~l t(k) ) + ~ L...J~n L...J ~n L...J n=l
n=l
t(k) S
~nn
(A).
n=np+l
The conditions imposed on the sequences {mp}PEN and {np}pEN imply that Ump,T(k)
(A)
> 1  2(0.05)Pl  2(p  1)(0.05)Pl  (0.05)P (= 1  [2(P  1)
+ 2.05] (0.05)Pl ~f f(p))
.
Since f'(p) = (0.05)pl [2  [2(p  1) + 2.05]lnO.05j it follows that if pis odd and p > 1 then f' (p) > 0 and thus on [3, 00) the minimum value of f(p) is f(3). Hence if p is odd and p > 1 then Ump,T(k)
(A)
> 0.9.
A similar argument shows that if p is even then U
m p, T(k) (A)
< 0.7.
Section 2.1. Classical Real Analysis
79
Therefore for each k in N the sequence
{Un,T(k) (A)}nEN
does not converge.
D The formula e Z = lim (1 n+oo
+ =')n n
may be related to the Toeplitz matrix
o o o 1 o o 1 1 1 3 3 3 o 1 1
'T'
.LC,l
def
=
(2.1.3.2)
cf. Exercise 2.1.3.16. 76, corresponding to averaging the terms of a sequence. The formula has a generalization in terms of Toeplitz matrices. Exercise 2.1.3.18. Assume that T ~f (tij)~'~ is a Toeplitz matrix such that
Show that if z E C then 00
.lim II(1
1+00
+ tijZ) = e
Z•
j=l
Give an example of a Toeplitz matrix for which conclusion above is not valid.
it
[Hint: If 0 < 6 < there is a constant K and a function ai(z) such that if Izi < 6 then lai(z)1 :5 K and
The next Exercises illustrate some of the unexpected phenomena in the study of series. Exercise 2.1.3.19. The alternating series theorem states that if, for nE N,
i. En = (_1)n+l u. an ~ an+1 iii. an ! 0
Chapter 2. Analysis
80
then E:'l fna n converges. Show that each series below diverges and that for it only the indicated alternating series condition is violated:
f
n=l
~ (i)
f(l)n n=l
nn~od2
(ii)
00
I)l)n (iii). n=l
Exercise 2.1.3.20. Show that if bn
> 0, n EN, and liminfb n =0 n+oo
there is a divergent series S(A) in which the terms are positive, lim an n~oo
= 0,
and lim inf abn n+oo
n
= O.
[Remark 2.1.3.5: Hence, no matter how rapidly the positive sequence B ~f {bn}nEN converges to 0 there is a positive sequence A ~f {an}nEN converging to 0 so slowly that S(A) diverges and yet A contains a subsequence converging to 0 more rapidly than the corresponding Bsubsequence.] [Hint: Choose a sequence {nkhEN such that nl + 1 < ... and such that
< nl + 1 < n2
convergence > 1 => divergence
fails for
L..J n~=1(5+(21)n)n
00 (convergent) and ~
(5+(2 l)n)n (divergent).
Chapter 2. Analysis
82
Exercise 2.1.3.25. For a given positive sequence A show that · . fa n +l . f a,~J. IHum  < _ I·Hum n~oo
an
n~oo
< an+l. _ I·un sup a;:J. < _ I·1m sup n~oo
n~oo
an
[Remark 2.1.3.6: Hence the (generalized) ratio test can conceivably fail while the (generalized) root test succeeds.] Exercise 2.1.3.26. Show that the root test succeeds (while the generalized ratio test fails) for 00
L
00
2(1)" n
(convergent) and
n=1
L2
n (I)"
(divergent).
n=1
The Mertens theorem [01] states that if one of S(A) and S(B) converges absolutely and both converge then their Cauchy product n
00
S(C) ~f
L(L
00
akbnk+l)
~f
n=1 k=1
L
Cn
n=1
converges to S(A)S(B). Exercise 2.1.3.27. Show that if A = B = {(1)n(n+1)!}nEN then S(A) (hence S(B)) converges but that their Cauchy product does not. [Hint: Show that since vi(l + x)(n + 1  x) achieves its maximum on [0, n] when x
=~
it follows that
Ien I > 
2(n + 1) ] n+2 .
Exercise 2.1.3.28. Show that the Cauchy product of the divergent series 00
2+
L
00
2n
and  1 +
n=2
L1
n
n=2
converges. Most of the material above deals with series of constants. In the next discussion the emphasis is on series of terms that are not necessarily constants. Exercise 2.1.3.29. Show that S(A, x) ~f E~o e n cos n 2 x represents a function f in Coo, that the Maclaurin series for f consists only of terms of even degree, and the absolute value of the term of degree 2k is (
oc
~
e n n 4k) 2k (2k)! x (>
(
n2x ) 2k
2k
n
e), n EN.
Section 2.1. Classical Real Analysis
83
Show that if x i' 0 and k > 2~ then the term of degree 2k is greater than 1, whence that the Maclaurin series for I converges iff x = o.
Example 2.1.3.2. Assume
and, by means of bridging functions, rPnO is made infinitely differentiable everywhere and 0 ::5 rPno (x) ::5 ((n  1)!f If
then direct calculation shows that (k)
lIn (x)l::5
(2 n +l) Ixl n  k  2 n2 (n _ k  2)!
whence the Weierstmft M test shows that for all k in {OJ UN,
converges uniformly on every finite interval. It follows that 00
I(x) ~f
L In(x) E Coo n=l
and that its Maclaurin series is 00
Ln!xn , n=O
which converges iff x series
= O.
A similar argument shows that an arbitrary
is the Maclaurin series of some function in Coo.
Chapter 2. Analysis
84
[Remark 2.1.3.7: The function character from that of
f just described is different in if x ~ 0 otherwise
(cf. (2.1.2.2), page 61). The Maclaurin series for g converges everywhere and represents g only at o. The Maclaurin series for f converges only at 0 (and represents f only at 0).] Associated with the power series P(x) ~f E:=o anx n is the number L ~f limsuPn+oo lanl~. The radius of convergence R of P(x) is given by the formula:
R={i
~fL>O
00 If L
= o.
If 0 ~ r < R then P(x) converges uniformly and absolutely in the interval [r, r]. There is no general result about uniformity of convergence in (R,R) nor about convergence if x = ±R (when R < 00).
Example 2.1.3.3. The radii of convergence R}, R2, R3 for the power series n=1
are all 1. Yet: i. PI(x) converges uniformly in any closed subinterval of (1,1), converges but not uniformly in (1, 1), and diverges if x = ± 1; ii. P2 (x) behaves just like PI(x) except that P2 (x) converges if x = 1; iii. P3 (x) converges uniformly on [1, 1].
Thus the opportunities for finding abnormality of convergence behavior are somewhat limited if the domain of study is the set of power series. On the other hand, orthonormal series, in particular trigonometric series, and more particularly Fourier series provide many examples of unusual convergence phenomena. [Remark 2.1.3.8: It was the study of trigonometric series that gave rise to the proper definition by Riemann of the integral bearing his name. It was the study of the sets of convergence and divergence of trigonometric series that led Cantor to the study of
Section 2.1. Classical Real Analysis
85
"sets" and thereby opened the field of modern set theory, logic, cardinal and ordinal numbers, etc.] Let f be integrable on [11', 11']. The RiemannLebesgue theorem implies that the sequence Cn
1 111' f () = . tn= x e i n v211' 11'
def
:J:
dx, n E Z
of Fourier coefficients of f converges to 0 as Inl for f is written in the form
+ 00.
If the Fourier series
1 00 2'ao + L(ancosnx+bnsinnx) n=l
then for n in N, an
=k
(cn
lim (a!
n+oo
+ cn ),
bn
=
*
(cn  cn ). Hence
+ b!) ~£ n+oo lim p! = o.
Cantor, whose research preceded the development of the modern theory of (Lebesgue) integration, showed that if the trigonometric series 1 2'ao
00
+ Lan cosnx + bn sinnx n=l
(which need not be the Fourier series of an integrable function, cf. Example 2.1.3.5. 87) is such that lim an cos nx + bn sin nx ~f lim Pn cos(nx + an)
n+oo
n+oo
=0
(2.1.3.3)
everywhere then liffin+oo Pn = O. Lebesgue sharpened Cantor's result as follows. THEOREM 2.1.3.5. (CANTORLEBESGUE) LET (2.1.3.3) OBTAIN EVERYWHERE ON A MEASURABLE SET E OF POSITIVE MEASURE. THEN limn +oo Pn = O. PROOF. If Pn f+ 0 as n + 00 then there is a sequence {nkhEN and a positive f such that Pnk ~ f for all k. Hence limn + oo cos( nkX + ant) = 0 a.e. on E and the left member of
tends to 0 as k + 00. The RiemannLebesgue theorem implies that the second term in the right member above tends to 0 as k + 00 and it follows that ~A(E) = 0, a contradiction. 0
Chapter 2. Analysis
86
It should be noted that although the orthogonal set T of trigonometric functions is complete in £2 ([0,211'], C), the completeness of T plays no role in the validity of the last result. Indeed, the argument remains accurate if only a proper but infinite subset of T is at hand. There follow variations inspired by the theme above. THEOREM 2.1.3.6. FOR THE MEASURE SITUATION (X,S,p.) LET {fn}nEN BE AN INFINITE ORTHONORMAL SET CONSISTING OF UNIFORMLY BOUNDED FUNCTIONS: IIfnlloo ~ M < 00, n EN. IF anfn(x) CONVERGES TO ZERO ALMOST EVERYWHERE THEN limn ..... oo an = O. PROOF. If the conclusion is false, via subsequences as needed, it may be assumed that for some positive f and each n in N, lanl ~ f. Hence fn(x)~'O and Ifn(x)1 2 ~. O. The bounded convergence theorem implies the contradiction 1 == Ifn(x)1 2 dp.(x) + O.
Ix
D On the other hand, absent the condition c) (uniform boundedness of the functions), the conclusion above may fail to obtain.
Example 2.1.3.4. Let En be (n~l' ~], n E N and for n in N, let fn be XEn' Then {gn ~f ";n(n + l)fn}nEN is an orthonormal set in £2([0,1], A) and for every sequence {an}nEN, E~=l angn converges a.e. [ Note 2.1.3.2: The particular "real" form
1 '2ao
00
+ Lan cosnx + bn sinnx n=l
of the trigonometric series gives the CantorLebesgue theorem its significance. If a trigonometric series has the form inz
00
L n=oo
Cn
ern= y211'
y;;;.
and if limlnl ..... oo Cn = 0 for even one value of x then, since leinzl == 1, it follows without further proof that limlnl ..... oo Cn = 0.] The next lemma, due to Abel, is useful in many arguments. LEMMA 2.1.3.1. IF S(A) IS A SERIES, IF bn ! 0, AND IF THERE IS AN M SUCH THAT ISn(A)1 ~ M, n E N THEN E~=l bnan CONVERGES [Kno]. The Euler formula (e±it ;....
~smnx
n=l
= cos t ± i sin t) _ cos ~  cos

implies that
(N + ~) x
2 . z sm 2'
Section 2.1. Classical Real Analysis and so
87
tsinnxl :51~1· In=l SIn 2
If sin ~
1= 0, i.e.,if x is fixed and is not an integral multiple of 211', then 18i~ f I for all N in N. Abel's lemma now implies that if
I E:=l sin nxl
:5
bn ! 0 then E~=l bn sin nx converges for any x that is not a multiple of 211'. Inspection shows that the series converges if x is a multiple of 211', whence the series converges everywhere. Example 2.1.3.5. Abel's lemma implies that the trigonometric series 00
•
E
smnx n=2 Inn
(2.1.3.4)
converges for all x. Example 2.1.3.6. The trigonometric series (2.1.3.4) is not the Fourier series of a Lebesgue integrable function. Indeed, if f(x) ~£
E smnx, 00
•
n=2 Inn
if f is Lebesgue integrable, and F(x)
~£ 1:11 f(t) dt,
then F is absolutely continuous, periodic (because f is), and even (because f is odd) whence the Fourier series for F is a cosine series that converges everywhere to F: F(x) if n ~ 2 then
= E~oancosnx. a
Integration by parts shows that
1
n
= nlnn 
Thus if f is Lebesgue integrable there emerges the contradiction that the divergent series 00 1 ' " cosnO ~ nlnn
00
1
= En=2 nlnn
converges: f represented by (2.1.3.4) is not Lebesgue integrable. In particular, although (2.1.3.4) converges everywhere it does not converge uniformly on [11',11']. There remains the question of whether some Lebesgue integrable function 9 is such that its Fourier coefficients are those in (2.1.3.4). However, for such a 9 it follows from Exercise 2.1.3.15. 75 that IIg  FN * gilt + 0
Chapter 2. Analysis
88
as n + 00, whence, for some subsequence {NkhEN, FNk *g~' 9 as k + 00. Since the functions FNk * 9 are, as well, the averages of the partial sums of the series for / it follows that / = 9 a.e. Since / is not Lebesgue integrable no such 9 exists. [Remark 2.1.3.9: In particular (2.1.3.4) is not the Fourier series of a Riemann integrable function.]
Exercise 2.1.3.30. Show that
L smnnx 00
•
(2.1.3.5)
n=l
is the Fourier series for / : [11',11'] :3 x 1+ x, which is of bounded variation on [11',11']: / E BV([1I', 11']). Hence (2.1.3.5) converges uniformly on every closed subinterval of ( 11', 11') [Zy, I, p. 57]. Show, on the other hand, that the WeierstraB Mtest is not effectively applicable: there is no convergent series of positive constants that dominates (2.1.3.5) on [a, b] if 11' < a < b < 11'. According to the RiemannLebesgue theorem the Fourier transform j(t)
~f _1_
.,fi/i
1
00
/(x)e itz dx
00
of a function / that is Lebesgue integrable on IR is a continuous function that vanishes at infinity: limltl ..... oo j(t) = O. The next result shows that not every continuous function vanishing at infinity is a Fourier transform of a Lebesgue integrable function.
Example 2.1.3.7. Let L~=oo en exp(inx)/.,fi/i be the complex exponential form of (2.1.3.4), page 87 or of any trigonometric series converging everywhere to a function that is not Lebesgue integrable. If h is in Coo, h(x) = 0, if x ¢ and sUPzEIR Ih(x)1 = h(O) = 211' then
[1,1],
00
L
cnh(x  n) ~f /(x)
(2.1.3.6)
n=oo
is a series in which, for each x, only one term, namely the term for which x ~ n ~ x + is nonzero. It follows that the series represents a function / in Coo. For a given x, if x ~ n ~ x + then 1/(x)1 ~ 211'Ienl whence limlzl ..... oo /(x) = 0, i.e., / vanishes at infinity. On the other hand, if F is Lebesgue integrable on IR then
1
1,
1
f: 11r
m=oo
w
IF(t
+ 211'm) Idt ~
1
1
00
00
IF(t)1 dt < 00.
Section 2.1. Classical Real Analysis Hence E:'=oo IF(x
+ 211'm) I < 00
89 a.e.,
00
L
g(x) ~f
F(x + 211'm)
m=oo is defined a.e., g(x + 211')
= g(x) a.e., and
i:
Ig(t)1 dt
!
!.]
Exercise 2.1.3.33. Show that if In(x) =
{lo'nf{n,~)
if 0 < x :5 1 otherwise
then each In is bounded on [0,1] but lim In(x) = n ..... oo
{~
if 0 < x :5 1 otherwise.
0
Hence the nonuniform limit of bounded functions can be unbounded.
Exercise 2.1.3.34. Show that if
f (x)
= {inf(1,nX)
sup(1,nx)
n
if x ~ 0 if x < 0
then each In is continuous on lR. and def
n~~/n(x)=E(x)=
{1 1
ifx~O
ifx THERE IS IN (0,6] A RATIONAL NUMBER f AND THERE ARE A CONTINUOUS FUNCTION X AND A CONSTANT ,\ SUCH THAT IF 2 ~ n ~ N THEN EVERY REAL FUNCTION I OF n REAL VARIABLES MAY BE EXPRESSED ACCORDING TO THE FOLLOWING EQUATION:
=
°
(2.1.4.3) THE CONTINUOUS FUNCTION X DEPENDS ON I, THE CONSTANT ,\ IS INDEPENDENT OF I, AND tPN, WHICH IS A FORTIORI CONTINUOUS, IS INDEPENDENT OF I AND n.
[Remark 2.1.4.2: The representation (2.1.4.3) is a vast improvement over (2.1.4.2) in that there is only one function X rather than two functions 9 and h and there is only one function tP N rather than two functions p and q.] The proof of THEOREM 2.1.4.2 is long and detailed and is not reproduced here. However, some of its underlying ideas and techniques, namely coverings and separating functions, are reminiscent of those in the proof of the Stone WeierstrajJ theorem [HeSt, Loo]. The main ingredients of the argument may be described as follows.
2n + 2 ~ 'Y E N. For k in N there is a finite set Ak of indices such that Sk ~f {S2(i)hE A k is a set of pairwise disjoint cubes in ]Rn.
t. Assume
Each cube is of diameter not exceeding 'Y ksuch that if
then for each k in N the union
1.
There is a vector v
U;,!.;n SZ covers the unit cube
m + 1 times. Furthermore the labellings are such that if io E Ak there are in Ak uniquely determined indices i o, ... ,i2n such that
n 2n
SZ(i q ) '" 0.
q=O
ii. If {hqh$q$n+m is a set of continuous functions that separate points of
en and if, for each k, hq [SZ(i)]
n hr [SkU)] = 0,
r '"
q, i '" j
(2.1.4.4)
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
103
then for every continuous function f there is a continuous function X such that f can be represented in the form m
f(Xb ... ,xn ) =
LX [hq(Xb ... ,xn )]. q=O
iii. If 0 > 0 and ko E N is such that for k ~ ko, f ~f (y  l)l1' k 5 0, there is a monotonically increasing function t/J mapping £1 on itself and there is a constant A such that the functions n
gq(Xb'" ,xn ) ~f
L
Amt/J(Xm
+ fq) + q, 05 q 5
2n,
m=l
behave like the hq in (2.1.4.4). iv. If k ~ ko the sets SZ(i) are defined via the parameters 1', q, k, and i restricted to the set A% ~f [(1'k  1)fq, 1'k + (1' k  1)fq] n N as follows: .) def . k
= t1'
ek ( t
o def l' k
2
= 1'11'
k
Ek(i) ~f [ek(i), ek(i) EZ(i) ~f [ek(i) If iq ~f {i1q, ... , i nq }
+ Ok] fq, ek(i) + Ok 
fq].
c A% the corresponding Cartesian product
II
EZ (i pq )
l:S;p:S;n
is the cube SZ (i q ) in an. v. The construction of the function t/J is based on the intervals EZ(i) much as the construction of the Cantor function Co is based on the intervals deleted in the formation of the Cantor set Co. In [Sp] all the details are given while Lorentz gives a perspicuous presentation for the case in which N = 2 [Lor]. 2.2. Measure Theory
2.2.1. Measurable and nonmeasurable sets The setting for discussion of measure theory is a measure situation (X, S, 1'), i.e., a set X, a ITring S consisting, by definition, of the measurable
Chapter 2. Analysis
104
subsets of X, and a countably additive set function J.I., here called a measure: J.I. : S 3 A 1+ J.I.(A) E [0,00]. Very frequently X is an for some n in N, S is the uring S(K) generated by the compact sets of an or the uring C consisting of all Lebesgue measurable sets in an, and J.I. is ndimensional Lebesgue measure An (AI ~f A). In a locally compact group G the uring S is the uring S(K) generated by the compact sets of G and the measure J.I. is a (tmnslationinvariant) Haar measure: A E S,x E G
"* xA E Sand J.I.(A) = J.I.(xA).
The facts about measure theory are discussed in some detail in [Habn, Loo, Rao, Roy, Rud, Sz.N]. Important results in measure theory as it applies to Haar measure on locally compact groups, e.g., to Lebesgue measure An on an, are:
i .. a set of measure zero, i.e., a null set, contains no nonempty open set; ii. if A is a set of positive measure then AAI contains a neighborhood of the identity; since a is a group in which the binary operation is written additively the set AAI in a is written A  A. [Remark 2.2.1.1: Although measurable sets and measurable functions are treated in separate Subsections of this book, there is no essential distinction between them. If one accepts measurable set as a primitive notion, then a measurable function is nothing more than the limit of a sequence of simple functions, each of which is a linear combination of characteristic functions of measurable sets. If one accepts, e.g., as in the development of the Daniell integml [Loo, Rao, Roy], measumble function as a primitive notion (derived in turn from an even more elementary notion, that of a nonnegative linear functional defined on a linear lattice of extended avalued functions), then a measurable set is nothing more than a set for which the chamcteristic function is a measurable function. Thus a result about measurable sets has its counterpart in a result about measurable functions and vice versa. Similar comments apply to sets that have, in an, ndimensional content and to functions that are Riemann integmble over subsets ofalRR [03]. For purposes of illustration, the somewhat artificial distinctions above are useful.] THEOREM 1.1.4.2. 7 is not an accident. Indeed, Sierpinski [Si2] established the following result. THEOREM 2.2.1.1. IF B def = { x>. } >'EA IS A HAMEL BASIS FOR a OVER Q THEN B IS LEBESGUE MEASURABLE IFF A(B) = O.
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
105
PROOF. Just the "only if" requires serious attention. Assume B is a measurable Hamel basis and that >..(B) > O. It follows that BB contains a neighborhood of 0, in particular infinitely many rational numbers. Assume that rand s are different nonzero rational numbers in B  B. Then r '" s, rs '" 0, and there is in Qat and in B elements x~p 1 ~ i ~ 4, such that
= S = tr = s = X~3 r
X~l
X~2
X~3
X~4
X~4
= t(X~l 
X~2)'
in contradiction of the linear independence of B over Q.
D
The set of Borel sets in IRn is 8(0), the aring generated by the open sets in IRn. In IRn the arings 8(F) (generated by the closed sets) and 8(K) (generated by the compact sets) are the same as the set of Borel sets. [Note 2.2.1.1: If IRn is given the discrete topology so that every set is both open and closed and a set is compact iff it is finite, then
8(0)
= 8(F) ¥8(K).J
In [Si2] there is also a proof of the next result. THEOREM 2.2.1.2. No HAMEL BASIS B CAN BE BOREL MEASURABLE. [Remark 2.2.1.2: Hence the Hamel basis B of THEOREM 1.1.4.2. 7 is a nonBorel subset of the Borel set Co.
The cardinality of the set of all Borel sets is #(IR) whereas the cardinality of 1'(Co), the power set of Co, is 2#(IR). It follows, without reference to THEOREM 2.2.1.2, that there are nonBorel sets of measure zero. Since, for any function !, Discont(f) is an Fu it follows that there are null sets that cannot be Discont(f) for any function !.J THEOREM 2.2.1.3. IN EVERY NON EMPTY NEIGHBORHOOD U OF 0 IN IR THERE IS A HAMEL BASIS FOR IR OVER Q. PROOF. Let r be a positive rational number such that (r, r) C U and let H be some Hamel basis for IR over Q. For each h in H there is in Z a unique mh such that mhr ~ h < (mh + 1) r. Let kh be h (mh + 1) r. Then kh E (r, r). If K is a maximal linearly independent subset of {kh : h E H } U {~} then K is a Hamel basis for IR over Q and K C (r,r) C U.
D
Chapter 2. Analysis
106
The result above is a special case of a more general phenomenon: In any neighborhood U of the identity in a Lie group G there is a relatively free subset [Ge5]. In the Lie group lR a maximal relatively free subset of U is perforce a Hamel basis. The existence of nonmeasurable (Lebesgue) subsets of lR cannot be based on a cardinality argument. The Cantor set Co has the cardinality of lR. Since A(Co) = every subset of Co is Lebesgue measurable it follows that the cardinality of the set £, of all Lebesgue measurable sets is 2#(1R) , which is also the cardinality of the power 8et P(lR) ~f 21R of lR.
°
Example 2.2.1.1. The map (J : lR 3 t f+ e2...it algebraically and measuretheoretically identifies lR/Z with the compact mUltiplicative group 'Jl', and identifies Q/Z with a countable and infinite subgroup H of 'Jl'. The Axiom of Choice implies that there is in 'Jl' a set S consisting of exactly one element from each of the cosets of H. If r1 and r2 are different elements of Hand r 1S = r 2S then in S there are 81 and 82 such that r1S1 = r282. But then 81 and 82 are in the same coset of H, whence the nature of S implies 81 = 82, i.e., r1 = r2, a contradiction. Thus
If S is measurable then, since A transferred to 'Jl' is again "translation" invariant, S and all the rS have same measure a: A(rS) == a. Then
EITHER a = 0, in which case A('Jl')
=L
A(rS)
= 0,
A(rS)
= 00.
rEH
OR a
> 0, in which case A('Jl')
=L rEH
Since neither conclusion is correct, S is not measurable nor is its counterpart (J1(S) n [0, 1). Example 2.2.1.2. Any countable and infinite subgroup G of'Jl' may serve instead of H in the discussion above. In particular, if a is an irrational def 2 . real number and = e ... ,0< then either of the subgroups
e
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
107
may be used. Note that: i. B is a subgroup of index 2 in Aj ii. BneB = 0 and A = Bl:JeBj iii. because a is irrational both subgroups A and Bare (countably) infinite
dense subgroups of the compact group T. Let P consist of exactly one element of each coset of A and let M be PB. If MM I neB :F 0, i.e., if
and XIX2"l E eB, then PIP2"l E eB C A and so, owing to the nature of P, PI = P2. Thus XIX2"l = bI b2"l E B, i.e., xIx2"l E eB n B = 0, a contradiction whence M MI neB = 0. If L is a measurable subset of M and A(L) > 0 then MM I :::> LL1, which contains a Tneighborhood of 1 (cf. THEOREM 1.1.4.1. 5) and thus an element of the dense set eB, a contradiction. It follows that the inner measure of M is zero: A*(M) = o. For x in T there is in Pap such that xp I ~f a E A. If x f. M then a f. B whence for some b in B, x = peb E peB = eM. Thus
and so A* (MC) = o. The inner measure A* and outer measure A* are set functions such that for each measurable set P, A*(P n M)
+ A* (P n M = A(P), C)
whence A*(P n M) = A(P), in particular, A*(M) = 1 > 0 = A*(M). The set (JI(M) ~f Min JR has properties analogous to those of M. i. The set M is nonmeasurable, A* (M)
= 0,
and A* (M)
= 00.
ii. The set M is thick and for every measurable subset P of JR, A*(P n M)
= 0 while A*(P n M) = A(P).
Exercise 2.2.1.1. Let G be an infinite subgroup of T. Show: i. the identity is a limit point of Gj ii. every infinite subgroup of T is dense in T. iii. the compact subset 1 x T is a nowhere dense infinite subgroup of the compact group T2.
The Cantor set Co is one of a family of nowhere dense perfect sets. The construction of a typical member of the family is a modification of the construction of the Cantor set Co.
Chapter 2. Analysis
108
Example 2.2.1.3. If € E Q n (0, 1) let an be €. 2 2n +l, n E N. Then 2n  1 a n = €. Let 7"1 and 7"2 be two transcendental numbers such that 7"1 < 0, 7"2 > 1 and 7"2  7"1 = 1 + 2€ and let {TkhEN be an enumeration of the set S ~f [7"1> 7"21 n A consisting of the algebraic numbers in [7"1> 7"21 ~f I. Let {Imn, mEN, 1:::; n :::; 2m I } be the set of open intervals deleted from [0,11 in the construction of the Cantor set Co. The first open interval III of length 3 1 , the next two 121> 122 each of length 3 2 , ••• are, for the current construction, replaced by open intervals J1> J 2, J3, . .. so that the endpoints of each I n are transcendental and: E:'=1
A(Jl) :::; al A(Jk):::; a2,
k = 2,3
Furthermore let J 1 be placed to contain Tl: Tl E J 1 . Let Tkl be the first Tk not in J 1 • There is a first n, say n1> such that J n1 may be chosen to contain Tkl and to be disjoint from J 1 : Tkl E J nll Jl n J n1 = 0. By induction one may find a sequence {Tkp}PEN in S and a sequence {Jnp}PEN in {In}nEN such that i.
Tk p
is the first
Tk
not in
ii. Tk p E Jnp ;
In.
It follows that: iv. J ~f J 1 l:J (l:JPENJnp ) is an open subset of I;
v.
1\ J ~f
CJ contains no algebraic numbers, i.e., consists entirely of transcendental numbers; vi. CJ is nowhere dense in [7"1,7"21 and perfect; vii.1+2€~A(CJ)~1+€.
Exercise 2.2.1.2. Show that CJ is nowhere dense in
[7"1> 7"21
and per
fect. [Hint: The complement I \ C J of C J in I is open and is dense in I. To show C J is perfect it suffices to prove that each of the count ably many endpoints of the intervals J np is a limit point of CJ·1
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
109
Exercise 2.2.1.3. Repeat the construction in Example 2.2.1.3 with the following modification: 0 < Tl < T2 < 1, T2  Tl > 1  f. The resulting set, say D, should consist entirely of transcendental numbers, be nowhere dense in [TbT2]' be perfect, and have measure greater than (T2  Tl)  2f. Construct a sequence {Dn }nEN of sets so that each consists entirely of transcendental numbers, is nowhere dense in [0, I], and is perfect. Furthermore, the following should obtain:
Dn C Dn+l C [0, I], n E N, A
(U
Dn)
~f A(Doo) = 1.
nEN
Hence the set Doo: i. consists of transcendental numbers; u. is dense in [0, I]; iii. is an F.,.; iv. is a set of the first category in [0, I];
Furthermore E ~f [0, I] \ Doo is a null set of the second category. Exercise 2.2.1.4. Assume the endpoints of the closed interval [a, b] are rational. In [a, b] construct a Cantorlike set Ca,b such that A(Ca,b) = O. Show that the union H~f
Ua O. Hence for some M in N
contains a neighborhood U ~ (_2 M , 2 M ). If KEN and 2n o
{ri! ... , rK} (a Kelement set) K sup Irkl < TM 1:::;k:::;K
then whenever {bi! ... , bK} is a Kelement subset of B it follows that K
L rkbk E U \ 8no
+l
=
0,
k=1
a contradiction. Thus some 8 n is nonmeasurable and if 8 n1 is the first nonmeasurable 8 n then n1 > 1. Hence 8 n1 1 is measurable and
is nonmeasurable. (This result was communicated to the writers by Harvey Diamond and Gregory Gelles.) Example 2.2.1.6. The Cantorlike sets Do and Dn in Example 2.1.1.3.51 and Exercise 2.2.1.3. 109 may be chosen so that ~ (Do) = 00, ~ (Dn) = On, and 00 + LnEN On = 1. In that event Do and each Dn is nowhere dense whence the corresponding set D that is the union of them all is of the first category and ~(D) = 1. The complement [0,1) \ D is perforce
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
111
of the second category and its measure is zero. Relative to [0, 1] the set D is thick. Exercise 2.2.1.5. Let A be the (countable) set of endpoints of the intervals deleted in the construction of Co and let B be Co \ A. Show that A and B are disjoint nowhere dense sets such that each point of A resp. B is a limit point of B resp. A. From Example 2.2.1.6 it follows that category and measure are, at best, loosely related. There are sets of the first category that have measure zero, e.g., Q, and sets of the first category that are thick, e.g., on each interval tn, n + 1], n E Z construct a set Pn just like D. Then set P ~ UnEZ Pn is such that A (JR \ P) = O. There are sets of the second category, e.g., JR \ P, that have measure zero and sets of the second category, e.g., lR, that are thick [Ox]. Category is not preserved under homeomorphism. To see this call a linearly ordered set A ordinally dense if it has neither first nor last member and between any two members there is a third. For example Q in its natural order is ordinally dense; Z is not ordinally dense in its natural order; neither N in its natural order nor any other wellordered set in the order of its wellordering is ordinally dense. Two ordered sets are ordinally similar if there is an orderpreserving bijection between them. THEOREM 2.2.1.4. IF A def{} an nEN AND B def{} bn nEN ARE TWO (COUNTABLE) ORDINALLY DENSE SETS THEY ARE ORDINALLY SIMILAR.
=
=
PROOF. The orderpreserving bijection is defined by induction: Let a1 be a1 and 131 be b1. If all" ., a n 1 and 1311.' ., f3n1 have been chosen so that ai ++ f3i, 1:5 i :5 n  1, is an orderpreserving bijection and n is even let an be the first am not yet chosen and let f3n be the first bm not yet chosen and orderrelated to {f311"" f3nd as an is orderrelated to {all"" and. If n is odd let f3n be the first bm not chosen and let an be the first am not chosen and orderrelated to {all' .. , and as f3n is orderrelated to {f311' .. ,f3nd. The method of choice is such that {an }nEN = A and {f3n }nEN = B and the bijection an ++ f3n is orderpreserving.
o In particular, the set {In}nEN of intervals deleted in the construction of Co is ordinally dense if I < I' is taken to mean that I is to the left of I'. Let the set (0,1) n Q ~f {rn}nEN ~f A, which is also ordinally dense, be in bijective orderpreserving correspondence with {In}nEN. Define f on UnEN In so that if x E In then f(x) = Tn. Thus f is monotone increasing, its range {Tn}nEN is dense in [0,1], and so f may be extended to a continuous
Chapter 2. Analysis
112
monotone increasing function, again called /, on [0, 1]. Let B be Co shorn of the endpoints of the deleted intervals. Then / maps [0,1] \ B onto {rn}nEN. Owing to the ordinal similarity of {rn}nEN and {In}nEN, / is increasing on [0,1], strictly increasing and bicontinuous on B, and also /(B) = [0,1] \ Q. Thus Co (and hence any Cantorlike set) shorn of its endpoints is homeomorphic to the set of 1[0,1] of irrational numbers in [0,1]. However B, as a subset of Co, is nowhere dense and hence of the first category while 1[0,1] is of the second category. Exercise 2.2.1.6. Show that B above is homeomorphic to R. \ Q. Hence a nowhere dense set B is homeomorphic to a dense set R. \ Q. More interesting phenomena in the relationships between measuretheoretic and topological properties arise in the context described below. The Cantor set Co, {O,I}N, the countable Cartesian product of the twopoint set {O, I} in its discrete topology, is the source of some of these phenomena. More generally, for an arbitrary infinite set M, let {O, I}M be the (possibly uncountable) Cartesian product or dyadic space 1)M. The weight W of a topological space X is the least of the cardinal numbers W such that the topology of X has a base of cardinality W. If U~f {Uj};EJ is a base and #(J) = W then U is a minimal base for X. LEMMA
2.2.1.1.
i. EVERY SEPARABLE METRIC SPACE IS THE CONTINUOUS IMAGE OF A SUBSET OF THE CANTOR SET.
ii. EVERY COMPACT METRIC SPACE IS THE CONTINUOUS IMAGE OF THE CANTOR SET.
if
EVERY COMPACT
Hausdorff SPACE X OF WEIGHT
# (M)
IS THE CON
TINUOUS IMAGE OF A CLOSED SUBSET OF 1)M.
iii. EVERY COMPACT totally disconnected METRIC SPACE IS THE HOMEOMORPHIC IMAGE OF A SUBSET OF THE CANTOR SET.
iv. EVERY COMPACT TOTALLY DISCONNECTED perfect METRIC SPACE IS THE HOMEOMORPHIC IMAGE OF THE CANTOR SET.
[The fundamental idea behind the proof of if can be described as follows. If #(J) = # (M) and if
Edef{} = ej jEJ E 1)M let U ~ {Uj };EJ be a minimal base for X. For each j in J there is defined a dyad of closed sets:
Ai. ~f 3
{
Uj X \ Uj
if i if i
°
= = 1.
Section 2.2. Measure Theory Then A~ ~f
{e : A~
=I
njEJ
A;'
113
is either 0 or a single point. Let:3 be
0 }. Then:3 is a closed subset of V M, the map F::33eI+A~
is continuous, and F(:3) = X. (If #M = #(N) the map F can be extended to a continuous map ~ : V M 1+ X, i.e., ii.)] See [AH, Bou, Cs, Eng, HeSt, Kur, Rin] for detailed proofs of the various parts of LEMMA 2.2.1.1. Note that if is an imperfect counterpart of ii. In fact, there is no perfect counterpart to ii, as the contents of Exercises 2.2.1. 7 and 2.2.1.8 below show [Eng]. Exercise 2.2.1.7. Let X be a set such that #(X) > #(N). Fix a point Xo in X. Define a topology by declaring that a subset A of X is open iff Xo f/. A or X \ A is finite. Show that: i. X is a compact Hausdorff space; n. everyonepoint set {x} other than {xo} is open; iii. the weight of X is #(X).
Assume that for some M there is a continuous surjection f Then, since each point other than Xo in X is open, the set
: V M 1+ X.
consists of uncountably many pairwise disjoint open subsets of V M . Exercise 2.2.1.8. Let U be a set of basic neighborhoods for V M . Show that if the elements of U are pairwise disjoint then U is empty, finite, or countable. Show that if 0 is a set of pairwise disjoint open subsets of V M then 0 is empty, finite, or countable. Why do the preceding conclusions show that X in Exercise 2.2.1.7 is not the continuous image of some dyadic space V M ? An arcimage resp. open arcimage '1* is, for some arc resp. open arc '1 in C ([0,1], X) resp. C «0, 1), X) the set '1 ([0,1]) resp. '1 ( (0, 1)). If '1 is injective, the image is simple. The endpoints of an arcimage '1* are '1(0) and '1(1). If '1(0) = '1(1), 'Y*is closed; if, to boot, '1 is injective on (0,1), '1* is a simple closed curveimage or Jordan curveimage. [ Note 2.2.1.2: The image '1*, a subset of a topological space X, is by definition different from '1 itself, which is a continuous function. (Nevertheless, by abuse of language, the distinction is occasionally blurred and, e.g., "A Jordan curve in ]R2 separates the plane," is an acceptable substitute for the more accurate, "A Jordan curveimage in ]R2 separates the plane.")]
Chapter 2. Analysis
114
For an arc "(: [0,1]1+ (X1(t), ... ,xn(t)) E IRn, the length l("() of"( is defined to be n
L (Xj (ti) 
Xj (ti_1))2, N E N.
j=1
However, the length L ("(*) of the arcimage "(* is the infimum, taken over the set P of all parametric descriptions s of "(* , of l ("( 0 s). Each parametric description is a continuous autojection s : [0,1]1+ [0,1]. Thus L ("(*) ~f
inf
{B : BEP}
l("( 0 s).
The length of an arc and the length of the corresponding arcimage can be quite different. The length l("() can be infinite while L ("(*) is, in the usual geometric sense, finite. Example 2.2.1.7. z. Let "( be {
X
Y
= cos47rt = sin47rt
' t E [0,1].
Then l("() = 47r, whereas "(* is a circle of radius 1 and L ("(*) = 27r. ii. Let g be a continuous nowhere differentiable function on [0,1] and let "( be [0 1] 3 t 1+ = g(t) , y = g(t).
{X
Then, since g is not of bounded variation on any nondegenerate interval, if ~ a < b ~ 1 the arc defined by restricting "( to [a, b] is nonrectifiable: l("() = 00. On the other hand, the arcimage "(* is a straight line segment and
°
L ("(*)
= V2 ( tE[O,1j sup g(t) 
inf g(t))
tE[O,1)
which, owing to the continuity of g, is finite. Example 2.2.1.8. The unit ncube or parallelotope r (the topological product of n copies of [0,1]) is the continuous image of Co. The map t : Co 1+ pn may be extended linearly on the closure of each interval deleted in the construction of Co and the image of the resulting map T is an arcimage T ([0,1]) that fills r. Since Co is totally disconnected whereas pn is connected neither t nor T is bijective.
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
115
When n = 2 the continuous map t transforms a set of onedimensional measure zero onto a set of twodimensional measure one. Let 11'1 be the projection of R,2 onto its first factor: 11'1 : R,2 3 (x, y) 1+ x. If A is a nonmeasurable subset of [0, I] x {O} then D ~f r1(A), as a subset of the null set Co, is (Lebesgue) measurable whereas 11'1 0 t(D) (= A) is a nonmeasurable subset of [0, I]. Since T is an extension of t it follows that U ~f 11'10 T is a continuous map of [0, I] into itself and U maps a null set of [0, I] onto a nonmeasurable set.
°
Example 2.2.1.9. Assume ~ 0: < 1. In each factor of p2 construct a Cantor set COt so that A(COt ) = 0:. Then the topological product of the two sets COt is a compact set C~2 such that A2(C~2) = 0: 2 • Each COt is the intersection of a decreasing sequence {K; hEN of compact sets and each K; is a finite union of disjoint closed intervals all of the same length: Kl. the complement of the first open interval deleted in the construction of COt, consists of 21 disjoint closed intervals, I u , lt2' arranged in natural order from left to right in [0, I]. Similarly K;, the complement of the union of the first 2;  1 open intervals deleted in the construction of COt, consists of 2; disjoint closed intervals, 1;1, ... ,I;2j arranged in natural order from left to right in [0, I]. The construction proceeds in sequence of stages of associations between intervals Imn and their Cartesian products Imn x Im'n" At stage 1 associate the 2 2X1 = 4 1 intervals 121 , ... ,122 2 of K2 with 4 1 sets in [0, I] x [0, I] as follows:
Having completed stages 1, ... ,j  1, at stage j: 2'
.
.
i. associate the 2 ' = 4' intervals 12;,1, ... ,I2;,22j of K 2; with the 4' sets I;p x I;q, 1 ~ p,q ~ 2; in [0, I] x [0, I]; ii. map each interval deleted from [0, I] on to a line segment connecting two adjacent components of K 2; x K 2;.
In Figure 2.2.1.1 there is an indication of the associations made in the first two performances of the procedure just described. Subsequent associations are made similarly, by inbreeding, i.e., by repeating in each subinterval and correspondingly in each subsquare the construction just employed in the original square, and by continuing the repetition process endlessly. Although the construction is repeated in each stage, the orientation of the constructions in the subsquares must be such as to permit the connections indicated in Figure 2.2.1.1. Let IC; be the compact connected set consisting of K 2; x K 2; together with the line segments connecting its components (cf. ii above). Then
Chapter 2. Analysis
116 ICj+1
A2
(IC) ~
1
n
jEN IC j ~f IC is the homeomorphic image of [0,1]: IC = IC is a simple arcimage and since C~2 C IC it follows that
C IC j and
e ([0, 1]), i.e., 0: 2 •
2
3
4
5
121 XI 22
122 X 122
3
5
6
4
2
6 121 X/ 21
1
122 XI 21
7
Figure 2.2.1.1. The first steps of the repetition/inbreeding process.
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
117
Exercise 2.2.1.9. Show that e is a homeomorphism. [Hint: The map e is bijective on each of the intervals deleted in the construction of Co.. The set of those intervals is dense in [0,1]. Hence if x < y :::; 1 and one of x and y is not in one of those intervals, then (possibly another) one of those intervals is a proper subset of [x, y]. Hence, for some jo in N, e(x) and e(y) are in different components of Kjo x K jo ' in particular, e(x) =f e(y). The continuity ofe follows because a) the diameters of the components of K j x K j converge to zero as j + 00 and b) e is linear on each of the intervals deleted in the construction of Co..]
°: :;
[ Note 2.2.1.3: The simple arcimage IC is not rectifiable. The very definition of arclength shows that the arcimage of a rectifiable arc can be covered by rectangles forming a set of arbitrarily small twodimensional Lebesgue measure. A similar argument leads to the following conclusion: For each n in N and each I: in (0,1] there is in pn a (nonrectifiable) simple arcimage IC such that An (IC) ~ 1  1:.] Example 2.2.1.10. When n = 2 the simple arcimage IC described above lies in the unit square [0,1] x [0,1] and the endpoints of IC are (0,0) and (1,0). The union of IC and the simple arcimage
B ~f ({o} x [0, 6]) U ([0, 1] x {6}) U ({I} x [0, 6]) is a Jordan curveimage C that is the boundary of a region R. Since
it follows that
Hence A2(R) < A2 (IC) if 6 < 1  21:, in which case the measure of R is less than the measure of the Jordan curveimage C that bounds R. In fact, for a positive I: there are a Jordan curve C and the region R bounded by C so that
Exercise 2.2.1.10. Show that a compact convex set in a separable topological vector space is an arcimage.
118
Chapter 2. Analysis [Hint: A separable topological group is metrizable [Kakl].]
There are nowhere dense ("thin") sets of positive (Lebesgue) measure, e.g., Cantorlike sets of positive measure. Besicovitch [Bes2] used such sets to construct in 1R3 a homeomorphic image BES (for Besicovitch) of the surface 8 1 of the unit ball
B1~f{(X,y,Z): x,y,zEIR,X2+y2+Z2~1} so that A3(BES) is large while the surface area A (BES) of BES is small. If 11, A > 0 there is in 1R3 a surface BES, homeomorphic to 8 1 and such that A3 (BES) > A while the surface area A (BES) of BES is less than 11. Proceeding by analogy with the definition of arclength for a curve, one is led to suggest that the area of a surface 8 in 1R3 be defined as the supremum of the set of areas of the polyhedra inscribed in the 8. However phenomena such as that in Exercise 2.2.1.12. 123 below suggest the inadequacy of so simple an approach. The construction originated by Besicovitch and described below dramatizes even further the need to reformulate a proper theory of surface area. For example, some proper definition of surface area is necessary if there is to be a satisfactory statement, not to mention a satisfactory resolution, of the famous problem of Plateau. For a given Jordan curveimage C in 1R3 find in 1R3 a surface 8 bounded by C and of least surface area.
Example 2.2.1.11. Assume 4M 3 > A, 0 < a < 1, and 11 > 210 > O. Let K denote the cube [ M, M]3 in 1R3. The cube K is subjected to two operations performed in succession and then repeated endlessly. i. Shrinkage by a: replace K by Ko ~f [aM, aM]3, 0
< a < 1, situated co centrally inside K and with its faces parallel to those of K j ii. Subdivision: by passing bisecting planes parallel to the faces of Ko divide it into eight congruent subcubes: K!, ... , K~. Inbreed, i.e., repeat the operations i,ii above on each of the eight subcubes, on each of the 8 2 subsubcubes, ... , on each of the 8n subsub ... subcubes.
Exercise 2.2.1.11. Let the intersection of the set of all cubes, subcubes, subsubcubes, ... be D. Then D is a dyadic space, a threedimensional analog and homeomorphic image of the Cantor set. Calculate the measure of D in terms of M and a and thereby show that for some a the threedimensional measure of D can be made arbitrarily close to but less than 8M3 , the volume of the original cube.
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
119
Figure 2.2.1.2. The Besicovitch construction. Only two of the first eight "ducts" are shown.
The next goal is to construct a polyhedron II containing (infinitely) many faces and edges and such that among the vertices of II are all the points of D. The procedure given next provides such a polyhedron. As a polyhedron II consists of polygonal faces and thus has a welldefined surface area. The polyhedron constructed below has small area.
120
Chapter 2. Analysis
On one face of K construct a square 8 of area not exceeding i. Note that 8 is homeomorphic to a hemisphere. The idea is to distort 8 in a thorough and systematic manner so that 8 is formed into a polyhedron of the kind described above. From 8 excise eight disjoint pairwise congruent subsquares each of area 61 not exceeding 3£2 and more narrowly delimited below (cf. Figure 2.2.1.2 above). On one face of each of the first eight subcubes construct a square congruent to one of the eight subsquares excised from 8. Again by inbreeding, repeat this construction on each of the subsubcubes, ... , so that on one face of each subsub ... subcube there is a square from which eight congruent subsquares have been excised. In K \ Ka run eight tubes, one from each of the eight excised subsquares of 8 to one of the eight squares on the eight subcubes of Ka. The connected surfaces of the tubes are to be unions of nonoverlapping closed rectangles. The crosssections of the tubes are rectangles  in short, the tubes are models of heating/airconditioning ducts. The planar surface area of each tube is proportional to the perimeter of the (rectangular) crosssection. Hence, by a suitable choice of 61 , the total (planar) surface area of the eight tubes can, be brought below ~. The union of 8 1 , the surfaces of the eight tubes, and the eight squares on the surfaces of the eight subcubes is homeomorphic to 8 and hence to the surface of a hemisphere. The process just described is repeated in each of the first eight subcubes, except that a new 62 is chosen so that the total surface area of the 64 new tubes does not exceed ~, .... The basic construction (simplified) is shown in Figure 2.2.1.2. The endproduct of the infinite set of tube constructions is a Medusalike set HEMIBES (hemi+BES) that is homeomorphic to the surface of a hemisphere. As one moves through a firststage tube, then through one of the secondstage tubes emanating from it, ... , at the "other end" one arrives at precisely one point of D and each point of D is the "other end" of such a trail. Thus D, a dyadic space of positive threedimensional measure, lies on the surface of a HEMIBES, which is homeomorphic to the twodimensional surface of a hemisphere. The total surface area of the tubes so traversed is not more than i and so the surface area of HEMIBES does not exceed f whereas HEMIBES contains D and thus the threedimensional measure of HEMIBES can be made arbitrarily close to 8M 3 • If two "hemispheres" like HEMIBES are conjoined at their "equators" (the perimeters of their squares 8) the result BES is homeomorphic to the surface of the ball B 1 • The union of BES and the bounded component of its complement is a set B that is homeomorphic to B 1 • The area of the surface of B, i.e., the area of BES, is less than T/ whereas the threedimensional measure of B exceeds A.
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
121
[Remark 2.2.1.4: Let C be a rectifiable Jordan curveimage in If R is the bounded component of ]R2 \ C and if l( C) = 1, then
]R2.
(The second inequality is the famous isoperimetric inequality studied in the calculus of variations.) The corresponding theorem for ]R3 should read: Let E be a homeomorphic image of 8 1 in ]R3 and assume that the surface area of E is 1: A(E) = 1. If V is the bounded component of ]R3 \ E then A3(E)
= 0 and A3(V U E) :5
1
6..fi.
Whereas (*) is true, owing to BES, (**) is false. The reader is urged to formulate other contrasts stemming from BES.] [ Note 2.2.1.4: The surface BES of B can be described parametrically by three equations: x=/(u,v), y=g(u,v), z=h(u,v), O:5u,v:51.
Since the surface of B is, for the most part planar, the functions I, g, h are, off a set of twodimensional measure zero, linear, in particular continuously differentiable a.e. The example BES illuminates not only the problem of Plateau but also the question of defining the notion of surface. For example, the parametric description of BES in terms of I, g, h above is qualitatively indistinguishable from that of the surface of a cube or the surface of a cube to which "spines" (closed intervals) or "wings" (closed triangles) have been attached. In another direction, the ball B impinges on the circle of ideas under the rubric of Stokes's theorem, which is a vast generalization of the FTC. Stokes's theorem and, in particular the FTC, may be written in terms of the symbol interpreted as a special differentiation operator when a is applied to a (vectorvalued) function and as the boundary operator when a is applied to a subset of ]Rn:
a
Stokes's theorem:
{
JaR
1= { al.
JR
(The differential notation in the equation above is omitted deliberately. The integrals are to be interpreted as formed with respect to
Chapter 2. Analysis
122
appropriate measures on 8R resp. R.) For example, if R ~f [a, bj and IE C 1 ([a,bj,a) then 8R = {a,b}, 81 = /" and the FTC reads:
f
I
J8[a,b) Similarly in
a3
~f I(b) 
I(a) = fb I' dx Ja
d~f
f
81.
J[a,b)
for a ball
Br ~f
{
x 2 + y2
(x, y, z)
+ z2
~
r2 } ,
its boundary 8Br def = Sr def =
{ (
x,y,z )
a vectorvalued function
F(x, y, z) ~f (f(x, y, z), g(x, y, z), h(x, y, z)), and
8F ~f"  v· F d,.!!.f  fz
+ gy + h z ~f  d·IV F ,
the (Gaufi) version of Stokes's theorem reads in terms of the (vector) differential dA of surface area and the (scalar) differential of volume dV:
f
F
J8Br
~f f
JSr
(f(x, y, z), g(x, y, z), h(x, y, z)) . dA
=f
(fz(x, y, z)
d~f
divFdV
JBr
f JBr
+ gy(x, y, z) + hz(x, y, z))
~f
f
dV
8F.
JBr
For a smooth F, the theorem fails for the ball B and its boundary BES. Similarly, for a surface S in a3 and bounded by a rectifiable closed curve C: 8S = C, ds representing the (vector) differential of curve length, there is the formula traditionally named for Stokes:
Is
8F =
~f
Is
curlF
~f
Is (hy  gz, Iz  hz, gz  Iy) . dA
f (f,g,h).ds~f f
Jc
F.
J8S
One more comment deserves inclusion. The notion of Hausdorff dimension pP, pEa, 0 < p < 00, defined for all subsets of a metric space X, is intimately related to Lebesgue measure when X = an. For BES, 0 < p2(BES) < 00, whence
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
123
°
PP(BES) = 0, 2 < p < 00, and < p3(8) < 00, whence pQ(8) = 0, 3 < q < 00, a result more in harmony with geometric intuition [Ge7].] The length of 1 : [0,1] 1+ JRn is the supremum of the lengths of the polygons inscribed in the curve: n
i ("'f) ~f
sup
L h(ti)  1(tidll, n E N.
O=to< .. · 1£6 it follows that carrying out this process in each of the large triangles T 1 , ••• ,T4 leads to a continuous 3600 rotation of the interval in a figure of area not more than f. Although the Pal joins permit continuous motions and do not significantly add to the area of the Perron trees, the diameter of the polygon produced via the Pal joins is significantly larger than the diameter of the original square T. The core of the Besicovitch solution is a systematic device for constructing a Perron tree of arbitrarily small area. The description that follows is drawn not from [Besl], in which the solution of the Kakeya problem first appeared, but from [Bes3], where the author's expository skill, accumulated over 35 years, is plainly evident. For p at least 3, lines parallel to and at heights !, 1, ... ,1 above the base of T1 are drawn. By recompositioncompressio::' {he decomposition of T1 into 2P  2 subtriangles is successively reversed while compression is applied to yield versions of T1 that are similar but of heights ~. Furthermore, each recompositioncompression halves the number of subtriangles, cf. Figure 2.2.1.5, where the relation between the recomposedcompressed triangles and the decomposed original triangle T1 and its subtriangles Tb" ., Tn is shown. The purpose of recompositioncompression is
7"'"
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
127
simply to reduce to its most primitive form the operation of translating subtriangles for optimal overlap.
(
L__________________
I
/\
Tl
T2
TS
I T4
I
__~
21"
0
of closed subsets of positive measure in JR2 and S ~f {o : 0 < \11} are of the same cardinality, i.e., the sets of Fpos may be indexed by the elements in S: 0 ++ Fa. In the set of all maps p of some initial segment
{o : 1:5 0 < (3 :5 \11 } ~f [1, (3) of S into the power set 21R of JR2 let P consist of those maps such that: i. p(o) E Fa;
ii. no three points in the range of p are collinear. Then P is nonempty, e.g., if (3 = 2 and p ( {I}) C Fl then pEP. The set 'R of ranges of maps in P may be partially ordered by inclusion. Zorn's lemma implies there is a maximal element R in 'R and for some initial segment [1, (3) and some q in P: q {[I, (3)} = R. If (3 < \11 then #(R) < # (JR) and there is a direction () different from that determined by every pair of points in R. Since F{3 E Fpos, Fubini's theorem implies that some line in the direction () meets F{3 in a set A of positive measure. Hence there is in A a point P{3 not collinear with any pair of points in R. Define q' according to: q
'(0) _ {q(O) P{3
if 0 < (3 if 0 = (3.
Then q' maps the initial segment [1, (3 + 1) into a set R' properly containing R, in contradiction of the maximality of R. Hence (3 = \11 and m. R meets every set Fa; iv. no three points in R are collinear. The set R C ~f JR2 \ R contains no set B of positive measure since such a set B must contain some Fa, hence must meet R. Fubini's theorem implies
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
131
that if R is measurable then A2 (R) = O. Hence if R is measurable so is R C and since R C contains no set of positive measure, A2 (R2) = 0, whence A2 (]R2) = 0, a contradiction. In other words, R is a nonmeasurable subset of]R2 and R meets every line in at most two points. Exercise 2.2.1.14. Let R be the set of Example 2.2.1.13. If x e ]R and the vertical line Vz through x meets R in one point (x, y) let f(x) be y. If Vz meets R in two points let f(x) be the larger of the corresponding ordinates. If Vz does not meet R let f(x) be 0, i.e., f(X)~f{max{y: (x,y)eR}
o
if{y:. (x,y)eR}~0 otherwise.
Let G be the graph of f. Show that at least one of G and R \ G is a nonmeasurable subset of ]R2. If G is measurable subset of]R2 let h be such that h(x) = {min{y : (x,y)eR}
o
if{y :.(x,y)eR}~0 otherwise.
Show that either the graph of f or the graph of h is a nonmeasurable subset of ]R2. Example 2.2.1.14. For n in Nand R a region in ]Rn the set R does not have content.
n Qn
Example 2.2.1.15. The region R bounded by the Jordan curveimage of Example 2.2.1.10. 117 does not have content since the measure of the boundary aR of R is positive. Example 2.2.1.16. For a positive, the compact set 8 ~f C~2 (cf. Example 2.2.1.9. 115) does not have content since A2 (a8) > O. If f is nonnegative and Riemann resp. Lebesgue integrable on [0,1) then def 8 = {(x, y) : 0 ~ y ~ f(x), x e [0, II} has (twodimensional) content resp. is a Lebesgue measurable subset of]R2 and the twodimensional content resp. twodimensional Lebesgue measure of 8 is
11
f(x)dx.
By contrast there are the phenomena illustrated in Exercises 2.2.1.15, 2.2.1.16. Exercise 2.2.1.15. Let
is Riemann integrable on [0, 1] and the Riemann integral
10 is 1; iii. the set
1
(t/J(x)  4>(x)) dx
S ~f { (x, y) : 4>(x) ~ y ~ t/J(x), x E [0,1] }
does not have twodimensional content.
Exercise 2.2.1.16. Let E be a nonmeasurable subset of [0,1]. Show . def def that If 4> = XE and t/J = 4> + 1 then: z. for x in JR 4>(x) < t/J(x); zz. t/J  4> is Lebesgue integrable on [0, 1] and the Lebesgue integral
10
1
(t/J(x)  4>(x)) dx
is 1;
zzz. the set
S ~f { (x, y) : 4>(x) ~ y ~ t/J(x), x E [0, I]}
is not a Lebesgue measurable subset of JR 2 • 2.2.2. Measurable and nonmeasurable functions
Example 2.2.2.1. The Cantor function Co permits the definition of a continuous bijection \II : [0,1] 3 x 1+ X + Co(x) E [0,2] (hence \111 is also a continuous bijection) that maps a Lebesgue measurable set of measure zero into a nonmeasurable set. Indeed, A[\II ([0, 1] \ Co)] = 1 whence A[\II (Co)] = 1 and so \II (Co) contains a nonmeasurable set E. On the other hand: A ~f \11 1(E) C Co and so A is Lebesgue measurable; A(A) = 0; \II(A) (= E) is not measurable; since the continuous image of a Borel set is a Borel set it follows that A is a nonBorel subset of the Lebesgue measurable set Co of measure zero; v. in particular A is not an Fer; vi. there is no function f such that Discont(f) = A.
i. ii. iii. iv.
133
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
[Remark 2.2.2.1: Any two closed Cantorlike sets are homeomorphic (cf. LEMMA 2.2.1.1. 112). One may have measure zero and the other may have positive measure, cf. Example 2.2.1.3. 108·1 If I is a bounded measurable function and p is a polynomial then po I is measurable. The Stone Weierstrafl theorem implies that if 9 is continuous (on a domain containing the range of f) then 9 0 I is measurable. Exercise 2.2.2.1. Let the notation be that used in Example 2.2.2.1. Show that although the characteristic function XA is measurable yet the composition XA 0 \111 is not measurable. A measurable function of a continuous function need not be measurable.
Exercise 2.2.2.2. Show that if I : IR 1+ IR is monotone and 9 : IR 1+ IR is measurable then both I and log are measurable. (Hence if h is a function of bounded variation then both hand hog are measurable.) The function XA resp. \111 of Exercise 2.2.2.1 is measurable resp. monotone but the composition XA 0 \111 is not measurable. A measurable function of a monotone function is not necessarily measurable. The following result is used often in a measure situation (X,S, 1'). THEOREM 2.2.2.1.
(EGOROFF) IF E E S, IF I'(E)
"·(8n ), nEN).
Chapter 2. Analysis
134
For t in I n ~ [2 n  1 , 2 n ) let It be defined by the equation
It(x) Since [0,1)
= {I o
= UnEN8n,
(0,1)
if x E ~n and x otherwISe.
= 2n+lt 
1
= l:JnENJn , if t E (0,1) then
})={1o
#({X: h(X)=F O
if2n+l~_1E8n
otherwIse.
It follows that each It is a bounded measurable function different from zero for at most one x in [0,1) and that if x E (0,1) then limt+o It (x) = O. In short, It ~. O. If A*(D) < 6 then for each n in N, 8 n \ D =F 0. Choose Xn in 8 n \ D. As t traverses I n , 2n+lt 1 traverses [0,1) and there is in I n a tn such that 2n+ltn  1 = X n , whence It n (xn) = 1. As n + 00, tn + 0 and thus off D, It ;'0: Although limt+o It (x) = 0 for each x in (0,1) there is in (0,1) no set D such that A*{D) < 6 and as t + 0, It{x) ~ 0 off D. If the hypothesis JJ(E) < 00 is dropped from Egoroff's THEOREM, again the conclusion fails to obtain.
Example 2.2.2.3. Consider the measure situation (N, 2N, JJ) in which JJ is counting measure. If for n in N, In is the characteristic function of the set {I, 2, ... , n} then on E ~f N, limn+<Xl In is the constant 1. If 0 < f < 1 and JJ(D) < f then D = 0. However, {fn}nEN does not converge uniformly to 1 on N \ D (= N). Let (X,S,JJ) be a measure situation and let {fn}nEN be a sequence of measurable functions. There are defined several modes in which the sequence might converge to a function I. Convergence a.e.:
In ~. I
n+<Xl lim JJ [{ x : I/n(x)  l(x)1 > ell = O}. Convergence in pmean (when In, I are in V(X»:
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
135
Dominated convergence: (when p
In,
I
n E N and
are in V(X), 1
~
< 00):
f
nIn
doml
If p.(X)
~.
I
and there is in V(X) a 9 such that
< 00 then dom
{
dom
{
 =>
If p.(X)
I/nl ~ Igl.
= 00 then  =>
a.e. } 
IIJp
a.e. 
IIl'
meas
=> 
.
=> m~as
•
Exercise 2.2.2.3. Show that if In m~as I then there is a subsequence Ink ~. I· The Exercises that follow are designed to show that the implications above are the only valid ones relating the different modes.
{fnkhEN such that
Exercise 2.2.2.4. Show that if def
In(x)= then
fn
a.e. 
0b t U
f
{n0
II Ail O·
r
n
if 0
. x >.) and for n in N, let h n be a continuous nonnegative function such that the support of h n is contained in In
~f (n~l' ~)
and f[o,l) hn(x) dx
= 1.
Then for each
(x, y) in [0,1]2, at most one term of the series 00
L (hn(x)  hn+l(x)) hn(y) ~f I(x, y)
n=l
is not zero, I/(x, y)1 = E:=llhn(x)  hn+1 (x)llhn(y)l, and I is continuous except at (0,0). Hence I is measurable. Furthermore,
r
I/(x, y)1 d (>. x >.)
lIn xIn
r (r
l~q A~q
= 1,
r
1[0,1) x [0,1)
I(X,Y)dY) dx = 1 ¥ 0=
I/(x, y)1 d (>. x >.)
r (r
A~q A~q
= 00
I(X,Y)dx) dy.
Thus, absent the integrability of III, the conclusion of Fubini's theorem cannot be drawn. ii. For a measure situation (X, 2x , J.L), J.L is counting measure iff whenever 8 c X then J.L(8) = {#(8) if 8 is ~nite 00 otherw1se. Assume that in the measure situation ([0, 1],2[0,1), J.L) J.L is counting measure (whence [0,1] is not CTfinite) and consider the measure situation ([0,1] x [0,1],2[0,1) x (£ n [0,1]), J.L x >.). Assume
B ~f {(a, a) : a E [0, I]}.
142
Chapter 2. Analysis Then, B(x) resp. B(Y) denoting the set of y resp. x such that (x, y) E B,
In other words,
r [r 1
10
1[0,1)
XB(X, y) dJLl dA
=0
and
r [r XB(X, y) dA] dJL = 1, 1
1[0,1) 10
i.e., both iterated integrals exist but are unequal even though XB is a bounded nonnegative 2[0,1) x (.c n [0, l])measurable function. Thus, absent the O'finiteness condition, the conclusion of Tonelli's theorem cannot be drawn.
Exercise 2.2.2.15. In the context of Example 2.2.2.8 above, B is the graph of the measurable function f : [0,1] 3 x 1+ x whence B is JL x Ameasurable. Show JL x A(B) =
r
XB(X, y) d(JL x A) =
00.
1[0,1) x [0,1)
Example 2.2.2.9. Let R in IR2 be a nonmeasurable subset that meets every line in at most two points (cf. Example 2.2.1.13. 130). Then XR is nonnegative and not measurable whence
does not exist but
l (l
XR(X,Y)dX) dy
=
l (l
XR(X,Y)dY) dx
= O.
[Remark 2.2.2.2: In Example 3.1.2.5. 193 there is described a set r that is dense in IR2 and meets every horizontal resp. vertical
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
143
line in exactly one point. Let r 1 be r n [0, 1]2. Then the Riemann double integral IrO.l]2 Xr 1 (x, y) dA does not exist although
[
llo.l]
([
llo.l]
Xr 1 (x, y) dX) dy
Exercise 2.2.2.16. For
I
=[
llo.l]
([
llo.l]
Xrl (x, y) dY) dx
= 0.]
in lRlR and a in lR define the sets
80!. ~f
r
1
((a, 00)).
Show that I is (Lebesgue or Borel) measurable iff for all a, 8~0!. is measurable, iff for all a, 80!. is measurable.
Exercise 2.2.2.17. Let E be a nonmeasurable subset oflR. Show that if id denotes the map lR 3 x 1+ X E lR and
I dd·d = XE . 1 then
I
XIR\E . 1·d
is nonmeasurable although for every a in lR
consists of at most two points and hence is measurable. 2.2.3. Groupinvariant measures Let 8 be a set, let 80 be a fixed nonempty subset of 8, and let G be a group of autojections, i.e., bijections of 8 onto itself. The problem to be considered is that of determining whether, on the power set S ~f 28 , there exists a finitely additive measure It such that: i. 1t(80 ) = 1 (It is normalized); ii. if 9 E G and A E S then It (g(A)) = It(A). Such a It is called an [8,80 , G]measure and is an instance of a groupinvariant measure.
Chapter 2. Analysis
144
Example 2.2.3.1. For 8 an arbitrary set, 80 a finite subset of 8, and G the set of all bijections of 8 onto itself, assume # (80 ) = n (E N). Define I" as follows: I"(A) ~f {~#(A) if #(A~ E N U {OJ 00 otherwIse. Then I" is an [8,80 , G)measure. In other words, if 8 0 is finite and I" is an 8 0 normalized counting measure then, for any group G of autojections of 8, iii are satisfied. Let a group G be called measurable if there is a [G, G, G)measure. In [Nl] von Neumann showed that:
i. every abelian group G is measurable; ii. if H is a normal subgroup of G and if both Hand G / H are measurable then G is measurable. Thus "measurability" is, in the current context, a QL property. In particular, for n in N, Qn, R. n, and Tn are measurable groups. [ Note 2.2.3.1: It must be noted that the measures with respect to which abelian groups are measurable are not necessarily count ably additive. On the one hand, counting measure, which is a count ably additive measure, is, for any countable group, abelian or not, automatically a measure with respect to which the group is a measurable group. However, if G = T then the groupinvariant measure, say 1", derivable from von Neumann's result cannot be count ably additive. Indeed, if I" is count ably additive it is, in particular, a nontrivial translationinvariant count ably additive measure on the O'ring S(K) generated by the compact subsets of T. Thus I" is Haar measure and, according to the results in Subsections 1.1.4 and 2.2.1, there is in T a set 8 such that 1"(8) = 0 = 00, a contradiction. Similar observations apply to R.n.) On the other hand, Hausdorff [Hau] showed that if Grigid is the group of rigid motions of 1R? and (x,y,z )
x 2 + y2 + z2 :5 1 }
8 1 ~f {(x,y,z)
X 2 +y2+Z2=1}
Bl
=
def {
(=8Bd
are the unit ball and the surface of the unit ball of R.3 then there is no [R.3 , 81. Grigid] measure. Consideration of unions of spherical shells reveals that there is no [R.3 , B1. Grigid] measure. Hausdorff's result is consonant with von Neumann's because the group Grigid of rigid motions of R.3 contains the subgroup 80(3) of all rotations about axes through the origin 0 of R. 3 , and as the next lines show among other things, 80(3) is not abelian. The group 80(3) is isomorphic, according to the maps described next, to the multiplicative group HI of quaternions of norm 1.
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
145
Example 2.2.3.2. The correspondence def 1 + b'l+CJ+ • dk q=a
(~ ~) + b (~ ~) + c (~ ~1) + d (~ ~i)

a
=
(a.++ c
di
b~
bi 
a
~) ~f
d~
(af3 !) ~f a
A . q
is an isomorphism between lHl and a subalgebra of the algebra Mat22 of 2 x 2 matrices over C. Furthermore, if q E lHll then Aq is a unitary matrix. Let Coo denote the extended complex plane with the "point at infinity" 00 adjoined. The map
TA
: q
Coo 3 z 1+ {
~:~~ if f3z + 0 # 0, z # 00 if f3z + 0 = 0, Z # 00 ~ if Z = 00, f3 # 0 00 if Z = 00, f3 = 0 00
is an auteomorphism of the extended plane Coo. The association TAq  Aq is a group isomorphism. The standard stereographic projection of Coo o~ the Riemann sphere S t converts the map T Aq into an auteomorphism T Aq of Sl. Every auteomorphism T of SR has a fixed point. [PROOF: Ifx E SR 2 the sequence {Tnx}nElII has a limit point y and Ty = y.] The corresponding fixed point of T Aq is a solution , of the equation
,1
f3z2 + (0  a)z + 73 = o.
Furthermore, is a second solution corresponding to a fixed point. The stereographic images of these fixed points are diametrically opposite points of Stand T Aq is a rotation about the axis through them. In this way lHll is isomorphic to the set ofrotations of St, i.e., to the set ofrotations of SI or of 1R3 . Since lHll is not abelian neither is SO(3) nor Grigid abelian. An important consequence of Remark 1.1.5.1. 17 is that lHlI. i.e., SO(3), contains a free set of cardinality # (1R). This fact is basic to the derivation of the BanachTarski "paradox" to which the remainder of this Section is devoted. Call two subsets A and B of 1R3 congruent if there is a rigid motion U such that U(A) = B. Hausdorff's idea was exploited by Banach and Tarski to show that, ~ denoting "congruent," the ball Bl in 1R3 can be decomposed into m pieces CI..'" Cm such that
into n pieces Cm+I."" Cm + n such that
Chapter 2. Analysis
146
into m
+n
pieces At, . .. ,Am+n such that
and such that
[BanT]. Thus B1 can be decomposed and the pieces can then be reassembled via rigid motions to form two balls, each congruent to B 1 • This theorem was polished and refined by Sierpinski, von Neumann, and finally by Robinson to yield the following result. THEOREM 2.2.3.1. IN THE UNIT BALL B1 OF a3 THERE ARE FIVE PAIRWISE DISJOINT SETS, A 1, ... , As, THE LAST A SINGLE POINT, AND B1 = A 1l:J···l:JAs B1 ~ A 1l:JA 3 ~ A2l:JA4l:JAs·
The ingredients of the proof of THEOREM 2.2.3.1 are straightforward and are assembled below in a pattern based on Robinson's development [Robi]. Except at the very end, where a single translation is invoked, only rotations of a 3 are used for the rigid motions that establish the relevant congruences. Reflections are not used. At first the focus is on the decomposition of the surface Sl ~ 8B1 of the unit ball B1 and in that discussion the only rigid motions used are rotations. The goal is to show that there are two different decompositions of Sl: Sl = A 1l:JA 2 l:JA 3l:JA 4 Sl
= C1l:JC2l:JC3l:JC4l:JCS
(2.2.3.1)
such that A1
~
A2
~
A 1l:JA 2
A3 ~ A4 ~ A3l:JA4
(2.2.3.2)
C 1 ~ C 2 ~ C1l:JC2 l:JCS C3 ~ C4 ~ C3l:JC4.
(2.2.3.3)
In the second decomposition, Cs is a single point P. Furthermore, there are for SR, 0 < R < 1, decompositions analogous to that in (2.2.3.1) and with properties analogous to those in (2.2.3.2)(2.2.3.3).
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
147
Associated with a finite decomposition {At. ... , An} of 8 1 and a congruence
is a canonical relation R having domain and range N ~f {l, ... , n} and such that iRj iff i E K ~f {kt. ... , kr } and j E L ~f {It, ... , Is}. A rotation U is compatible with the congruence if no point of U (Ai) lies in Aj unless i E K and j E L, i.e., U is compatible with the corresponding relation R if no point of U (Ai) lies in Aj unless iRj: U (Ai) n Aj :F 0 ~ iRj. Any relation in N is defined by a subset 'R, of N x N: iRj ¢} (i, j) E 'R,. Hence without regard to congruence, one may speak of a relation Rand its corresponding subset 'R, of N x N: R '" 'R,. The discussion below is confined to those relations R having domain and range N. In other words each image of the two projections of 'R, onto the factors of N x N is N. If 8 1 = l:Jf=1 Ai then for any relation R and any rotation U the notion of their compatibility remains unchanged. If Rl and R2 are relations their product RIR2 is the relation R3 such that iR3k iff there is a j such that iRd and jR2k. The inverse Rl of a relation R is characterized by the statement: iR 1 j iff jRi. If iRi then i is a fixed point for R. The identity relation ~d corresponds to the "diagonal" A U
def { ( t,) . . ) : ,. = )' } ' D.' • • = : ''Lid) ¢} Z =).
If R '" N x N then R = R 1 and so RR 1 = R :F ~d, i.e., the product of a relation and its inverse need not be the identity relation.
Exercise 2.2.3.1. Show that if U and R are compatible then (since U has a fixed point) R has a fixed point. Exercise 2.2.3.2. Show that if Ui and ~ are compatible, 1 ~ i then U1 ••••• Urn is compatible with Rrn ..... Rl'
~
m,
[Hint: Note the reversal of order in the product of relations. Use induction.]
For a free set {Ut. ... , Urn} of rotations of 8 1 let G be the group generated by them. Then each element of G is uniquely representable as a reduced word UiE11 ••• Ui; , i.e., a word that does not simplify (cf. Exercise 1.1.5.1. 9). If x E 8 1 then Gx ~f {U(x) : U E G} is the orbit or trajectory of x. A point x in 8 1 is a fixed point if, for some U in G and not the identity id of G, U(x) = x. As an auteomorphism of 8 1 each U in G has a fixed point z. Since U E [1R3 ] it follows that the antipodal point z is also a fixed point for U, just as physical intuition suggests. Since det(U) = 1 and all the eigenvalues of U are in T, it follows that if U :F id then the eigenvalues of U are, for some ( in T, {l, (, ().
Chapter 2. Analysis
148
Exercise 2.2.3.3. Show: a) that a trajectory consists entirely of fixed points or contains no fixed points; b) two trajectories are either disjoint or coincide; c) Sl is the (disjoint) union of the trajectories. [Hint: If x is fixed for U then V(x) is fixed for VUV 1.] Exercise 2.2.3.4. Show that if T is a trajectory without fixed points and x E T then for each y in T there is in G a U such that y = U(x). A trajectory consisting of fixed points may be described in a manner similar to that in Exercise 2.2.3.4 although the details of the description, given next, are more complex. Let T consist entirely of fixed points. Among all rotations having fixed points in T there is at least one, say W, for which the corresponding reduced word is shortest. Assume W(x) = x. Exercise 2.2.3.5. Show that the first and last factors of W are not inverses of each other. Thus Wand W1 do not begin with the same factor nor end with the same factor. [Hint: Otherwise, for some rotation V, V 1WV has a fixed point in T and V 1WV, reduced, is shorter than W.] LEMMA 2.2.3.1. IF V(x)
=x
THEN FOR SOME n IN Z, V
= Wn .
PROOF. Since Wand V have the same fixed point, they are rotations around the axis through x and hence they commute: WV = VW. Hence V = WVW1. If WV does not simplify, then the unique representation of V begins with the block W. Hence for some n in N, V = wn Z and Z does not begin with W. However, V = wnvw n = w2n zw n whence wnzwn = Z, and so V = wn Z = zwn, which does not begin with W. If zwn simplifies then, since V begins with W, V = W n  k , k > 0, a contradiction. Hence zwn does not simplify and so Z = id and V = W n. If WV does simplify then, owing to Exercise 2.2.3.5, W 1V does not simplify and the previous argument shows that for some n in N, V = W n .
o Exercise 2.2.3.6. Show that if yET then for some X that does not end with W nor with the inverse of the first factor of W, y = X(x). Show also that such an X is unique. [Hint: For some Z, y = Z(x) and if Z ends with W, then y = Z(x) = YW(x) = Y(x). After finitely many steps, y = X(x) and X does not end with W. If X ends with the inverse of the first for large enough n. factor of W, consider
xwn
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
149
If y = X(x) = X'(x) while X and X' are as described, then XIX' fixes x and so XIX' = wn, n E Z. If n > 0 then X' ends with W. If n < 0 then reverse the roles of X and X'. Hence n = 0.]
The next step in the argument is the derivation of the connection between a set of relations and the possibility of decomposing 8 1 in a manner associated to the relations. For this purpose the algebra described above for relations is quite useful. THEOREM 2.2.3.2. LET Rl"'" Rm BE RELATIONS FOR WHICH N IS BOTH DOMAIN AND RANGE. THEN 8 1 CAN BE DECOMPOSED INTO n PIECES Ab"" An AND FOR THIS DECOMPOSITION THERE ARE ROTATIONS Ub" ., Urn COMPATIBLE RESPECTIVELY WITH R l , • •. , Rm IFF EACH PRODUCT OF FACTORS OF THE FORM R:, f = ±l, HAS A FIXED POINT. FURTHERMORE, IF SUCH ROTATIONS EXIST THEY MAY BE CHOSEN TO BE A FREE SET IN 80(3). PROOF. If 8 1 = U~=IAi and if rotations Ui as described exist and R ~f R:: ... R:; is given then U ~f U iE: ••• UiE1l is compatible with Rand since U has a fixed point so does R, cf. Exercise 2.2.3.3. 148. Conversely, assume every R as described has a fixed point. Choose m free rotations, Ub" ., Urn. The next argument uses the results in Exercises 2.2.3.4. 148 and 2.2.3.6. 148. The task is to define a decomposition {Ab .. . , An} of 8 1 so that, for the free set U ~f {Ub ... , Urn} of rotations, each Ui is compatible with the corresponding R;. Since the group G generated by U is countable G may be enumerated systematically so that first only rotations (reduced words) that have exactly one factor are listed, then those having only two factors, . .. . Let Vo be id and let the enumeration of G \ {id} be Vn , n EN. Throughout what follows the fundamental assumption that the domain and range of each R; is N proves essential. Case 1. Assume the trajectory T has no fixed points. Let x be a point in T. Start the construction of Al by the declaration: x E AI' If VI = Uti, then since there is an I such that lR:il, start the construction of A, by the declaration: Vl(X) E A,. Note that Al n A, = 0. Having constructed or made assignments to pairwise disjoint sets already constructed for all reduced words having at most n factors, assume VM+l ~f U?VM is the first word having n + 1 factors. If VM(X) E Ak, there is a p such that kRjj p. If Ap has been constructed, assign VM+l(X) to Ap. Otherwise construct Ap by the declaration: VM+l(X) E Ap. By definition, Ap is disjoint from all sets Ai already in existence. The inductive procedure described above defines pairwise disjoint sets AI, . .. for a given trajectory without fixed points. The procedure is in
Chapter 2. Analysis
150
dependent of the trajectory and thus the sets A b ... are defined for all trajectories having no fixed points. Case 2. Assume the trajectory T consists of fixed points. According to the earlier discussion, for a x in T, there is a rotation X such that every y in T is uniquely of the form X(x), and the rotation X ends neither with W nor with the inverse of the first factor of W. Let the reduced form of W be n:=1 Thus the points
uZ:
j
•
8
x,
U::· (x), ... , II U~~j (x) =
X
i=1
form a closed cycle. Once the points of the cycle have led to constructions or assignments to sets Aq the other points of T lead to constructions or assignments following the procedure in Case 1. Note that the hypothesis concerning the existence of a fixed point for every product of factors has not yet been invoked. Now the hypothesis is used to conclude that n:=1 R~: ~f R has a fixed point. Thus there are
R:
integers k o, ... , k8 such that kr1Rtkr, 1 ~ r ~ s, and ko = k8 ~f k. If Ak exists, assign x to Ak. Otherwise declare Ak to consist of x. Similarly, for the other points of the cycle assign them to, or construct by declaration for them, sets Akr • Since the sets AI. . .. are pairwise disjoint and since every point of 8 1 is on some trajectory, it follows that 8 1 = l:Jl=IAi. Since the domain and range of each relation is N it follows that ? = n.
o LEMMA 2.2.3.2. U(Ad i' A 2 •
IF 8 1
=
A 1 l:JA 2 AND U IS A ROTATION THEN
PROOF. As a rotation, U is an auteomorphism of 8 1 and has a fixed point v. Assume v E AI. Then U (v) E Al \ A 2 •
o Let A b ... , An be pairwise disjoint subsets of 8 1 and assume 8 1 = l:Jf=IAi. Then {A b ... , An} is a finite decomposition of 8 1. The set of all congruences, of which a typical one is (2.2.3.4) is decomposable with respect to an equivalence relation == defined as follows. Let K be {kb ... ,kr }, L be {h, ... ,18}' and denote a congruence such as Then: (2.2.3.4) by
ct.
. CK CN\K L = N\L; .. CK  CK\L. u. L = L\K'
z.
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
iii. MeN
151
=> cf == cf~t!.
Furthermore cf == Ct.' if there is a finite chain of congruences linked by == and of which cf is the first and cf,' is the last. An equivalence such as i is an equivalence by complementation and an equivalence such as ii or iii is an equivalence by transitivity. For the most part, the argument below is concerned with canonical relations tied to congruences, but the intermediate results are more easily described with respect to relations that are not necessarily canonical. If R is a relation on N, if kEN, and if 'R::J {(I, k), ... , (n, kn
then, by abuse of language, R is said to contain a constant (the constant relation Rk, by further abuse of language, the constant k).
Exercise 2.2.3.7. Show that: i. if R contains the constant k and if {(k, In C 8 then R8 contains the constant 1; ii. if R contains a constant then R has a fixed point; iii. if n ~ 3 there are two canonical relations Rand 8 such that R8 is not canonical (hence there are noncanonical relations); iv. if Rand 8 are canonical relations then R8 contains a constant or R8 is itself canonical; v. if R '" (K, L) then R has a fixed point iff [K
n L] U [(N \
K)
n (N \
L)]
i' 0.
[Hint: Ad iv: It suffices to consider the product of two canonical relations and then to proceed by induction. Assume kR1S {:} (k E K1 {:} s E Ld 8R2l {:} (8 E K2 {:} 1 E L 2). Show that if K1 = L1 or K1 = L2 then R1R2 is canonical. Show that if K2 n L1 i' 0 and K2 n (N \ L 2) i' 0 then R1R2 contains a constant. Argue similarly if K2 n L1 i' 0 or K2 n (N \ L 1) i' 0.] The contents of THEOREM 2.2.3.2. 149 can be translated into a statement about congruences, complementary congruences, and congruences arising from transitivity. THEOREM 2.2.3.3. THE SURFACE 8 1 MAY BE DECOMPOSED INTO n PIECES SATISFYING A GIVEN SYSTEM C OF CONGRUENCES IFF: i. NONE OF THE CONGRUENCES IN C IS A CONGRUENCE OF TWO COMPLEMENTARY SUBSETS OF 8 1 ; ii. NONE OF THE CONGRUENCES IN C IS EQUIVALENT (==) TO A CONGRUENCE OF TWO COMPLEMENTARY SUBSETS OF 8 1 .
Chapter 2. Analysis
152
PROOF. Since complementary subsets of 8 1 cannot be congruent (cf. LEMMA 2.2.3.2. 150) the necessity of Hi follows. The proof of sufficiency of the conditions rests on the conclusion of Exercise 2.2.3.7iv. 151: EITHER the product R of two canonical relations contains a constant, whence R has a fixed point, OR
R is itself canonical. When a product of two canonical relations is itself canonical, say Rl '" (Kb L 1), R2 '" (K2' L 2), R1R2
~f R '" (K, L).
let the superscript * on a subset A of N denote either A itself or N \ A. Then kRI means there is in N an s such that
Lr
(k,s) E K; x (s,l) E K; xL; (k,l) E K* x L*
Lr n K; ¥ 0.
(2.2.3.5)
(Note that there are sixteen such sets of conditions.) Each corresponds to the equivalence (==) of the congruence corresponding to R and the congruence corresponding to Rl or to R 2. One of the conditions (2.2.3.5) serves as the transitivity or complementation from which the cited equivalence can be inferred. When the product of canonical relations is itself canonical its associated congruence is equivalent (==) to the congruence associated to one of the factors in the product. If the product R contains no fixed point then R does not contain a constant and hence R is canonical. Thus, in the notation used above, [K
n L] U [(N \ K) n (N \ L)] = 0
whence K = N \ L and so R corresponds to a congruence of complementary subsets of 8 1 , i.e., R corresponds to a congruence equivalent to one of the congruences in the original system, contrary to the hypothesis of THEOREM 2.2.3.3. 151.
o Example 2.2.3.3. Let n be 4 and let C be the system
Ai A3
~
~
A2 A4
~
~
A 1 l:JA 2 A 3l:JA 4.
Section 2.2. Measure Theory
153
Then the only congruences equivalent via complementation and/or transitivity are the following: Al ~
A3
~
A2 A4
~ All:JA2 ~ A l l:JA 2 l:JA 3 ~ All:JA2l:JA4 ~
A3l:JA4
Hence there exist rotations Ui , I
~ All:JA3l:JA4 ~ ~
i
~
A 2l:JA 3l:JA 4.
4, such that
Ul(A l )l:JU3(A 3) ~ All:J·· ·l:JA4 = 8 1 U2(A 2)l:JU4(A4) ~ All:J·· ·l:JA4 = 81, i.e., two copies of 8 1 can be made from 8 1 itself. Example 2.2.3.4. In Example 2.2.3.3 choose a trajectory T consisting of nonfixed points and choose a point P in T. Define a new decomposition of 8 1 by assigning P to Cs ~ {P} and assigning Ui(P), I ~ i ~ 4, according to the following pattern:
Ul(P) ....... C3 or C4, U1l(P) ....... C l U2(P) ....... C3 or C4, U;l(p) ....... C2 U3(P) ....... C l or C 2, U;l(p) ....... C l or C2 or C 4 U4(P) ....... C l or C 2, Uil(P) ....... C l or C2 or C3 (81 = C l l:JC2l:JC3l:JC4l:JCS ). (Notice the considerable flexibility in the assignments above.) For any other point Q in T make assignments according to the algorithm in Case 1 of the proof of THEOREM 2.2.3.2. 149. The (canonical) relations to be observed are precisely those listed next:
Rl '" 'R 1 ~f {I} x {1,2} R2 '" 'R 2 ~f {2} x {I, 2} R3 '" 'R3 ~f {3} x {3,4} R4 '" 'R4 ~f {4} x {3,4}. The corresponding congruences are
C l ~ C2 ~ C l l:JC2l:JCS C3 ~ C4 ~ C3l:JC4 and then
Ul (Cdl:JU3(C3) ~ 8 1 U2(C2)l:JU4(C4) ~ 8 1 •
Chapter 2. Analysis
154
IfO < r < 1 let Sl(r) be { (x, y, z) : x 2 + y2 + Z2 = r2 } and, following the patterns in Examples 2.2.3.3 and 2.2.3.4, decompose them as follows: Sl(r) Sl
= A1(r)l:JA 2(r)l:JA3(r)l:JA4(r), = C1l:JC2l:JC3l:JC4l:JCS
0< r < 1
(= C 1l:JC2l:JC3l:JC4l:J{P}). Let Ak be Ckl:JUO span ({Xl. ... , x n }) and such that as well,
Yk, Zk
E Uk, 1
~
k ~ n, let Mn denote the span of
{Yk}l ~f {tPn}nEN is a complete orthonormal set in 'It ~f L2 (X, C) and 1 E 'It then 00
L 1(I, tPn) 12 < 00; n=l
if E::'=1IanI2
< 00 then there is in 'It an 1 such that
iii. (HausdorffYoung) if X = [0, 1], if the functions in cI> are uniformly bounded, e.g., if cI> consists of the functions X
1+
and if 1 < p
~
1, x
1+
~ cos 21l"kx,
x
1+
~ sin 21l"kx,
kEN,
2 then 00
1 E V (X, C) =*
L 1(I, tPn) Ipi < 00; n=l
under the same hypotheses, if E::'=llanIP < 00 there is in Vi (X,C) an 1 such that (I, tPn) = an, n E N. However the following items indicate the degree of inflexibility of the hypotheses in i and iii.
170
Chapter 2. Analysis
Example 2.3.4.1. If the measure situation is (R, C,..\) and 1 ~ p < q then neither of V (JR, C) and Lq (R, C) is a subset of the other. Indeed, since ~ < there is an a such that 0 < ap < 1 < aq. Hence If
*
I(x) ~f {xoa g(x) ~f {xoa
if 0 < x ~ 1 otherwise if 1 ~ x otherwise
then 1 E V (JR, C) \ Lq (R, C) and g E Lq (R, C) \ V (R, C). Thus the hypothesis J.t(X) < 00 cannot be dropped from i. The hypothesis p ~ 2 cannot be dropped from iii. The details are somewhat complicated and can be found in [Don, Zy].
Exercise 2.3.4.1. Show that if B ~f {/(x) ~fax + b : a,b,x E R} then B is a linear function space that is neither an algebra nor a lattice. Exercise 2.3.4.2. Show that if B ~f {p : p a polynomial over JR} then B is a linear function space that is an algebra but not a lattice. Exercise 2.3.4.3. Show that if B is L1 (R, R) then B is a linear function space that is a lattice but not an algebra with respect to pointwise mUltiplication of functions: I(x), g(x). Show also that B is an algebra with respect to multiplication as convolution: 1 * g(x) ~f JR I(x  t)g(t) dt. Let IIR be the set of irrational real numbers, let AIR be the set of algebraic real numbers, and let T rlR be the set of transcendental real numbers. Exercise 2.3.4.4. Show that if
1 def = XIIR g
XQ
def
= XAIR 
XTrlR
then P and g2 are Riemann integrable but (f + g)2 and Riemann integrable. Thus the set of functions 1 such that integrable is not a linear function space.
1 + g are not
12
is Riemann
Exercise 2.3.4.5. Show that if E1 resp. E2 is a nonmeasurable subset of[o, 11 resp. [2,31 and def
1 = X[O,1)UE2 g
 X[2,3)\E2
def
= X[2,3)UEl 
X[O,1)\El
then p,g2 E L1 (R) but (f + g)2 ~ L1 (R). Thus, although L2 (R,R) is a linear function space, the set of functions 1 such that 12 is Lebesgue integrable is not a linear function space.
Section 2.3. Topological Vector Spaces
171
Example 2.3.4.2. Assume that p is an integer and q is a nonzero integer and (p, q) = 1. If !
F(x)
def
=
{
q
2  :
2 G(x)
H(x)
1!
def
= { 1+ ~
def
q
1 1!
={
3 +! 3 q
q
if x = ~ and q is odd if x = .; and q is even ifxElllR if x = ~ and q is odd if x = .; and q is even ifxElllR if x = ~ and q is odd ifx=fandqiseven if x E fIR.
Then each of F, G, and H is semicontinuous everywhere whereas
F(x)
+ G(x) + H(x)
 2+ ~ = { 2 ~
o
q
if x = ~ and q is odd if x = f and if q is even if x E fIR
and F + G + H is nowhere semicontinuous. Thus the set of semicontinuous functions in aIR is not a linear function space. Exercise 2.3.4.6. Show that if a E ][IR then both x 1+ sin x and x 1+ sin ax are periodic but their sum is not. Hence the set of B of continuous periodic functions in aIR is not a linear function space. Example 2.3.4.3. In the function space C ([0, 1], a) there are two possible norms: 11112 resp. II 1100. Let P resp. Q be the corresponding unit balls: p~f {I 11/112 $ I}
Q~f {I
11/1100 $ I}.
It follows that Q c P. Of greater interest is the fact that P \ Q is II 112dense in P. If I E P and 11/1100 > 1 then I E P \ Q. If 11/1100 $ 1 let Xo be such that II (xo) I = 11/1100. It may be assumed that I (xo) ~f M > O. For a positive f there is a neighborhood U of Xo and in C ([0, 1], a) a 9 such that: i. for x in U, I(x) > Af j ii. 9 (xo) > 1 + M, 9 = 0 off U, and IIgll~ iii. i[O,l]W I/(x)1 2 dx + IIgll~ < 1.
If
h(x)
III 
hll2
{/(X) g(x)
< f.
+ I(x)
< f2j if x rt U if x E U
172
Chapter 2. Analysis
2.4. Topological Algebras
2.4.1. Derivations
If B is a commutative Banach algebra there is a corresponding (possibly empty) set Hom( B, C) \ {O} of nonzero algebraic homomorphisms of B onto C. The radical 'R of B is the set of generalized nilpotents or, equivalently, the intersection of the set of kernels of elements of Hom(B, C):
'R
= {x : =
lim sup IIxnll':
n
n ..... oo
=
o}
ker(h}.
hEHom(B,C)
In fact, limn..... oo IIxn II': always exists and is the spectral radius of x. The algebra B is semisimple iff'R = {O}. The set Cb (JR, C) of Cvalued bounded continuous functions defined on JR contains the subsets C~k) (JR, C) consisting of Cvalued functions with k continuous bounded derivatives. With respect to the norm
II
lI(k) :
C~k) (JR, C) 3
k
I ..... :E sup I/U)(x}1 ~f IIfIl(k) j=ozEIR
C~k) (JR, C) is a Banach algebra. Example 2.4.1.1. The set
n 00
A ~f C~oo) (JR, C) ~f
C~k) (JR, C)
k=O
in JRIR consisting of infinitely differentiable Cvalued functions for which each derivative is bounded on JR is an algebra that is not a Banach algebra with respect to any norm. (Note that although no nonconstant polynomial belongs to A, it is a rather rich algebra containing, e.g., the functions In : JR 3 X ..... exp(inx), n E Z and all their finite linear combinations, the bridging functions (cf. Example 2.1.2.4. 61), etc.} Assume the algebra A is a Banach algebra with respect to some norm II lib' The Banach algebra B of continuous endomorphisms of A consists of bounded endomorphisms T : A 3 I ..... T(f} E A such that
IITII ~f sup {IIT(f}lIb
: II/lIb = I}
.
> 1 and
the function represented by the series E~=l Ckznk cannot be continued analytically beyond the circle of convergence of the series [Rud). If the nonempty region n is not C there is in H(n) a function 1 such that an is the natural boundary for I: each point of n is a singularity of I. Indeed, if an has no limit points a MittagLeffler expansion provides a function having an as its set of poles. Otherwise there is in n a countable set Z such that Z' = an. The Weierstraft infinite product representation leads to an 1 in H(n) and equal to zero precisely on Z. The Identity Theorem implies that an is a natural boundary for 1 [Hil, Rud]. If the power series E::'=o anz n has a positive radius of convergence R then the series represents a function 1 in H (D(O, R)O). There is a considerable body of theorems dealing with the nature of the sequence A ~f {an} ~=o and the nature of the set S R (f) of singularities of 1 on 'fR ~f {z : Izl = R}, the boundary of the circle 01 convergence of the series. Since a limit point of singularities is a singularity, SR(f) is closed. Example 2.6.2.1. Let F be a closed subset of 'fR . •. If F is empty then for the function 1 : z t+ z, SR(f) = F. n. If F is finite, say F = {Zl,"" ZN}, then for the function N 1 I:zt+ 2 :  , n=l Z 
Zn
Chapter 2. Analysis
182
SR(f) = F. iii. If F is infinite, for each n in N there are in F finitely many points Pnt. ... 'Pnmn such that mn
F C k~l D
(
R)O
Pnk, n+ 1
In each D (0, Rt n D (Pnk, n!l) ° there is a Znk such that i~f IZnkl
> s~p IZnl"I, n
= 2,3, ....
It follows that F is the set of limit points of the set
L ~f {Znk' n E N, 1 ~ k ~ m n },
i.e., F = L'. Via a WeierstraB infinite product representation there can be defined a function f holomorphic in C \ F and such that L is the set of zeros of f. In iii above, f is not identically zero and f is representable by a power series ~~=o anz n valid in D (0, R). In ii, iii the circle of convergence for that power series is D (0, Rt. For iii, owing to the Identity Theorem for holomorphic functions, SR(f) = F.
Example 2.6.2.2. The series ~~=o ;!,zn! represents a function f in H (D(O, 1)°) and for which T is the natural boundary. Nevertheless the series converges uniformly in the closed disc D(O, 1).
°
Example 2.6.2.3. If < a < 1 the series ~~=o an zn 2 represents a function f in H (D(O, 1)°). The Hadamard gap theorem implies that Tis· the natural boundary for f. The series converges uniformly in the closed disc D(O, 1). Furthermore: i.
is a sequence of infinitely differentiable functions on [0,21rJ; ii. for kEN, {4>~k)}nEN converges uniformly on [0,21r]. An application of THEOREM 2.1.2.1. 53 to the sequence {4>n}nEN shows that h(IJ) ~f f (e iB ) is an infinitely differentiable function of IJ. Yet eiB is, for each real IJ, a singular point of f.
Exercise 2.6.2.2. Show that if, for k in N, lim sup In(n  1)··· (n  k n+oo
+ l)an l;t = 1
Section 2.6. Complex Variable Theory
183
then L~=oan2zn2 represents a function 1 in H(D(0,1)0), 8 1 (/) h(O) ~f 1 (e ill ) exists for all 0 in Ii. and is infinitely differentiable.
=
'll',
2.6.3. Square roots If 0 is a region, then 0 is simply connected iff anyone of the following obtains [Rud]: i. the region 0 is conlormally equivalent to D(O, 1)°; ii. for every 1 E H(O), if 1 '# in 0 then there is in H(O) a function h such that 1 = e h (h may be regarded as "In!"); iii. for every 1 E H(O), if 1 'lOin 0 then there is in H(O) a function g is such that 1 = g2 (g may be regarded as ".fJ").
°
(Note the elementary implication: ii => iii since e t serves for g.) Example 2.6.3.1. If 0 ~f D(O, 1)° then 1 : z t+ z2 is holomorphic in O. Although 1(0) = yet g : z t+ Z is holomorphic in 0 and 1 = g2. Correspondingly, although 0 \ {a} is not simply connected, nevertheless g E H (0 \ {O}) and 1 = g2.
°
2.6.4. Uniform approximation
The Weierstmfl approximation theorem is valid in the set of Ii.valued continuous functions defined on a fixed compact interval or on a compact subset of li.n . Indeed the Stone Weierstmfl theorem is valid in the set C (X, Ii.) of continuous Ii.valued functions defined on a compact Hausdorff space X. The situation is quite different for C (X, C), i.e., when Ii. is replaced by C. Example 2.6.4.1. If r
'P
~f {z
t+
°
> the set
t
akzk : ak, z
EC, n EN}
k=O
is not dense (with respect to the IllIoainduced topology of uniform convergence) in C (D(O, 1), C). Otherwise the special function 1 : z t+ z would be the uniform limit of a sequence of polynomials in 'P. Since 1 is not differentiable it is not holomorphic in D(O, 1)° and so 1 cannot be the uniform limit of a sequence of polynomials, since every polynomial is entire and the uniform limit of a sequence of holomorphic functions is holomorphic. Exercise 2.6.4.1. Show that if 1 E H (D(O, 1)°) nC (D(O, 1), C) then there is a sequence {Pn}nEl\I of polynomials such that Pn ~ 1 on D(O, 1). [Hint: Use Fejer's theorem and the maximum modulus theorem.]
Chapter 2. Analysis
184 2.6.5. Rouche's theorem
The statement of Rouche's theorem is an instance in which the replacement of the symbol < by the symbol $ changes a valid theorem into one that is, in the vein of Landau humor, completely invalid.
Example 2.6.5.1. The functions f : C 3 z
1+
z2 and 9 : C 3 z
1+
1
are such that Ig(z)1 $ If(z)1 and If(z)1 $ Ig(z)1 on C ~f {z : Izl = I}. Yet, Zh,'Y. denoting the number of zeros of the function h inside the rectifiable Jordan contour 'Y*, 2
= ZI,C '" Z/+g,C = 0
although 0= Zg,C
[Remark 2.6.5.1: valued integral
= Zg+I,C = O.
One proof of Rouche's theorem uses the Z1 211"i
1 'Y
f'(z) f(z)
+ tg'(z) d + tg(z) z,
which, if the strict inequality Ig(z)1 < If(z)1 obtains on 'Y*, exists and is a continuous, hence constant, function of t on [0,1]. If the (Rouche) condition Ig(z)1 < If(z)1 on 'Y* is replaced by Ig(z)1 $ If(z)1 the integral above might fail to exist when t = 1.] 2.6.6. Bieberbach's conjecture
Experimentation and some theoretical calculations led Bieberbach in 1916 to conjecture the next result about univalent (injective) holomorphic functions [Bi]. THEOREM (BIEBERBACH). IF f IS HOLOMORPHIC AND UNIVALENT (INJECTIVE) IN D(O,I)O AND IF, FOR z E D(O, 1)°, 00
f(z) ~f
L anz n n=l
THEN FOR ALL n IN
N,
The record of progress, before the decisive result of de Branges in 1985, in the proof of the Bieberbach conjecture is in the following list, where "19xy, Name(s), n = k" signifies that the result was confirmed in 19xy by Name(s) for the case in which n = k:
Section 2.6. Complex Variable Theory 1916, 1923, 1955, 1968, 1972,
185
L. Bieberbach, n = 2 K. Lowner, n = 3; P. R. Garabedian and M. Schiffer, n = 4; R. N. Pederson and, independently, M. Ozawa, n R. N. Pederson and M. Schiffer, n = 5.
= 6;
De Branges showed the truth of a stronger result, the Milin conjecture described below, that implies the validity of the Bieberbach conjecture. In [Br] the proof of the Bieberbach conjecture itself is given and references to proofs of the stronger results are provided. The THEOREM is sharp since if {3 E R and J is given by 00
Z 1+
J
( ) def Z
=
Z
(1 + ei {jz)2
def~
=
L...i anz n=l
n
J is holomorphic and univalent in D(O, 1)0 and for all n in N, lanl = n. The validity of Bieberbach's conjecture is implied by the validity of the Robertson conjecture [Rob] put forth in 1936. THEOREM (ROBERTSON). IF J IS HOLOMORPHIC AND UNIVALENT IN D(O,I)O AND
then
00
J(z) = L bnz 2n  1 , n=l THEN
Izl < 1
n
L Ibkl 2 ::; nlbl l2. k=l
In turn, the validity of Robertson's conjecture is implied by the validity of the Milin conjecture [Mi] announced in 1971. THEOREM (MILIN). IF J IS HOLOMORPHIC AND UNIVALENT IN D(O,I)O THERE IS A POWER SERIES 00
L'Ynzn n=l CONVERGENT IN D(O,I)O AND SUCH THAT J(z) = zl'(O) exp
(~'Ynzn) .
FURTHERMORE r r 1 L(r + 1  n)nl'Ynl ::; L(r + 1  n);;:. n=l n=l
On the other hand, if the hypothesis of univalency is dropped, the conclusion in the Bieberbach conjecture cannot be drawn.
Example 2.6.6.1. If J is z 1+ Z + 3z 2 then univalent in D(O, 1)0 and la21 = 3 > 2 = 2lall.
J is holomorphic but
not
3.
Geometry /Topo!ogy
3.1. Euclidean Geometry
3.1.1. Axioms of Euclidean geometry
Hilbert [Hi2] reformulated Euclid's axioms for plane (and solid) geometry. Not unexpectedly, Hilbert's contribution was decisive in the subsequent study of Euclidean geometry both in the schools and in research. His axioms are grouped as follows. i. axioms relating points, lines, and planes, e.g., two points determine
ii. iii.
iv. v.
186
exactly one line, two lines determine at most one point, there exist three noncollinear points, there exist four noncoplanar points, etc.;" axioms about order or "betweenness" of points on a line; axioms about congruent ("!:!!!"): a. line segments; b. angles; c. triangles (6.ABC 5!!! .6.A' B' C' if AB 5!!! A' B', AC 5!!! A'C', and LBAC 5!!! LB'A'C', the "SAS" criterion); the axiom about parallel lines: if L is a line and if P is a point not on L then, in the plane determined by Land P, there is precisely one line L' through P and not meeting L (Euclid's "fifth postulate"). the axiom of continuity and completeness (versions of the Archimedean ordering and completeness of R.).
Section 3.1. Euclidean Geometry
187
Among the topics of research interest are those dealing with logical independence and logical consistency of axioms and theorems. Hilbert treated these problems with great thoroughness. The interested reader is urged to consult [Hi2] for all the details. Even before Hilbert's work, many questions about the axioms of geometry, in particular the parallel axiom, were resolved by Riemann's example of spherical geometry. Example 3.1.1.1. Let SI be the surface of the unit ball in JR3:
S1
=
def { ( X,y,Z ) :
x 2 + y2 + Z2
=1} .
If "line" is taken to mean "great circle" then most of the axioms of plane Euclidean geometry are not satisfied and, e.g., if Land L' are two distinct lines then they must meet (twice!): there are no parallel lines. On the other hand, Lobachevski offered a model in which all axioms of plane geometry save the parallel axiom are satisfied but in which for a line L and point P not on L more than one line passes through P and does not meet L. In Example 3.1.1.2 there is a description of Poincare's alternative model with similar properties.
Example 3.1.1.2. Let II be the interior of the unit disc in JR2 :
In II let a "line" be either a diameter of II or the intersection of II and a circle orthogonal to the circumference of II. Then it is possible to define the terms of Hilbert's system so that his axioms in i, ii, iii, v are satisfied. However if a "line" L is not a diameter of II then through the center 0 of II there are infinitely many diameters, i.e., "lines", not meeting L. A more subtle question arose in the study of Desargue's theorem illustrated in Figure 3.1.1.1 and stated next. THEOREM 3.1.1.1. (DESARGUE) WHEN CORRESPONDING SIDES OF TWO TRIANGLES IN A PLANE ARE PARALLEL, THE LINES JOINING CORRESPONDING VERTICES ARE PARALLEL OR HAVE A POINT IN COMMON (ARE "COAXIAL") [Hi2].
Despite the fact that Desargue's theorem is about triangles in a plane and refers not at all to congruence, many proofs of it depend on constructions involving the use of points outside the plane of the triangles in question and other proofs depend on the "SAS" criterion for the congruence of triangles. Moulton [Mou] showed that the proof cannot be given unless resort is made either to the axiom asserting the existence of four points that are not coplanar, i.e., to the use of solid geometry, or to the congruence axiom for triangles.
188
Chapter 3. Geometry/Topology
Figure 3.1.1.1. Desargue's theorem. any I.
ii. iii.
iv.
Example 3.1.1.3. As in Figure 3.1.1.2 below, in R. 2 let "line" mean of the following: a horizontal line; a vertical line; a line with negative slope; the union of the sides Land U of an angle having its vertex on the horizontal axis, L lying in the lower halfplane, U lying in the upper halfplane, the slopes of Land U positive, and slope of L = 2. slope of U
Section 3.1. Euclidean Geometry
189
yaxis
Figure 3.1.1.2. Moulton's plane. In the resulting model of the "plane" all the axioms save the congruence axiom for triangles are satisfied. Nevertheless the two "Desarguesian" triangles in Figure 3.1.1.2 are such that the "lines" joining corresponding vertices are neither parallel nor coaxial.
Chapter 3. Geometry/Topology
190 3.1.2. Topology of the Euclidean plane
Example 3.1.2.1. In the square having vertices at (±I, ±I) in the plane let C 1 and C2 be defined as follows: C 1 def =
{
7 (I+t,I+st): tE[O,I] }
u{(t,~sin(~)+~): U { (1,
C2 def =
{
~ + ~t)
tE(O,I)}
: t E [0,1] }
7 : t E [0, 1]} ( 1 + t, 1  st)
u{(t,~sin(~)~): U { (1, 1 + ~t)
tE(O,I)}
t E [0,1] } .
yaxis
Figure 3.1.2.1. Then C 1 and C2 are disjoint connected sets, each of which is the union of two closed arcimages and one open arcimage. Furthermore {( 1, I)} U {(I, I)} C C 1 and {(I, I)} U {(I, I)} C C2 ,
Section 3.1. Euclidean Geometry
191
i.e., C 1 and C2 are two disjoint connected sets contained in a square and connecting diagonally opposed vertices, cf. Figure 3.1.2.1.
Exercise 3.1.2.1. Show that a simple arcimage or a simple open arcimage is nowhere dense in the plane. [Hint: The removal of a single point from a connected open subset of the plane does not disconnect the set.] Since an arcimage, which is a compact connected set, can be a square it is nevertheless true that there are compact connected sets that are not arcimages. Example 3.1.2.2. Let 8 be the union of the graph ofy = sin(~), 0 < x ~ 1 and the interval {O} x [1,1]. Then 8 is compact and connected. On the other hand, regarded as a space topologized by heredity from ]R2, 8 is not locally connected, e.g., the neighborhood N that is the intersection of 8 and the open disc centered at the origin and of radius contains no connected neighborhood. Since every arcimage is locally connected [Ne], 8 is a compact connected set that is not an arcimage.
!
Exercise 3.1.2.2. Show that: i. the simple arc 8 1 defined by the parametric equations
x =t Y=
{~sint
ift~O OO}l:J{(x,y) : xEJR,y=O}~f Al:JB. Let a set U be in the base for the topology 0 of X iff U is an open subset of A or U is of the form { (x, y) : {x  a)2 + {y  b)2 < b2, b> O} l:J{(a, On. Show that the (countable) set of all points with rational coordinates is dense in X but that B (= JR) inherits from X the discrete topology and thus contains no countable dense subset. Exercise 3.2.2.3. Show that the spaces X in Exercises 3.2.2.1, 3.2.2.2 are not separable,i.e., that neither contains a countable base for its topology. The topology of a space can be specified by the set of all convergent nets. On the other hand, the set of all convergent sequences can fail to determine the topology of a nonmetrizable space. Exercise 3.2.2.4. Assume #(X) > #(N). Let 0 consist of 0 and the complements of all sets 8 such that #(8) ~ #(N). Show that: i. the sequence {Xn}nEN converges iff Xn is ultimately constant, i.e., iff there is in X an x and there is in N an m such that Xn = x if n > mj
n. 0 is strictly weaker than the discrete topology D and, in D, a net N' converges iff it is ultimately constantj iii. if A is an uncountable proper subset of X and y E X \ A then y is a limit point of A and yet no subsequence of A converges to Yj iv. if A is a proper subset of X and y E X \ A there is a net {a~} ~EA contained in A and converging to y.
[Hint: For iv let A be the set of all neighborhoods of y and partially order A by inclusion: A > A' iff A cA'. For each A in A let a~ be a point in A n A.] If 1 ~ P < 00, for lP there are the norminduced topology N derived from the metric d{a, b) ~f lIa  blip and the weak or a (IP, (lP)*) topology W for which a typical neighborhood of 0 is
Chapter 3. Geometry/Topology
202
Exercise 3.2.2.5. Show that in lP every weak neighborhood of 0 contains a norminduced neighborhood of 0, but that every weak neighborhood of 0 is normunbounded. (Hence N is strictly stronger than W and every Nconvergent sequence is Wconvergent.) Exercise 3.2.2.6. Show that in 11 every weakly convergent sequence is normconvergent. (Hence, although W is strictly weaker than N the sets of convergent sequences for the two topologies are the same.) [Hint: Assume that for some positive D, all the terms of a sequence S converging weakly to 0 have norms not less than D. Let x(n) ~f (x~n), ... , x~), ... ) be the nth term of S. Then, d m denoting the sequence {Dmn}nEN (an element of 11*), it follows that for m in N, d m (x(n») = x~)  0 as n  00. Let nl be 1 and let ml be such that
E:=ml+lIX~dl < ~. There is an
~ml I (n 2 )1 LJm=1 xm
6 4 and in 1982 Freedman [Fr] showed it is valid if n = 4. At this writing, the resolution of the conjecture for n = 3 has not been announced. [ Remark 3.3.1: In [Fr] the existence, noted earlier, of nondiffeomorphic and yet homeomorphic images of ]R4, falls out as a byproduct of the general thrust of the work.]
4.
Probability Theory
4.1. Independence
The theory of probability deals with a probabilistic measure situation (X, S, P), i.e, a measure situation specialized by the assumptions a) XES and b) P(X) 1. Elements of S are events and measurable functions in R X are called random variables. If I is an integrable random variable then I(x) dP. its expected value or expectation is E(f) ~f According to Kolmogorov, the founder of the modern theory of probability, the distinguishing features of the subject are the notions of independence of events and independence of random variables [Ko!, K02].
=
Ix
A set E ~f {A~} ~EA of events A~ is said to be independent iff for every subset {An : Ai:f:. Aj if i :f:. j, 1 ~ n ~ N} of E,
A set F ~f {f~} ~EA of random variables is said to be independent iff for every finite subset {In : li:f:. /;' if i :f:. j, 1 ~ n ~ N} of F and every finite set {Bl, ... ,BN } of Borel subsets of R, {fl1(Bl), ... ,fNl(BN)} is independent. One says that the events belonging to a set E are themselves independent if E is; similarly one says that the random variables belonging to a set F are themselves independent if F is. 210
Section 4.1. Independence
211
Exercise 4.1.1.
z. Show that if E and F are independent events then
u. Show that if It, ... , In are independent random variables, if {Pi}f=l C N, and if If', is integrable, 1 :5 i :5 n, then
1IT
If' (x) dP =
X i=l
IT 1Ir
(4.1.1)
(x) dP.
i=l X
m. Show that if, in the definition of independent random variables, the set {/11(B1), ... , IN1(BN)} is independent whenever the Borel sets B i , 1 :5 i :5 N, are open intervals then the random variables are independent. For any event A, {0, X, A} is independent and for any random variable and any constant function c, {c, f} is independent. These are the trivial instances of independence. Note also that if is an independent set of events and if some events in are replaced by their complements to produce a new set then is also independent. A discussion motivating the definitions of independence of events and of random variables is given in [Halm]. A significant fraction of classical probability theory concerns itself with theorems about sets of independent random variables [Loe]. In the remainder of this Section there is an attempt to reveal the "reluctance" of sets of events resp. sets of random variables to be independent. (Salomon Bochner said that since (4.1.1) is "repugnant" to a set of functions, he was not surprised at the singularity and hence the importance of independence as a phenomenon. )
I
e,
e
e
e
Exercise 4.1.2. Let P in the measure situation (N, 2N, P) be the discrete measure:
P(n) ~f
{
1 E:'2 2 n !
2 n !
if n = 1 if n ~ 2.
Show: z. if 1 < m, n E N then there is in N no k such that k! = m! + n!j u. trivial instances aside, there are no independent sets of events in 2N j iii. trivial instances aside, there are no independent sets of random variables defined on N endowed with the aalgebra 2N and the measure
P.
212
Chapter 4. Probability Theory [Hint: If e is an independent set of events then any twoelement subset of e is independent.]
Example 4.1.1. If
} X def = {b a, ,c, d,
Sdef =
2X , P (a) = ... = P (d) =
4"1
then any two of the events in e ~ {{a, b}, { a, c}, {b, c}} are independent but e is not independent. Furthermore if P(a) = 0.1, P(b) = 0.2, P(c) = 0.3, P(d) = 0.4 then two events are independent iff one of them is X or 0: only trivial instances of independence are at hand. Events as such are not independent. The independence of events is completely determined only with respect to the probability measure P. A large class of probabilistic measure situations consists of those that are measuretheoretically equivalent to S ~f ([0, I], C,.\)
[HalmJ. Hence, counterexamples for S have a large range of relevance. In the following discussion it is assumed that the probabilistic measure situation is S. Two Borel sets At and A2 are regarded as equal if their symmetric difference
is a null set. Two random variables I and g are regarded as equal if I g = 0 a.e. This kind of "equality" is equality modulo null sets. For a set S of random variables let Ind(S) denote the set of random variables I such that S U {f} is independent. In particular let Const denote the set of constant functions. Hence for any set S of random variables, Const C Ind(S). Exercise 4.1.3. Show that if {Ii; h~i~N. t~;9; is an independent set ofrandom variables, if fIJi is a Borel measurable function in Rile;, 1 ~ i ~ N, then
is independent. [Hint: Use the result in Exercise 4.1.1iii. 211.] Example 4.1.2. Let I and g be the functions for which the graphs are given in Figure 4.1.1 (f = g on (oo,d]).
Section 4.1. Independence
213
y·axis 0 O. Since i :f: j => Bi n B j = 0 it follows that if B ~f {x : x E 'Ii, IIxll :5 1 } then B:::>
U
Bn and IL
nEN
(U
Bn)
= 00.
nEN
Hence the unit ball centered at 0 has infinite measure and, by a similar argument, every ball of positive radius and centered anywhere, has infinite measure and so, for every Borel set A, IL(A} = 0 or IL(A} = 00, i.e., IL is trivial. 4.3. Transition Matrices
A transition matrix P ~f
(Pij }~j~l
is characterized by the conditions
n
LPij
= 1,
1:5 i :5 n
j=l
Pij ~
0, 1:5 i, j :5 n.
The number Pij is interpreted as the probability that a system in "state" i will change into "state" j. For many transition matrices P it can be shown that · pn ~f P.00 11m n ..... oo
exists. For example, if for some k in N, all entries in pk are positive, then Poo exists [Ge9]. The matrix
is a transition matrix whereas
~) ~)
if k is odd if k is even,
whence Aoo does not exist. A clue to this behavior is found in an examination of the eigenvalues, ±1 of A. The Jordan normal form of A is
Chapter 4. Probability Theory
222
which immediately reveals why Aoo does not exist. For any transition matrix P, the vector (1,1, ... , l)t is an eigenvector corresponding to the eigenvalue 1, and for every eigenvalue ~, I~I $ 1. THEOREM 4.3.1. IF P ~f (Pij):'~;'!.l IS A TRANSITION MATRIX AND IF
* * = 1 OR * = 0,
1$ m $ M
ARE THE Jordan blocks OF P THEN Poo EXISTS IFF:
i. I~ml < 1 WHENEVER * = 1; ii. ~m = 1 WHENEVER I~m I = 1.
PROOF. If I~ml
= 1 then limk ..... oo ~~ exists iff ~m = 1, cf.
[Ge9].
D Exercise 4.3.1. Regard each n x n transition matrix P as a vector in 3 an . Show that the set l' of n x n transition matrices is the intersection of the nonnegative orthant a(n 3.+) and n hyperplanes. Exercise 4.3.2. View l' as a "flat" part of n 2  ndimensional Euclidean space and thus as endowed with the inherited Euclidean topology and Lebesgue measure ~n2n ~f J.I. • Let 1'00 be the subset consisting of transition matrices P for which P00 exists. Show that
and that 1'\ 1'00 is a dense open subset of 1', cf. COROLLARY 1.3.1.1. 26.
5.
Foundations
5.1. Logic
From early times human language has been a source of counterexamples to the belief that normal discourse is consistent. The sentence, "This statement is false," can be neither true nor false. The phrase "not selfdescriptive" is neither selfdescriptive nor not selfdescriptive. Can an omnipotent being overpower itself? In [BarE] there is an extensive discussion of those aspects of language that deal with grammatically accurate but logically daunting statements. Mathematical versions of such paradoxes, antinomies, explicitly or implicitly selfreferential words and sentences, etc., eventually led to the search for a formal system of logic in which the perils of inconsistency are absent or at least so remote that humankind need have no fear of their obtrusion into scientific discourse. The next few paragraphs, summarizing the presentation in [Me], deal with the fundamental concepts of a formal system of logic F.
[ Note 5.1.1: However rigorous, however formal, however restrictive the formal systems themselves, the proving of theorems about these same systems inescapably leads to reliance upon the use of human language whence the problems first emerged. Thus, it appears, that in the drive to achieve consistency and to avoid paradox, the logicians resort to harshly restricted modes of reasoning that are no more formal than the modes that lead to the 223
224
Chapter 5. Foundations paradoxes, the antinomies, the selfreferential sentences, etc. The hope that success will crown the effort rests on the "finitism" of the approach. The next paragraph, introducing the formalization of logic, adverts almost immediately to a "countable set" without defining a countable set. Presumably a countable set is a set (not defined) that can be put in bijective correspondence (not defined) with N (also not defiried). Later developments of formal logic and set theory lead to an axiomatic formalization of N and its consequent structures, Z, Q, JR, C, lBl, et a1. Is there no circularity in the procedure? For a profound discussion of these matters the reader is urged to consult [HiB].]
There is a countable set S of symbols, finite sequences of which are expressions. Some of the symbols are logical connectives such as V ("or"), 1\ ("and"), + ("implies"), and..., ("negation"). Others are quantifiers V ("for all"), 3 ("there exists"), function letters f, g, ... , predicate letters P, Q, . .. , variables x, y, ... , and constants a, b, . ... A predicate P or a function f always appears in association with a nonempty set consisting of finitely many predicates, constants and variables ("arguments"), e.g., P(a), f(x,y,P). A quantifier always appears in association with variables and predicates, e.g., V(x)P(P,Q,x,y,a,b,c). A large part of formal logic, in particular the part discussed below, is devoted to the study of firstorder theories in which the arguments of predicates may not be predicates or functions and in which the argument of a quantifier must be a variable. Thus in firstorder theories forms such as 3(P)(P + Q) are not included. Within the set of expressions there is a subset WF consisting of wellformed formulae (wfs) and a subsubset A consisting of those wfs that are the axioms. There is a finite set R of rules of inference that permit the chaining together of axioms to lead to consequences and the chaining together of axioms and/or consequences to produce proofs. The last link in a proofchain is a theorem, (which might be an axiom). The objects above constitute a framework in terms of which specific mathematical entities, e.g., groups, N, etc., can be discussed by adding to the logical symbols and axioms other symbols and axioms. For groups the symbols and axioms in Subsection 1.1.1 are the added objects. For formal number theory, i.e., for the treatment of Z, the symbols and axioms added are some carefully tailored version of those given originally by Dedekind but known more popularly as Peano's axioms. Closely associated with a formal system :F are interpretations and models for it. An interpretation is a "concrete" nonempty set D and assignments: i. of each nvariable predicate to a relation in D, i.e., to a subset of Dnj
Section 5.1. Logic
225
zz. of each nvariable function to a function D n iii. of each constant to a fixed element of D.
1+
Dj
The symbols ..." , 'V, and 3 are given their "usual" meanings. There are systematic definitions (due to Tarski) of the notions of satisfiability and truth of wfs. Informally, a wf A is satisfiable lor some interpretation I, if A obtains for some substitution in A. For example, in group theory, if the interpretation 1 is the set of nonzero real numbers regarded as an abelian group with respect to multiplication, then the wf A ~f {x 2 = I} is satisfiable iff one substitutes for x the number 1 or the number 1. On the other hand, the same wf A (written additively {2x = I}) is not satisfiable in Z regarded as the abelian additive group of integers. A wf is satisfiable iff it is satisfiable in some interpretation. Again informally, a wf A is true in an interpretation 1 if A obtains for every substitution. For example the wf A ~f x + x = e obtains in Z2 for all (both) substitutions x 1+ 0 and x 1+ 1. A wf A is logically valid iff A is true in every interpretation. There are natural (informal) definitions of contradictory wfs, of the phrase A implies B, and of the phrase A is equivalent to B. An interpretation 1 is a model M(I) for a set of wfs iff each wf is true for I. In the language and context of the outline above, Godel, who was soon to become the preeminent logician among his contemporaries, proved the formal equivalence of the notions of theorem and logical validity.
A
GODEL'S COMPLETENESS THEOREM. IN A FORMAL SYSTEM IS A THEOREM IFF A IS LOGICALLY VALID [Gol].
:F A
WF
In [Gol] Godel proved a more striking result: GODEL'S COUNTABILITY THEOREM.
EVERY CONSISTENT FIRSTOR
DER SYSTEM HAS A COUNTABLE MODEL.
A consequence of Godel's count ability theorem is a result proved earlier by Lowenheim [Low] and Skolem [Sk]. LOWENHEIMSKOLEM THEOREM. IF A FIRSTORDER THEORY HAS A MODEL IT HAS A COUNTABLE MODEL.
[ Note 5.1.2: Do the GodelLowenheimSkolem results imply that, despite what every mathematician knows, IR is countable? A simple answer is "No!" The reason lies in the subtlety of the notion of model. In the countable model of the formal system for analysis the "uncountability" of IR is the assertion that for the D of the interpretation there is no map I : D 1+ D such that in the model I (N) = JR.] The mechanism above having been established, its founders planned to produce a formal system :F adequate to deal at least with number theory, i.e., to cope with theorems about Z. In this system each wf A or its negation
226
Chapter 5. Foundations
...,A was to be a theorem and not both A and ...,A were to be theorems (the latter desideratum was for consistency). Godel and Rosser [Go2, Ross] proved that any consistent formal logical system :F that deals with N contains undecidable wfs. No formal proof exists for each nor for its negation: :F is incomplete. One among those undecidable wfs, has a striking selfreferential interpretation: "The system :F is consistent." [ Note 5.1.3: Since the wf A interpreted above is undecidable it may be adjoined to :F to form a new system :F which is as consistent as:F. But then there is in :F an undecidable wf A' interpretable, like A, as asserting that :F is consistent. In:F the wf A is an axiom, hence is a theorem, and thus is decidable.] One view of Godel's incompleteness theorem is the following. If one can consistently axiomatize logic so that there are mechanical rules whereby one passes, stepbystep, from axioms to theorems then one can imagine a machine that systematically lists all proofs, e.g., proofs involving one step, proofs involving two steps, etc. In theory the machine creates a count ably infinite list of all theorems, each preceded by its proof. Then if a wf Tis given, the list can be consulted to determine whether 7 or ...,7 appears in the list of theorems. To determine whether Tor ...,Tis in the list, the machine is programmed in some way, e.g., to compare 7 and then ...,7 with each listed theorem. The original hope of the axioma.tizers was that there is a program that, given a wf T, checks 7 and then ...,7 against each of the listed theorems and, in finitely many steps, finds either Tor ...,To There arises the question of whether the machine, however programmed to carry out the task, will, for a given wf, ever stop. Godel's result says in effect that if the axiomatized system :F is consistent and deals with theorems about N then there is a wf for which the machine will never stop. Neither the wf nor its negation will appear on the list of derivable theorems. There is a wf 8 and its negation ...,8. For any N in N, the machine, having compared both 8 and ...,8 with each of the first N theorems in the list, will have encountered neither 8 nor ...,8. Hence at no stage of the process will there be a decision that 8 is a theorem or that ...,8 is a theorem: 8 is an undecidable formula: :F is incomplete. There are various ways for coding or numbering wfs, proofs, theorems, etc. There are various ways for coding or numbering programs for machines. Each such coding method assigns to each wf, proof, theorem, or program a natural number. Such a coding can be prepared so that each natural number is the code for some wf and each natural number is also the code for some program. Godel's conclusion, says that there is a wf, say numbered n, such that for any checking program, say numbered m, the machine, using program m to check wf n (and the negation of wf n) against the list of theorems, will
Section 5.1. Logic
227
never halt. The flavor of his argument can be conveyed in the following way by considering an analogous problem in computer operation. Every computer program is ultimately a finite sequence of zeros and ones. Similarly, every dataset is also a finite sequence of zeros and ones. Since there are count ably infinitely many programs and countably infinitely many datasets, the programs may be numbered 1,2, ... , and the datasets may be numbered 1,2, .... Some programs applied to some datasets stop after performing finitely many steps, others never stop. For example, the simplex method applied to some PLPP cycles endlessly. It is conceivable that, for a given pair (m, n) representing a program numbered m and a dataset numbered n, one can determine, say via some TESTPROGRAM whether program m, applied to dataset n, halts or fails to halt. In other words: Confronted with any pair (m, n), TESTPROGRAM processes the pair and reports EITHER that program m applied to dataset n stops after finitely many steps OR that program m applied to dataset n never stops. The next discussion shows that no such TESTPROGRAM exists. If TESTPROGRAM exists one may assume that TESTPROGRAM calculates the value of a function! : N x N 3 (m, n) 1+ !(m, n) such that:
= 0 if program numbered m applied to dataset numbered n stops; ii. !(m, n) = 1 if program numbered m applied to dataset numbered n never stops. i. !(m, n)
In the list of all programs there is one, STOPGO, numbered, say ms, and operating as follows.
iii. Given the number n, first STOPGO calculates !(ms, n). iv. If !(ms, n) = 1, then STOPGO prints the number 2 and stops. v. If !(ms, n) = 0 STOPGO engages in the task of printing the sequence of markers in the binary representation of 1f'. Thus if TESTPROGRAM reports that STOPGO (program ms) applied to dataset n never stops, i.e., if !(ms, n) = 1, then STOP GO applied to dataset n stops. If TESTPROGRAM reports that STOPGO (program ms again) applied to dataset n stops, i.e., if !(ms, n) = 0, then STOPGO never stops. It follows that there is no program like TESTPROGRAM that can accurately decide about all pairs (m, n) whether program m applied to dataset n stops. The conclusion reached is interpreted as follows: There is no algorithmic, systematic technique, defined a priori, that can be used to determine for each wf T whether T or ~T is derivable as a theorem.
Chapter 5. Foundations
228
The technicalities of rigorously formalizing the discussion above are lengthy but straightforward. Excellent sources for the details are [Me, Rog]. There is an illuminating discussion of these matters in [Jo]. Godel's work gave rise to the study of recursion, the definition of such terms as algorithm, effectively computable, Turing machine, ... , and a host of related topics and concepts. Theorems of varying degrees of strength and impressiveness emerged. It is the opinion of many that the result about the nonexistence of a TESTPROGRAM typifies the field. It is viewed as the unsolvability of the halting problem. The work of Church, Godel, Herbrand, Kleene, Post, and Turing all drove to the same conclusion that consistent formal logical systems rich enough to deal with N are perforce incomplete in that they contain meaningful and yet undecidable wfs. Following their work many others showed the undecidability of many "natural" wfs in mathematics, e.g., the wf corresponding to the word problem in finitely presented groups (cf. Note 1.1.5.2. 11). In [Bar, BarE, Chait, Chai2, Davit, Davi2, Kin, Lam, Me, Ross, T, TaMR, Tor] there is more information on the topics discussed above. It should be noted that once undecidability surfaced, all sorts of questions were attacked. An example is Hilbert's tenth problem. A Zpolynomial P is, for some n in N and a set .}.11, ... ,ln_ . <M { a'11,···,1"
consisting of ntuples of integers, the map
P : Zn 3 (Xl, ... ,Xn )
t+
L
ailloo.,inxll ... x~n E Z.
i1, ... ,i n
Let 1) be the set of all Zpolynomials. Is there an algorithm such that for each P in 1) the algorithm determines in finitely many steps (the number of steps depending on the polynomial P) whether the Diophantine equation
· so1u t IOn s def = ( 81, ..• , 8 n ).In fU'1In?• Matijasevic [Mati, Mat 2] in 1970 and 1971 showed that no such algorithm exists. Of somewhat independent interest was a fortuitous discovery by von Neumann. In the course of writing [N3] on operator theory, he could have used a rather general proposition about the measurability of images of analytic sets [Kur]. He showed that the particular image of the analytic set
has
a
Section 5.2. Set Theory
229
under consideration was measurable but he noted that the general proposition regarding the measurability of all such sets is undecidable. One may speculate that, e.g., Fermat's theorem T is undecidable in the axiomatic framework for N. If that is the case, then for all practical purposes, Tis true, since any counterexample to the statement of Twould constitute a proof of the ...,T and thereby demonstrate that T is decidable. If Tis undecidable never will there be found nonzero integers x, y, z and a natural number n greater than 2 such that xn + yn = zn. [Note 5.1.4: As recently as 1989, a new and apparently shorter proof of Godel's undecidability theorem was offered by Boolos [Bo]. After examining that proof, Professor Richard Vesley at the State University of New York at Buffalo made the following observations [V]:
z. Call an algorithm correct if it never lists a false theorem. A truth omitted by an algorithm is a true wf not listed by the algorithm. n. Boolos's argument shows that if M is a correct algorithm then there is a truth omitted by M. iii. Godel's original work produced an algorithm Ml that, applied to any correct algorithm M of a restricted class of algorithms, yields a truth omitted by M. Subsequently there was produced an algorithm M2 that, applied to any correct algorithm M yields a truth omitted by M. The thrust of Vesley's comments is that Boolos's proof is existential and nonconstructive. On the other hand, Godel's proof is constructive in the sense that it describes the algorithm Ml that can be applied to any correct algorithm M and thereby exhibit a truth omitted by M. (What would Ml applied to Ml yield?)]
5.2. Set Theory
Closely related to the problem of formalizing logic is the problem of axiomatizing set theory. Current thinking has settled On the ZermeloFraenkel (ZF) formulation of the basic axioms for a theory of sets [Me]. These axioms, related to a more general system NEG proposed by VOn Neumann and modified in stages by Bernays and Godel, involve objects called classes and only one predicate, symbolized by E, intended to suggest "membership." Among the classes there are sets distinguished as follows: a class X is a set iff there is a class Y such that X E Y. Customarily, sets are denoted by lower case letters, classes by capital letters. Every set is a class but not every class is necessarily a set. In terms of E there are defined relations C (inclusion), ~ (proper inclusion), and = (equality) among sets. The axioms provide for an empty set
0, for subsets
Chapter 5. Foundations
230
y of set x, for the power class 2x of any class X, for the Cartesian product X x Y of two classes X and Y, etc. Ordinal numbers are defined without reference to the Axiom of Choice or any of its logical equivalents, the Axiom of Zermelo, i.e., the Wellordering Principle, etc. [Note 5.2.1: The G8delL8wenheimSkolem theorem as it bears on the uncountability of R may be viewed as follows. To say that R is uncountable is to say that there is no surjection 1 : N t+ R. A surjection, like any map, may be regarded as the graph of the map in D x D. To say that 1 does not exist is to say that the graph of 1 does not exist, i.e., that there is in D x D no set, as distinguished from a class, that can serve as the graph of the surjection in question. In the countable model for analysis, the countable set R is not the surjective image of N, hence in the countable model for analysis, the countable set representing R is not countable in the language of the model.] Once these axioms are accepted, extensions are considered, so that, e.g., the Axiom 01 Choice C, the Continuum Hypothesis CH, the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis GCH may be added to the axioms of ZF. The corresponding axiom systems are ZFC, ZFCCH, ZFCGCH, etc. In 1940 G8del [Go3] showed that if ZF is consistent then the three extensions cited are also consistent. Finally, in 1963 Cohen [Cohl, Coh2, Coh3] showed that C, CH, and GCH are independent of ZF, in other words, C, CH, and GCH are undecidable propositions in ZF, i.e., ZF with anyone or more of C, CH, and GCH adjoined is just as consistent as ZF with anyone or more of .C, .CH, and .GCH adjoined. Cohen invented a new technique, lorcing, whereby, starting with a consistent model of ZF, he replaced the model (via forcing) by larger consistent models in which various consistent combinations of C, .C, CH, .CH, GCH, and .GCH obtain. Excellent references for this topic are [Bar, Coh3, Je]. Following upon Cohen's accomplishment, Solovay [Sol] showed that ZF may be extended in another consistent way by adding the following axiom: AXIOM OF SOLOVAY. EVERY FUNCTION 1 : Rn t+ R IS LEBESGUE MEASURABLE.
Since the Axiom of Choice implies the negation of the Axiom of Solovay it follows that, although both ZFC and ZFS are consistent, they are mutually incompatible axiom systems. If ZFS replaces ZFC as a basis for set theory there arises the following situation. Let the topology of a topological vector space V be defined by a separating and filtering set P ~f {P~hEA of seminorms, i.e., V is a separated locally convex vector space, LCV. Define such a topological vector space V
Section 5.2. Set Theory
231
as good if every seminorm 7r defined on V is continuous in the sense that there is a constant C ff such that for each p)"
x E V:::::} 7r{x)
~ CffPA{X).
Most of the familiar locally convex (topological) vector spaces are good. Garnir showed that if ZFS is used instead of ZFC then every linear map T : V 1+ W of a good space V into a locally convex vector space W is continuous [Gar].
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SYMBOL LIST
The notation a.b.c. d indicates Chapter a, Section b, Subsection c, page dj similarly a.b. c indicates Chapter a, Section b, page c.
A 5.1. 224: the set of axioms of a formal logical system. AO 2.1.1. 45: the interior of the set A. AE 2.3.4. 170: the set of algebraic complex numbers in the set E. An 1.1.4. 8: the alternating group, i.e., the set of even permutations, on {I, ... ,n}. {A} 1.2.2.21: for an algebra A the associated algebra in which multiplication: A x A 3 (a, b) ........ ab is replaced by a new multiplication: A x A 3 (a,b) ........ aob~f abba. (aij)W~1 1.3.1. 25 AA1 1.1.4. 5: for a set A in a group G, the set
{ab 1
:
a, bE A}.
See also X 0 Y. AC 2.1.2. 55, 2.1.2. 65: the set of Absolutely Continuous functions. a.e. 1.1.4. 7: almost everywhere. {A : P} 1.1.4. 6: the set of all A for which P obtains. A(S) 2.2.1. 118: the (surface) area of the set Sin JR3. B** 2.3.2. 164 B1 2.2.3. 144: the unit ball in JRn • BAP 2.3.1. 158: Bounded Approximation Property. BES 2.2.1. 118: the BESicovitch sphere. BV 2.1.2. 54: the set of functions of Bounded Variation. B(x) 2.2.2. 142 B(Y) 2.2.2. 142 B 2.2.1. 120: a homeomorphic image in JR3 of B1. the unit ball in JR3 j 2.3.1. 159: a (Schauder) basis for a Banach spacej 2.3.3. 168: the category of Banach spaces and continuous homomorphisms. B 2.3.2. 162: a biorthogonal set. Co 2.3.1. 159 c 2.3.2. 163 C 5.2.229 C 1.1.5. 18 (C,a) 2.1.3. 76 CON 2.3.1. 156: Complete OrthoNormal Set. 249
250
Symbol List
Const 4.1. 212: the set of constant functions. Cont(f) 2.1.1. 42 Conv 2.3.3. 168 Coo 2.1.1. 51, 2.1.2. 63 C (T, JR) 2.3.3. 165 C~k) (JR, C) 2.4.1. 172 C ([0,1], JR) 2.1.1.0 51 Co 1.1.4. 7: the Cantor set. Co (X, JR) 2.3.2. 163 C a 2.2.1. 115 Cp (JR, JR) 2.3.3. 165 Co 2.1.2. 55 3.2.2. 200: the discrete topology. V 1.3.1. 26: the set of diagonable matrices. ~f 1.1.2. 3: "(is) defined to be." deg(P) 2.1.3. 94: the degree of polynomial P. det 1.3.1. 26, 2.5.1. 177: determinant. diam(E): the diameter of the set E in a metric space (X, d). Diff(f) 2.1.1. 42 Discont(f) 2.1.1. 42, 2.1.1. 49, 2.1.2. 64 D(a,r) 2.6.1. 180 D(a, r)O 2.6.1. 180: {z : z E C, Iz  al < r}. V M 2.2.1. 112 F 2.3.1. 157: the Franklin system of orthogonal functions in C ([0, 1], C)j 5.1. 223: a formal system of logic. F 2.2.1. 105: the set of all closed subsets of a topological space. 2.4.2. 176: the nfold convolution of the function 1 with itself. I(x) 2.2.2. 140 I(Y) 2.2.2. 140 FN 2.1.3. 74: Fejer's kernel. Fu 2.1.1. 43: the union of a countable set of closed sets. 9 1.1.4. 8: the category of groups. GCD 1.2.3. 23: Greatest Common Divisor. G/j 2.1.1. 43: the intersection of a countable set of open sets. G : H 1.1.2. 3: the index of the subgroup H in the group G. JH[ 1.1.5. 13: the set of quaternions. HEMIBES 2.2.1. 120: the BESicovitch HEMIsphere. H(O) 2.6.1. 180: the set of functions holomorphic in the region 0 (c C). Hom(A, B) 2.4.1. 172: the set of Homomorphisms: h: A ........ B. I 1.3.2. 36: [1il inv id 2.1.1. 52, 2.2.2. 143: the identity map. I 2.1.3. 68: the set of Irrational (complex) numbers. IE 2.3.4. 170: the set of Irrational numbers in the subset E of C. iff 1.1.2. 3: if and only if.
o
r·
Symbol List
251
im 1.1.3. 4 Ind( S) 4.1. 212: for a set S of random variables, the set of random variables f such that S U f is independent. K 1.1.4. 5, 2.2.1. 105: the set of compact subsets of a topological space. lK 1.2.2. 22: the generic notation for a field (German lKorper). lK[x] 1.3.2. 31: for a field lK (or, more generally, a ring R) and an "indeterminate" x, the set of all polynomials of the form n
L
amx m , n E N, am ElK (or am E R).
m=O
Example 1. Clz] is the vector space of all polynomials in the (complex) variable z and with complex coefficients. Example 2. Z[x] is the ring consisting of all polynomials in the indeterminate x and with coefficients in Z. ker1.1.3. 4 C 1.2.2. 21: Lie algebra; 2.2.1. 104: the set of all Lebesgue measurable subsets of lRn. CeQ 1.1.4. 9: the category of locally compact (topological) groups. LeV 5.2. 229: locally convex vector space. Lip a 2.5.2. 178: generalized Lipschitz condition: for positive a, f is in Lip a at a iff for some positive K (the Lipschitz constant) and some positive 6, Ix  al < 6 => If(x)  f(a)1 :5 Klx  ala. lP 2.3.1. 159 L1(G) 2.4.2. 175 LP (X, C), 1:5 p 2.3.4. 169 Li (0, II) 4.2.1. 220: the set of lRvalued random variables defined on 0 and square integrable with respect to II. ib) 2.2.1. 114, 2.2.1. 123: of the arc 'Y : [0,1] 3 t 1+ lRn , its length n
L
sup
II'Y (ti) 
'Y (tidll, mEN.
o=to of all finite subsets t/J of N the set {S",(A) : t/J E 4> }. 6).,1' 1.3.2. 33: Kronecker's "delta function," i.e.,
= {I
6)., I'
0
if A = I' otherwise.
An 2.2.1. 104: Lebesgue measure in IRn. A*, A* 2.2.1. 107: Lebesgue inner resp. Lebesgue outer measure in IRn. p., p. 2.2.2. 138 uT(A) (~f limm+ oo Um,T(A)) 2.1.3. 75
um,T(A) (~f E~=l t mn 8 n(A)) 2.1.3. 75 u(T) 1.3.2. 31: the spectrum of the morphism T. v « I' 2.2.2. 137: the measure v is absolutely continuous with respect to the measure 1', i.e., I'(A) = 0 => v(A) = o. n 2.1.3. 69: the set of all permutations of N. t/J 2.1.3. 69: a finite subset of N. 4> 2.1.3. 69: the set of all finite subsets of N. XA 1.1.4. 5: the characteristic function of the set A: XA(X)
= {I o
E
if x A otherwise.
w (I, xo, f) 2.3.1. 161: the fmodulus of continuity of f at Xo. w (I, f) 2.3.1. 161: the funiform modulus of continuity of f. #(S) 1.1.2. 2: the cardinality of the set S. 8A 2.2.1. 121, 2.6.1. 180: the boundary of the set A in a topological space. => 1.1.1. 1: "implies." ....... 1.1.1. 1: "maps to." {:} 1.1.2. 4: "if and only if' ("iff"). E 1.1.2. 4: "is a member of." C 1.1.3. 4: "is contained in" ("is a subset of'). 1.1.2. 4: the empty set. ~ 1.1.4.6: "approaches," "converges (to);" 1.1.5.17: "maps to" (in (commutative) diagrams); 5.1. 223: "implies" (in formal logic). :J 1.1.4. 8: "contains."
o
Symbol List
256 ~
¥
1.1.5. 10: in group theory, "is isomorphic to," 2.2.3. 145, 3.1.1. 186: in Euclidean space, "is congruent to," 3.3.209: in topology, "is homotopic to." 1.1.5. 10: "is a proper subset of."
! 1.1.5. 17:
"maps to" (in (commutative) diagrams); 2.1.1. 49: "approaches from above," "decreases monotonely (to)." i 2.1.1. 49: "approaches from below," "increases monotonely (to)." S 1.1.5. 18: in topological contexts, the (topological) closure of the set S. o 1.2.2. 21: (binary operation); 2.1.1.42: (composition of functions). Al:JB 1.2.3. 22: the union of the two disjoint sets A and B. 11···11 1.3.1. 26: the norm of the vector···; 2.4.1. 172: the norm of the linear map···. 11/1100 2.1.2.64: for a measure situation (X, S, It) and a measurable function 1 in eX, inf{M: It({x: I/(x)I~M})=O} (~oo).
II/lIp
2.3.1. 159: for a measure situation (X, S, It), p in lR \ {O}, and a measurable function 1 in eX, l.
(Ix I/(x)IP dlt)"
(~oo).
> 1.3.3. 37: partial order (strictly greater than). t 1.3.3. 37, 2.3.4. 169: partial order (greater than or equal to). ~ 2.1.2. 53: "converges uniformly (to)." ~. 2.1.3. 86, 2.2.2. 134: "converges almost everywhere (to)."
V 2.2.1. 122 d~ 2.2.2. 135: "converges dominatedly (to)." m~as 2.2.2. 134: "converges in measure (to)." IIjP 2.2.2. 134: "converges in pnorm (to)." 2.3.4. 169: supremum (of a pair); 5.1. 223: logical "or." A 2.3.4. 169: infimum (of a pair); 5.1. 223: logical "and." , 5.1. 223: logical "not." V 5.1. 223: logical "for all." 3 5.1. 223: logical "there exist(s)." l:J 1.1.2. 4, 2.1.2. 63, 2.2.1. 149: used instead of Uto signify the union of a set of pairwise disjoint sets. V
GLOSSARY /INDEX
The notation a.b.c. d indicates Chapter a, Section b, Subsection c, page d; similarly a.b. c indicates Chapter a, Section b, page c.
Abel, N. H. 2.1.3. 76 Abel summable 2.1.3. 76 Abel summation 2.1.3. 76 abelian 1.1.4. 8: of a group G, that the group operation is commutative. abelianization 1.1.5. 15: for a group G and its commutator subgroup Q(G), the (abelian) quotient group G/Q(G). absolutely continuous 2.1.2. 55, 2.1.2. 65, 2.1.3. 87: of a function f in CIR , that!, exists a.e. on [a, b) and that for x in [a, b),
f(x)
= f(a) +
1 x
f'(t) dt
cf. Exercise 2.1.2.15. 65; 2.2.2. 137: of a measure v with respect to a measure p., that every null set (p.) is also a null set (v).  convergent 2.1.3. 69: of a series E~=l an, that E~=llanl < 00. ADIAN, S. I. 1.1.5. 11
adjacent 1.1.5. 10: in the context of free groups, of two words Wi and W2, that there is an x such that for some words u and v, Wi = UXEXEV and W2 = uv. adjoint 1.3.1. 25: of a matrix (aij)7,'j~l' the matrix (bij)~j':::i in which bij = aji; 1.3.2 34: of a linear transformation T : V ....... W between vector spaces, the linear transformation T* : W* ....... V* between their duals and satisfying w* (Tv) = T*w*(v). ALEXANDER, J. W. 3.2.2. 206 Alexander's horned sphere 3.2.2. 206 algebra 1.2.2. 21, 2.3.4. 169, 2.4.1. 172: a ring R that is a vector space over a field K and such that if a E K and x, y E R then
a(xy) = (ax)y = x(ay). algorithm 5.1. 227: a (computer) program for mapping Z into itself. (The preceding definition is a colloquial version of Church's thesis.) almost every section, point, etc. 2.2.1. 110: every section outside a set of sections indexed by a null set, every point outside a null set, etc. almost everywhere (a.e.): in the context of a measure situation, "except on a set of measure zero (a null set)." 257
Glossary/Index
258
alternating group 1.1.4. 8, 1.1.6. 19: the group An of even permutations of the set {I, 2, ... ,n}.  series theorem 2.1.3.79: If an E JR, an = (I)nla n l, and lanl ! 0 then E:'=l an converges. alternative (division) algebra 1.2.2. 22: an algebra in which multiplication is neither necessarily commutative nor necessarily associative. analytic continuation 2.6.2. 180: for a region n* properly containing a region n in which a function I (in Cc ) is analytic, the process of defining,a function analytic in n* and equal to I in n.  function 1.3.1. 26, 2.1.1. 51: a function I in CC and such that f' exists (in some region n).  set 5.1. 228: the continuous image of a Borel set. antiderivative of order k 2.1.2. 62: for a function I, a function F such that
r
F(k)
= I.
L. 3.2.2. 207 Antoine's necklace 3.2.2. 207 ApPEL, K. 3.1.2. 197 arc 2.2.1. 113: a continuous map of'Y : [0,1]1+ X of [0, I] into a topological space X. ARCHIMEDES 1.2.3. 23 Archimedean 1.2.3. 23: of an ordered field K that if p, q E K and 0 < p < q then, for some n in N, q < np. arcimage 2.2.1. 113: the range of an arc. arc wise connected 1.3.2. 37: of a set S in a topological space X, that any two points of S are the endpoints of an arc in S. area 2.1.2. 58: of a subset S of JR2, the value of the Riemann (or, more generally, the Lebesgue) integral ANTOINE,
/ L2 Xs(x, y) dA2(X, y) (if it exists). The "problem of 'surface' area" for (images of) maps from JRm to JR n , especially when m < n, is difficult. One of the difficulties, when 2 = m < n = 3, is discernible from a reading of the discussion of Example 2.2.1.11. 118, Remark 2.2.1.4. 121, Note 2.2.1.4. 121, and Exercise 2.2.1.12. 123. For extensive discussions of the topic cf. [01, 02, Smi]. ARTIN, E. 3.2.2. 206 ARZELA, C. 2.3.1 162 ASCOLI, G. 2.3.1. 162 AscoliArzela theorem 2.3.1. 162: A uniformly bounded set of equicontinuous JRvalued functions defined on a compact metric space contains a uniformly convergent subsequence. associativity 1.1.1. 1: of a binary operation, that always a(bc) = (ab)c. auteomorphism 3.1.2. 196: a homeomorphism of a topological space onto itself.
Glossary jIndex
259
autojection 2.2.1. 114: a bijection of a set onto itself. automorphism 1.2.2. 22: a bijective endomorphism (whence an "autojective" endomorphism). average 2.1.3. 74: of a finite set {8l,' .. ,8n } of numbers, the number 81
+ ... + 8 n n
axiom 1.1.1. 1, 5.1. 224 Axiom of Choice 1.1.4. 6, 2.3.3. 167, 5.2. 229: If {A~hEA is a set of sets, there is a set A consisting of precisely one element from each A~.   Solovay 5.2. 229
Baire, R. 2.1.1. 43 Baire's (category) theorem 2.1.1. 43: The intersection of a countable set of dense open subsets of a complete metric space is a dense G6. ball: see closed ball, open ball. BANACH, S. 1.3.2. 37, 2.1.1. 51, 2.2.3. 145, 2.3.1. 156, 2.4.1. 172 Banach algebra 1.3.2. 37, 2.4.1. 172: an algebra A (over lR or q that is a Banach space and such that for any scalar a and any vectors x and y the relations lIaxYIl = lallixyll ~ lalllxllilyll obtain.  space 1.3.2. 31, 2.1.1. 51, 2.3.1. 156: a complete normed vector space over lR or C.  Tarski paradox 2.2.3. 145 base 2.2.1. 112: for the topology of a space, a set S of open sets such that each open set of the topology is a union of sets in S. basic neighborhood (in a Cartesian product) 2.2.1. 113: for a point X
def {
=
x~
}
~EA
in a Cartesian product n~EAX~ of topological spaces, a set that is a Cartesian product in which finitely many factors, say those corresponding to the finite set {AI. ... , An}, are neighborhoods U~i of the components X~j' 1 ~ i ~ n, and in which the remaining factors are the full spaces X~I, A' ¢ {AI,"" An}.  variables 1.3.3. 39: in linear programming, the variables constituting the complement of the set of free variables, q.v. basis 2.3.1. 156: in a topological vector space, a Schauder basis. BAUMSLAG, G. 1.1.5. 11 BESICOVITCH, A. S. 2.2.1. 118, 2.2.1. 123 BERNAYS, P. 5.2. 229 BESSEL, F. W. 2.3.1. 161 Bessel's inequality 2.3.1. 161: for an orthonormal system {X~hEA and any vector x in a Hilbert space, the relation: E~EA l(x,x~)12 ~ IIx1l2.
Glossary/Index
260
between (vectors u and w) 2.3.3. 167: of a vector v, that it lies on the convex hull of u and w. betweenness 3.1.1. 186: used in the axiomatic foundation of geometry. bicontinuous 2.1.1. 42: of a bijection, that it and its inverse are continuous. BIEBERBACH, L. 2.6.6. 184 Bieberbach conjecture 2.6.6. 184 bifurcation (superbifurcation) 2.5.2. 179: the failure of a differential equation to have a unique solution at some point. bijection 1.1.5. 10, 2.1.3. 69: an injective surjection, i.e., a oneone map b: X H Y such that b(X) = Y. bijective 1.1.5. 9: of a map, that it is a bijection. binary marker 2.1.1. 52 representation 1.1.4. 7 biorthogonal 2.3.1. 159: of two sets {X~hEA and {XU~EA of vectors, the first in a vector space V and the second in the dual space V·, that
bisectionexpansion 2.2.1. 127 BLAND, R. G. 1.3.3.40 Bland's algorithm 1.3.3. 40 BOCHNER, S. 4.1.1. 211 BOLZANO B. 3.2.2. 200 BolzanoWeierstraB theorem 3.2.2. 200: A bounded infinite subset of a compact metric space X has a limit point (in X). BooLOs, G. 5.1. 228 BOONE, W. W. 1.1.5. 11 BOREL, E. 2.2.1. 105, 4.2. 221 Borel measure 4.2. 221: of a measure p" that its domain of definition is the set of Borel sets in a topological space X.  set 2.2.1. 105: in a topological space X, a member of the aring generated by the set of open sets of X. boundary 3.1.2. 195: of a set S in a topological space X, the set as consisting of the points in the closure of both S and of X \ S:
asd,~,fsnX\S. bounded 2.4.1. 172: of a homomorphism T : A spaces, that
IITII ~f sup { IIT(x)1I T is bounded iff T is continuous.
IIxll =
H
1}
B between normed
< 00;
Glossary/Index 
261
approximation property 2.3.1. 158: of a normed vector space V, that there is in [V] a sequence {Fn}nEN such that sUPnEN IlFnll < 00 and for every vector x, lim IIx  Fnxll = O. n ..... oo
 variation 2.1.2. 54, 2.1.3. 88, 3.1.2. 192: of a function
f in R.[a,bl, that
n
sup
a~:r;l N(f). convex 1.1.4. 7: for an open set U in IR and of a function f on lR u , that if t E [0,1] and x, y, tx+(lt)y E U then f(tx+(lt)y) ~ tf(x)+(lt)f(y): "the curve lies below the chord;" 2.3.3. 167: of a set S in a vector space V, that (u, v E S) " (t E [0,1]) => tu + (1  t)v E S.  hull 2.3.3. 168: of a set S in a vector space, the intersection of the set of all convex sets containing S.  polyhedron 1.3.3. 38: in a vector space, the intersection of a finite number of halfspaces. convolution 1.1.4 5, 2.1.3. 74, 2.3.4. 170, 2.4.2. 176: of two functions f and g defined on a locally compact group G (with Haar measure IJ.) and in Ll (G,q, the function
f corner 4.2. 216: for
*g : G 3
(Xl, . .•
x
1+
fa
f(t 1 x)g(t) dlJ.(t).
,xn ) in IRn , ,the set
coset 1.1.2. 3: of a subgroup H of a group G, for some x in G, a set of the form xH or Hx.
Glossary /Index
267
countable 1.1.4. 5: of a set, that its cardinality is that of N. count ably additive 2.2.1. 104: of a Cvalued set function C), that if {An}nEN is a sequence of pairwise disjoint sets in the domain of C) then 00
C)
(l:JnENAn) =
:E
C)
(An) .
n=l
 subadditive, (see subadditive): of a nonnegative set function
C),
that
counting measure 2.2.2. 134, 2.2.2. 141: for a measure situation (X, 2x , 1'), the measure I' such that for every subset A of X, I'(A)
= { #(A) 00
if A is ~nite otherwIse.
cycling 1.3.3. 38: in linear programming by the simplex algorithm, the phenomenOn in which a finite set of vertices is recurrently visited without the conclusion that anyone of them is optimal: the algorithm cycles. cylinder set 4.2. 216: in a Cartesian product, a set determined by conditions on finitely many vector components; 4.2. 217: in a vector space V, a set Zxr ,... ,x:,;A defined by a finite subset {xi, ... , x~} of the dual space V* and a Borel subset A of IRn :
Zxr, ... ,x:';A ~f {x : x E V, (xi (x), ... ,x~ (x» E A}. (C, a)summable 2.1.3. 76
Daniell, P. J. 2.2.1. 104 Daniell integral 2.2.1. 104: a linear functional I defined On a linear lattice L of extended lRvalued functions and such that:
ItO =* 1(1) ~ 0; In ! 0 =* I (In) ! o.
I
EL"
G. 1.3.3.38 M. 2.3.1. 157 decreasing 1.2.3. 24: for ordered sets (Xi, b), i = 1,2, and of an I in yX, that Xl b YI =* I (Xl) b I (yd· DEDEKIND, R. 5.1. 224 dense 1.1.4. 5, 2.1.1. 48: of a subset A of a topological space X, that the closure A of A is X; equivalently, A meets every nonempty open subset ofX. DANTZIG, DAVIE, A.
Glossary jlndex
268
derivation 2.4.1. 173: in an algebra A, a linear endomorphism D such that for x, yEA, D(xy) = D(x)y + xD(y). derived set 3.2.2. 200: the set of limit points of a set. DESARGUE, G. 3.1.1. 187 Desargue's theorem 3.1.1. 187 diagonable 1.3.1. 26: of a SQUARE matrix A, that there is an invertible matrix P such that pl AP is a diagonal matrix. diagonal (matrix) 1.3.1. 26: a SQUARE matrix (aij)~j~l such that aij = 0 if i ~ j. diameter 2.2.1. 126: of a set S in a metric space (X, d), sUPZ,IIES d(x, y). DIAMOND, H. 2.2.1. 110 diffeomorphism 3.3. 208: a Coo surjective homeomorphism D : X 1+ Y between differential geometric structures X and Y. difference set 2.2.1. 109: for two subsets A, B of a group resp. abelian group, the set {ab 1
:
a E A, b E B} resp. {a  b : a E A, b E B} .
differentiable (at xo) 1.1.4. 7: of a vector function f
~f (/I, ... ,In) : am :3 x ~f
(
7)
1+
(/I~X») In (x)
Xm
that there is in [am, an] a T such that
II (f (xo + b) 
lim
f (xo)  T (xo) b)
IIhll
h;60,lIhllO
II = o.
The vector T (xo) is the derivative of f at Xo. If f is differentiable at each point of the domain R of f then f is differentiable on R. When, for a choice of bases, X for am and Y for an, T is realized as an m x n matrix
then Txy is the Jacobian matrix 8f(x)
~
I
I
def 8(/I,···,ln) X=Xo = 8 (Xl! ... , Xm) Zl=Zlo, ... ,Zm=Zmo·
= n then det (Txy) is the Jacobian determinant for f. If m = = 1 and X = Y = (1) and fresp. Xo is written I resp. Xo then
If m n
Txy (xo)
dl(x) I = dX
Z=Zo
= det [Txy (xo)].
Glossary /Index
269
differential geometric structure 3.3. 208: a Hausdorff space X, an open covering U of X, and a set ~f {cPu }UEU of homeomorphisms
cPu: U 1+ JRn such that if U n U' ~f W
cPu' 0 cPc/
E
t 0 then
Coo (cPu(U) n cPu' (U'), cPu(U) n cPu' (U')) .
The structure is an ndimensional differentiable manifold. U. 2.1.3. 93 Dini's theorem 2.1.3. 93 DIOPHANTUS 5.1. 228 Diophantine 5.1. 228: of a set of polynomial equations, that their coefficients are in Z and that their solutions are to be sought in Z. directed 1.2.3. 24: of a set, that it is partially ordered and that every pair in the set has an upper bound. direct product 1.1.3. 5: for a set of algebraic structures, their Cartesian product endowed with componentwise operations. discontinuity 1.1.4. 7: for a map of a topological space into a topological space, a point where the map is not continuous. discrete topology 2.3.2. 163, 3.2.2. 200: the topology in which every set is open. diset 1.2.3. 24: a directed set. distribution 2.5.2. 179: for the set W ~f COO (JRn , JR) endowed with a suitable locally convex topology, a continuous linear functional on W, i.e., an element of the dual space W* of W.  function 4.2. 216: for a set {/k}~=l of random variables, the function DINI,
divergent 2.1.3. 70: of a series, that it fails to converge. division algebra (division ring) 1.1.5. 13, 1.2.1. 19: an algebraic object governed by all the axioms for a field, save the axiom of commutativity for multiplication. domain 2.1.2.55,2.4.1. 174: for a map T: X 1+ Y, the set X. dominate 2.1.3. 72  absolutely 2.1.3. 72 dual space 1.3.2. 34, 2.3.1. 159, 2.3.2. 163: for a (topological) vector space V over a (topological) field K, the set V* of (continuous) linear maps of V into K. dyadic space 2.2.1. 112
edge 1.3.3. 38, 2.2.1. 123: of a polyhedron II in JRn , the intersection of II with n  1 of the hyperplanes determining II.
270
Glossary/Index
effectively computable 5.1. 227: of an element f in NN, that there is a computer program that, for each n in N, can calculate f(n) in finitely many steps. EGOROFF, D. F. 2.2.2. 133 Egoroff's theorem 2.2.2. 133 eigenvalue 1.3.1. 25, 1.3.2. 31: of an endomorphism T of a vector space V, a number A such that for some nonzero x in V, Tx = Ax.  problem 1.3.1. 25 eligible 1.3.3. 41: of free and basic variables in a PLPP, that they are candidates for SWITCHing. embedding 3.2.2. 206: a homeomorphism ~ : X ...... Y of a topological space X into a topological space Y; in particular, a homeomorphism ~: X ...... JRn . endomorphism 1.3.1. 25: a morphism of an object into itself. endpoints 2.2.1. 113: of an arc or of an arcimage, the images of 0 and 1. ENFLO, P. 2.3.1. 157, 158 entire 2.6.4. 183: of a function f in Ce , that f' exists everywhere in C, Le., f is holomorphic in C. epimorphism 1.1.5. 11: a morphism of an object onto an object. €(t)channel 2.5.2. 179: in JR2, for a positive function € : JR :3 t ...... €(t) and a continuous function f : JR :3 t ...... f (t) the set { (t, y) : t E JR, f(t) < y < f(t)
+ €(t)}.
€pad 3.1.2. 197: for a set S in a metric space (X, d) and a positive €,
u {y : d(y,x)
~ €}.
xES
equality 5.2. 229  modulo null sets 4.1. 212: of two functions, that they are equal almost everywhere. equicontinuous, (see AscoliArzeld theorem): of a set {f~hEA of functions mapping a uniform space X into a uniform space Y, that for V in the uniformity V for Y there is in the uniformity U for X a U such that (x,x') E U
'* (f~(x),b(x')) E V,
A E A.
equivalence class 1.1.2. 3: for an equivalence relation R on a set S, for some a in S, a set of the form {x : xRa}; 2.3.2. 163: in V(X, C), f Rg iff f  9 = 0 a.e ..  by complementation 2.2.3. 151  by transitivity 2.2.3. 151  relation 1.1.2. 3: on a set S a relation R that is reflexive, symmetric, and transitive.
Glossary/Index
271
equivalent Cauchy nets 1.2.3. 24 norms 2.3.2. 164: on a vector space V, norms constants k and k' and all x in V
II II
and
1111' such that for
IIxll :5 k'lIxll' and IIxll' :5 kllxll·  words 1.1.5. 10 essential singularity 2.1.2. 61: for a holomorphic function f, a singular point that is not a pole and is a limit point of points of holomorphy. EUCLID 1.3.1. 26, 1.3.2. 33 Euclidean 1.3.2. 33: of a vector space, that it is endowed with a positive definite, conjugate symmetric, and conjugate bilinear inner product.  norm 1.3.1. 26: a norm derived from an inner product for a Euclidean vector space. EULER, L. 2.1.3. 86 Euler formula 2.1.3. 86: eit = cos t + i sin t. evaluation map 4.2. 217: for a function space S in some yX and an x in X, a map S 3 f 1+ f(x) E y. even 1.1.4. 8: of a permutation 11", that nl of an algebraic structure, the inverse image of the identity, e.g., if if> is a group homomorphism, the kernel of if>
Glossary/Index
282
is q,l(e)j if q, is an algebra homomorphism, the kernel of q, is q,l(O)j 2.4.1. 172: of a set of regular maximal ideals in a Banach algebra, their intersection. The intersection of all regular maximal ideals in a commutative Banach algebra A is the radical of A. kernel (hull(!)) 2.4.2. 175 KLEE, V. L. 1.3.3.38 KLEENE, S. 5.1. 227 KNASTER, B. 3.1.2. 194 KOCH, J. 3.1.2. 198 KOLMOGOROV, A. N. 2.1.3.89,2.1.4. 101,4.2.216  criteria 4.2. 216 KOWALEWSKI, S. 2.5.2. 179 KREIN, M. 2.3.2 162 KreinMilman theorem 2.3.2. 162: A compact convex set K in a topological vector space V is the closed convex hull of the set of the extreme points ofK. KURATOWSKI, C. 3.1.2. 194
lattice 2.3.4. 169: a partially ordered set in which each pair of elements has both a least upper bound and a greatest lower bound. least upper bound 1.2.3. 23: for a subset S of an ordered set X, in X an element x such that s E B ~ s ~ x and such that if s E S ~ s ~ y then y i. x. LEBESGUE, H. 1.1.4. 6, 2.1.2. 63, 2.1.3. 87, 2.2.1. 104  integrable 2.1.2. 63, 2.1.3. 87: of a function f in JRRR and with respect to the measure situation (JRn, C, A), that f is measurable and that
[ If(x)1 dAn
I (xd
:::S
I (X2)
resp.
I (xd t I (X2) •
MOORE, E. H. 1.3.1. 28, 2.1.4. 97 MooreOsgood theorem 2.1.4. 97 MoorePenrose inverse 1.3.1. 28: for an m x n matrix A, an n x m matrix A+ such that AA+ A = A. MORERA, G. 2.6.1. 180 Morera's theorem 2.6.1. 180 MORSE, M. 1.1.5 11 MorseHedlund semigroup, 1.1.5 11 morphism: See category. MOULTON, F. R. 3.1.1.187,3.1.1.189 Moulton's plane 3.1.1. 189
ndimensional 1.3.1. 25: of a vector space V, that it has a basis consisting of n vectors.  content 2.2.1. 104: for a set S in lRn , the Riemann integral (if it exists) of the characteristic function xs. If the integral exists S has content.  manifold 3.3. 209, 4.2. 217: a Hausdorff space X on which there is an ndimensional differential geometric structure. natural boundary 2.6.2. 181: of a function I holomorphic in a region fl, the boundary of a (possibly larger) region in which I is holomorphic and beyond which I has no analytic continuation. neighborhood 1.1.4. 5, 1.2.3. 24: of a point P in a topological space X, a set containing an open set containing P. neighboring vertices 1.3.3. 38, 2.2.1. 123: in a polygon or a polyhedron II, vertices connected by an edge of II. net 1.2.3. 24: a function on a diset. NEUMANN, B. H. 1.1.5. 11 NEUMANN, J. VON 2.2.3. 144,5.1. 228 NEWTON, I. 1.3.1. 29, 2.1.3. 94 Newton's algorithm 1.3.1. 29, 2.1.3. 94: If I : lR t+ lR is a differentiable function let (ao, I (ao)) be the coordinates of a point on the graph of I and assume I' (ao) ¥: 0 ¥: I (ao).
n
288
Glossary/Index
Define a sequence
{an}nEN
as follows: def
I (an)
= an  I' (an)
an+l
so long as I' (an) ¥: O. The algorithm is occasionally successful in generating a sequence {an} nEN such that del 1.Iman=a
n+oo
exists. Furthermore, in some instances, I(a) = O. O. M. 2.2.2. 137 nilpotent 1.2.2. 21: of an element x in a ring, that for some n in N, xn = O.  semigroup 1.1.5. 12: a semigroup E containing a zero element 0, Le., for all s in E, Os = sO = 0, and such that for some k in N, every product of k elements of E is O. nonassociative algebra 1.2.2. 21 noncommutative field 1.1.5. 13 nondegenerate 2.1.1. 50: of an interval, that it is neither empty nor a single point. nonJordan 3.1.2. 198: of a region n in a2 , that its boundary an is not a Jordan curveimage. nonmeasurable 1.1.4. 6: of a function (or a set), that it is not measurable. nonmetrizable 3.2.2. 201: of a topological space, that its topology is not derivable from (induced by) a metric. nonnegative orthant 4.3. 222: in an, the set of vectors having only nonnegative components. nonrectifiable 2.2.1. 114, 2.2.1. 123, 3.1.2. 193: of an arc ,,/, that l("() is not finite; of an arcimage "/"', that L ("(*) is not finite. norm 1.3.2. 33, 2.1.3. 68: in a vector space V, a map NIKODYM,
1111 : V
3
x 1+ IIxll E [0,00)
such that for all x and y in V and a in C,
IIxll = 0 x = 0 lIaxll = lalllxll IIx + yll :::; IIxll + IIYII; 2.4.1. 172: for a homomorphism T: A sup {IITxll
1+
B between normed spaces,
: x E A, IIxll = 1 } .
 induced 1.1.5. 17: of a metric d in a normed vector space V, that for all x and y in V d(x, y) ~f IIx  YII; of a topology Tin a normed vector space V, that Tis derived from the norminduced metric.
289
Glossary /Index
 (of a quaternion) 1.1.5. 13  separable 2.3.2. 164: of a normed vector space V, that it is separable in its norminduced topology. normal distribution (function) 4.2. 218: for a random variable f, the distribution function
P({w : f(w)
~
x})
=
def
1 rn= v21r
1:& 00
(t2) dt.
exp  2
 operator (see spectral theorem): for a Hilbert space 1i, an endomorphism N such that NN* = N*N.  subgroup 1.1.2. 3: in a group G, a subgroup H such that for all x in G, xH=Hx. normalized (measure) 2.2.3. 143 normally distributed 4.2. 218: of a random variable, that its distribution function is the normal distribution. normed vector space 3.2.1. 199: a vector space endowed with a norm. NOVIKOV, P. S. 1.1.5. 11 nowhere dense 2.1.1. 43, 2.2.1. 107: of a set E in a topological space X, that X \ E = X j alternatively, that in every neighborhood of every point of X there is a nonempty open subset that does not meet E. null set 2.1.2. 56: in a measure situation (X, S, J.I.), a set of measure zero.
odd 2.1.3. 87: of a map f : V 1+ W between vector spaces, that f( x)  f(x)j (also, of a permutation, that it is not even). oneone (see injection): of a map f in Y x, that
=
a", b ~ f(a) '" f(b). open 1.1.4. 5, 3.2.2. 203: of a map f : X 1+ Y between topological spaces, that the images of open sets are openj 1.1.4. 5, 2.1.1. 43: of a set U in a topological space X, that U is one of the sets defining the topology ofX.  arcimage 2.2.1. 113: in a topological space X, the image 'Y «0,1)) for a 'Y in C «0, 1), X).  ball 2.1.3. 67, 3.2.1. 200: for a point P in a metric space (X, d) and a positive r, the set {Q : Q E X, d(P, Q) < r}. optimal vertex 1.3.3. 38  vector 1.3.3. 38 orbit 2.2.3. 147: in a set X on which a group G acts, for some P in X, a set of the form {g(P) : 9 E G}. order 1.1.2. 2: of a group G, its cardinality #(G)j 1.1.2. 4: of an element a of a group, the least natural number m such that am = ej 2.3.4. 168: in a set S, a binary relation > such that if a, b E S then at most one of
290
Glossary/Index
a > b, b > a, and a = b obtains, i.e., > is partial order; customarily > is assumed to be transitive: a> b/\b > c => a > C; if exactly one of a > b, b> a, and a = b obtains, > is a total order; 2.5.1. 177: of a differential equation, the maximum of the orders of derivatives appearing in the differential equation; 3.1.1. 186: in Euclidean geometry, an axiomatized concept related to "betweenness." ordered field 1.2.3. 22 orderisomorphic 1.2.3. 23: of two ordered sets A and B, that there is an orderpreserving bijection f : A 1+ B. ordinally dense 2.2.1. 111  similar 2.2.1. 111 orthant 1.3.3. 37 orthogonal complement 4.1. 214: of a set 8 of vectors in a Hilbert space, the set 81 of vectors orthogonal to each vector in 8.  matrix 1.2.1. 20: a SQUARE matrix over JR and in which the rows form an orthonormal set of vectors.  vectors 1.3.2. 33 orthonormal 1.3.2. 33, 2.3.1. 159: of a set of vectors in a Hilbert space, that any two are orthogonal and each is of norm one.  series 2.1.3. 84; a series E:=l an¢n in which the set {¢n}nEN is orthonormal. OSGOOD, W. F. 2.1.4. 97 outer measure 2.2.1. 107, 2.2.2. 138: for a set X, a count ably subadditive map /J* : 2x 3 E 1+ /J*(E) E [0, co]; for a measure situation (X, S, /J), the map /J* : 2x 3 E 1+ inf {/J(A)
A E S, E
c
A} .
Pal, J. 2.2.1. 125 Pal join 2.2.1. 125 parametric description 2.2.1. 114: for an arc 'Y : [0,1] 3 t 1+ JRn , a continuous autojection s : [0,1]1+ [0,1] (used to provide an arc 'f/ : [0,1] 3 t 1+ 'Y (s(t)) such that 'f/* = 'Y*. parallelotope 2.2.1. 114 partial differential operator 2.5.2. 179: for ak1 ... k .. , kl + ... + k n ::; N, in Coo (JRn , JR), the map
°: ;

order 2.3.4. 168: See partially ordered.
Glossary jIndex
291
partially ordered 2.3.4. 168: of a set S, that there is defined among some or no pairs x, y in S x S an order (q.v.) denoted t and customarily subject to the condition of tmnsitivity: (x t y) 1\ (y t z) :::} x t z.
partition 2.1.2.65: of an interval I, a decomposition of I into (finitely many) pairwise disjoint subintervals; 2.5.2. 179: of a set S, a decomposition of S into a set of pairwise disjoint subsets. PEANO, G. 3.1.2. 193, 5.1. 224 PENROSE, R. 1.3.1. 28 perfect 2.1.1. 44, 2.2.1. 107, 2.2.1. 112: of a set S in a topological space, that S is closed and that every point of S is a limit point of S. period 2.1.1. 48: of a function f defined on a group G, in G an a such that for all x in G, f(xa) = f(x). periodic 2.1.1. 48: of a function f defined on a group G, that f has a period, q.v., different from the identity. permutation 2.1.3. 69: an autojection of a set. PERRON, O. 2.2.1. 124 Perron tree 2.2.1. 124 piecewise linear 2.1.2. 66, 2.1.3. 92, 2.2.2. 138, 2.3.1. 157, 2.5.2. 179: of a function f in lRlR, that there is in lR a finite sequence A ~f {an}Z'=l such that on each component of lR \ A f is a linear function. PLATEAU, J. 2.2.1. 118 Plateau problem 2.2.1. 118 POINCARE, H. 3.1.1. 187,3.3. 208 Poincare conjecture 3.3. 208  model for plane geometry, 3.1.1. 187 point of condensation 2.1.1. 52: of a set S in a topological space X, a point P such that for every neighborhood N(P), #(N(P) n S) > #(N). polar decomposition 1.3.2. 36: for a continuous endomorphism T of a Hilbert space 1i, the factorization of T into a product of a positive definite endomorphism P and a unitary automorphism U: T = PU. polynomially dominated 1.3.3. 38: of a function f in lRIRR , that there is in lRlRR a polynomial p such that for all x in lRn , f(x) ::; p(x). positive definite 1.3.2. 33: of an inner product (x, y) that (x, x) ~ 0 and (x, x) = 0 ¢> x = 0.; 1.3.2. 36: of an endomorphism T of a Euclidean space 1i, that for all x in 1i, (Tx, x) ~ O. POST, E. 5.1. 227 power set 2.2.1. 105, 3.2.2. 200: of a set S, the set 28 of all subsets of S. predicate letter 5.1. 223 presentation 1.1.5. 11 presented 1.1.5. 11 primal linear programming problem 1.3.3. 37
292
Glossary /Index
primitive 2.1.2. 64, 2.2.2. 140: for a function f in R.IR , a function F such that F' = f. probabilistic independence 4.1. 210 probabilistic measure situation 4.1. 210 product measure 2.1.4. 101, 2.2.2. 140: for measure situations (X, S, p,) and (Y, T, v), in the measure situation (X x Y, S x T, p, xv) the aring S x T is generated by l' ~f {A x B : A E S, B E 7} and the measure p, x v is the unique extension to S x T of the set function
e:l' 3 A x B
1+
J.t(A) . v(B).
 measure situation 2.2.2. 140: See product measure.  of relations 2.2.3. 147 proof 5.1. 224 proper subfield 1.1.5. 16: a field that is a proper subset of another field.  subgroup 1.1.5. 10: a subgroup that is a proper subset of another group.  inclusion 5.2. 229 pseudoinverse 1.3.1. 28: of a matrix A, its MoorePenrose inverse. pure quaternion 1.1.5. 13: a quaternion q ~f bi + cj + dk.
quadratic form 1.3.2. 35: on a Euclidean vector space V and for a selfadjoint endomorphism B, the function Q : V 3 x 1+ (Bx, x) E R.. quantifier 5.1. 223 quaternion 1.1.5. 13 quotient  , e.g., quotient algebra, quotient group, quotient ring 1.1.4. 8: for a group G and a normal subgroup H, the group G I H consisting of the cosets of H and in which the binary operation is G I H x G I H 3 (xH, yH) 1+ xyH; for a ring R or algebra A and an ideal I in R or A, the ring RI lor AI I consisting of the cosets of I and in which the binary operations are defined by those operations among the representatives in R or A.  map 1.1.5. 17: in the context of a quotient structure, say AlB, the map
A3a 
1+
the acoset aB of B.
norm 2.4.2. 174: for the quotient space BIM of a normed space B and a closed subspace M of B, the map
IIIIQ : BIM 3
x'
1+
Quotient Lifting 1.1.4. 8
Rademacher, H. 4.1. 215
IIX'IlQ ~f inf {lIxll
x
E
B, xlM
= x'}.
Glossary /Index
293
Rademacher function 4.1. 215 radical 2.4.1. 172: in a commutative Banach algebra, the intersection of the set of all regular maximal ideals; alternatively, the set of all generalized nilpotent elements.  algebra 2.4.2. 176: a commutative Banach algebra in which every element is a generalized nilpotent. radius of convergence 2.1.3. 84, 2.6.2. 180: for a power series E~=o cnz n , the number R ~f limsupn ..... oo lenlk. J. 2.2.2. 137 RadonNikodym theorem 2.2.2. 137 random variable 4.1. 210 range 1.3.2. 31, 2.4.1. 174: for a map T: X 1+ Y, the set {T(x) : x EX}. rank 1.1.5. 13: the dimension of the range of a linear map T between vector spaces X and Y; of a matrix, the dimension of the span of its rows or (equivalently) the dimension of the span of its columns. rational function 1.3.2. 32: a quotient of polynomials. realclosed 1.2.2. 22: of a field K, that K is real, i.e., that there is in K no x such that x 2 + 1 = 0, and that every real algebraic extension of K is K itself. recompositioncompression 2.2.1. 126 rectifiable 2.2.1. 117, 2.6.5. 184: of an arc 'Y : [0, I] 3 t 1+ 'Y(t) E an, that its length l('Y) is finite; of an arcimage 'Y*, that L ("(*) is finite.  Jordan contour 2.6.5. 184: a rectifiable Jordan curve in C. reduce 1.1.5. 10 reduction 1.1.5. 10 reflexive 1.1.2. 3: of a relation R, that always xRx; 2.3.1. 159: of a Banach space B, that its natural embedding in B** is surjective.  Banach space 2.3.1. 159, 2.3.2. 164 region 2.2.1. 117, 2.2.1. 131, 2.6.1. 180: a connected open subset of a topological space X. regular maximal ideal 2.1.2. 175: in an algebra A, a subset M that is a maximal ideal such that AIM has a multiplicative identity. relation(s) 1.1.5. 11, 2.2.3. 147 relatively free 2.2.1. 106: of a subset S of a group C, that if RADON,
sn,
is an abstract word and W(s,€) = e for every ntuple s in then W(g, €) = e for every ntuple g in In short, identities valid throughout S are those and only those valid throughout C. representation (of a number) 2.1.1. 52 resultant (of two polynomials) 1.3.1. 27 retrobasis 2.3.1. 159: in the dual space B* of a Banach space B, a Schauder basis {bn}nEN for which the set {b;}nEN of associated coefficient functionals lies in B regarded as a subspace of B**.
cn.
Glossary /Index
294
B. 2.1.1. 51, 2.1.1. 54, 2.1.1. 64, 2.1.1. 69, 2.1.3. 85, 2.2.1. 104, 2.2.3. 145 Riemann derangement theorem 2.1.3.69  integrable 2.1.2. 54, 2.1.2. 64, 2.2.1. 104: of a function f defined on a product I of intervals in JR n , that RIEMANN,
1
f(Xb .•.
,xn ) dx
exists, i.e., that f is bounded and that Discont(f) is a null set.  sphere 2.2.3. 145 RiemannLebesgue theorem 2.1.3. 85: If f E L1 ([11",11"], C) and inx /71" f(x) eIn::. dx, n E Z 71" V 211" = OJ 2.1.3. 88: If f E L1 (JR, C) and d f
~
Cn
then limlnl_oo Cn
•
f(t)
1 "t = . In::.intlRf(x)e' x dx
def
V
211"
then limltl_oo j(t) = o. (A natural generalization of the RiemannLebesgue theorem is valid for a locally compact abelian group G endowed with Haar measure J.I. defined on the (Tring S(K) generated by the set K of compact subsets of G: If'll.' is regarded as an abelian group with respect to multiplication of complex numbers, if
G ~f {a
: a a homomorphism of G into 'lI.', }
and if f E L1 (G, C) then the (Gelfand) Fourier transform
j : G3 a
1+
fa f(x)a(x) dJ.l.(x) ~f j(a)
vanishes at infinity, i.e., if f > 0 there is in G a compact set K(f) such that Ij(a)1 < f if a ¢ K.) RIESZ, F. 2.3.4. 169 RieszFischer theorem 2.3.4. 169: If (X, S, J.I.) is a measure situation and {4>~} ~EA is a complete orthonormal set in L2 (X, C) then L~EA c~4>~ converges in L2 (X, C) iff L~EA Ic~ 12 < 00. RIESZ, M. 2.3.4. 169  Thorin theorem 2.3.4. 169: Assume
a, {3, (Ti, Pj > 0, 1 ~ i def A def = ()m,n aij i,j=1' x =
=
(
m, 1
sup ( ",n
#0
L..Jj=1
~
X1,···,X n
(L~1 (TiIXil~
def
MOt ,13
~
t
Ot· pjlxjl l.) a
j ~n )
,
X
= (Xb
def
... ,
X) m
= AX t
def
Glossary jlndex
295
Then on every line in ~ {(a,.8) 0 < a ~ 1,0 xRz.
translate 2.2.1. 125: of a subset E of a space acted upon by a group G and for an element x of G, the subset xE def = { xy: y E E } . translation invariant 2.2.1. 104: of a measure situation (G, S, J.I.) for a group G, that for all x in G and all E in S, J.I. (xE) = J.I.(E). transpose 1.3.1. 25: for a matrix (aij )7,';;:;1' the matrix (ajir;,ir;:,I' trigonometric polynomial 2.1.3. 89: a function p of the form n
p: lR. 3 x
L ak cos kx + bk sin kx, ak, bk
1+
E
C, n E N.
k=O
 series 2.1.3. 84: a series of the form 00
L ak cos kx + bk sin kx, ak, bk E C. n=O
trivial (instances of probabilistic independence) 4.1. 211: (for independence of sets), for any event A the triple {0,X,A}; (for independence ofrandom variables), for any random variable I and any constant function c the pair {c,  topology 3.2.2. 200: for a space X, the topology 0 consisting of exactly and X.
n.
o
302
Glossary/Index
true 5.1. 224 truth 5.1. 224 Tsum 2.1.3. 75 TUKEY, J. 2.3.3. 167 TURING, A. 5.1. 227 Thring machine 5.1. 227 twosided sequences of complex numbers 1.3.2. 32
ultimately constant 3.2.2. 201: of a net {X~hEA' that for some Ao in A, there is an a such that x~ = a if A > Ao. unbounded 1.1.4. 6: of a function f in aX, that either
= xEX inf f( x) (f is unbounded below),
a) 
00
b)
= sup f(x) (f is unbounded above),
00
xEX
or both a) and b) obtain. unconditional basis 2.3.1. 159: in a Banach space E, a Schauder basis
such that for each x in E and every permutation'll" of N, 00
L b;(n) (x)b,..(n) n=l
convergesj equivalently, for every sequence
{En
En
= ±1, n EN},
00
LEnb;(x)bn n=l
converges. uncountable 1.1.4. 6, 2.1.1. 52: of a set S, that #(S) > # (N). undecidable 5.1. 225 uniform modulus of continuity 2.3.1. 161  structure 1.2.3. 24: for a set X, in 2xxX a subset U such that: i. ii. iii. iv.
U, V E U :::} 3W {W E U, We Un V}j U E U :::} U J {(x, x) : x EX} ~ 6j UEU:::}Ul~f{(y,x): (X,y)EU}EUj WoW denoting {(x, z) : 3y {(x, y), (y, z) E W}}, {U E U} :::} 3W {{W E U} 1\ {W 0 W c Un.
uniformity 2.1.4. 97: a uniform structure, q.v.
Glossary/Index
303
uniformly bounded variation 2.3.1. 160: of a set {f~hEA of functions, that there is an M such that for all A, Tf). ~ M.  continuous 1.1.4. 6: of a map f : X 1+ Y and for uniform structures U for X and V for Y, that if V E V there is in U a U such that (a, b) E U ~ (f(a), f(b)) E V. unit ball 2.3.4. 171: in a metric space (X, d), a set ofthe form {x : d(x, a) ~ I}.
unitary 1.3.2. 36: of an automorphism U of a Euclidean space 'H, that for all x and y in 'H, (Ux, Uy) = (x, y). univalent 2.6.6. 184: of a holomorphic function, that it is injective. universal comparison test 2.1.3. 72 vanishes at infinity 2.1.3. 88, 2.3.2. 163: of a Cvalued function f defined on a topological space X, that for every positive e there is in X a compact set K(e) such that x ¢ K(e) ~ If(x)1 < e. variable 5.1. 223 variation 2.3.1. 160: See total variation.  lattice: See linear lattice.  space 1.1.4. 6, 1.3.1. 25: an abelian group V that is a module over a field II{, i.e., there is a map II{
xV
3
(a, x)
1+
a· x E V
such that a) a· (b· x) = ab· x and b) a· (x + y) = a· x elements of V are vectors. VESLEY, R. 5.1. 228 vicinity 1.2.3. 24: an element U of a uniform structure U.
+ a· y.
The
Walsh, J. L. 4.1. 215 Walsh function 4.1. 215: for a set {rk 1 , ••• , rknJ of Rademacher functions, the function m
IIrk;. i=l
°
weak 2.5.2. 179: of a solution of a differential equation, that it is a distribution; 3.2.2. 202: of a topology for a space X and a set {f~hEA of is generated by the maps from X into a topological space Y, that set {f;l(V) : V open in Y}. . weaker 3.2.2. 201: of a topology 0, that it is a subset of another topology
°
0'. weakest 2.3.2. 162: of a topology 0, that it is weaker than each topology of a set of topologies.
Glossary/Index
304
WEIERSTRASS, K. 2.2.2. 139, 2.6.4. 183 WeierstraB approximation theorem 2.2.2. 139, 2.6.4. 183: If K is a compact subset of an, E > 0, and I E C(K,a) then there is a polynomial p: an 1+ a such that on K, II  pi < E.  infinite product representation 2.6.2. 181: If S1 is a region in C, if
A ~f {an}nEN
C S1 \
{O},
if A has no limit points in S1, and if A is the set Z f of zeros of
I
in
H(S1), each zero listed as often as its multiplicity, then in N there is a sequence {mn}~=l' in H(S1) there is a function g, and in NU{O} there is a k such that for z in S1,
I(z) = zk exp (g(z))
II (1 ~) exp (~+ ... + (~)mn) . an an an
nE N
Mtest 2.1.3. 83: If E:=llanl < 00 and if I/n(x)1 :5 lanl, n E N,x E X then E:=ll/n(x)1 converges uniformly on X. weight (of a topological space) 2.2.1. 112 wellformed formula 5.1. 2234 wellordered 2.2.1. 130: of a totally ordered set S, that in every nonempty subset T of S there is a least element t, i.e.,

(T
=f: 0) 1\ (x E T)
:::} (t = x) V (t
< x).
WEYL, H. 1.3.2. 36 Weyl minmax theorem 1.3.2. 36: If A is a selfadjoint n x n matrix and if its eigenvalues are Al :5 A2 :5 ... :5 An then
Aj
=.
min max (Ax, x). dlm(v)=n(jl) xEv,lIxll=l
wildly embedded sphere 3.2.2. 206 wild sphere 3.2.2. 206 word 1.1.5. 9  problem 1.1.5. 11 WRONSKI, H. 2.5.1. 177 Wronskian 2.5.1. 177
xleft coset 1.1.2. 3 xright coset 1.1.2. 3
Young, W. H. 2.3.4.169
Glossary/Index
305
Zermelo, E. 5.2. 228 ZermeloFraenkel 5.2. 228: of the set of axioms provided by Zermelo and Fraenkel as the foundation for set theory. zero homomorphism 2.4.2. 175: the homomorphism mapping each element of an algebra into O. ZORN, M. 1.1.4. 6 Zorn's lemma 1.1.4. 6: If (8,~) is a partially ordered set in which each linearly ordered subset has an upper bound, then 8 has a maximal element, i.e., there is in 8 an s such that for any s' in 8, either s' ~ s or s' and s are not comparable, i.e., never s ~ s'.